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This extensively illustrated book presents the astrophysics of galaxies since their beginnings in the early Universe. It has been thoroughly revised to take into account the most recent observational data, and recent discoveries such as dark energy. There are new sections on galaxy clusters, gamma ray bursts and supermassive black holes. The authors explore the basic properties of stars and the Milky Way before working out towards nearby galaxies and the distant Universe. They discuss the structures of galaxies and how galaxies have developed, and relate this to the evolution of the Universe. The book also examines ways of observing galaxies across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and explores dark matter and its gravitational pull on matter and light. This book is self-contained and includes several homework problems with hints. It is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in astronomy and astrophysics.
Why is the Milky Way blue? Why isn't a black hole dark? How many stars can you see with your naked eye? How much hotter are blue stars than red ones?? Humans are the only known astronomers in the universe. When we look up at the night sky, we are linked to our ancestors. Away from city lights, we can see what generations of people before us have wondered at and weaved stories around. But all that will change. The Andromeda Galaxy is rushing towards us at 400,000 kilometres an hour. When Galaxies Collide will guide you to look at the night sky afresh. It peers 5.86 billion years into the future to consider the fate of Earth and its inhabitants. Will the solution be to live in space without a planet to call home? Will one of the other 100 billion planets spawn life? Learn how to watch this space.
This collection of scientific papers provides a state-of-the-art look at current knowledge on ocean worlds in our solar system and beyond. It is the result of a collaborative effort by scientists studying both terrestrial and extraterrestrial oceans, and analyzes the emergence of life and its survival on Earth as well as other potentially habitable planets and moons. The papers examine the more remote provinces of our solar system, focusing on the icy moons of the giant planets, like Europa and Titan, as well as bodies like Ceres and putative extrasolar ocean worlds. Their potential for subsurface liquid water oceans are explored, as is as their astrobiological potential. The collection also takes a look at Earth's own oceans, which offer important clues for the investigation of other ocean worlds. In addition, the collection addresses the outstanding key scientific questions and measurements, technologies and laboratory experiments necessary for the exploration of ocean worlds known today. Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Ocean Worlds"
Heavenly Mathematics traces the rich history of spherical trigonometry, revealing how the cultures of classical Greece, medieval Islam, and the modern West used this forgotten art to chart the heavens and the Earth. Once at the heart of astronomy and ocean-going navigation for two millennia, the discipline was also a mainstay of mathematics education for centuries and taught widely until the 1950s. Glen Van Brummelen explores this exquisite branch of mathematics and its role in ancient astronomy, geography, and cartography; Islamic religious rituals; celestial navigation; polyhedra; stereographic projection; and more. He conveys the sheer beauty of spherical trigonometry, providing readers with a new appreciation of its elegant proofs and often surprising conclusions. Heavenly Mathematics is illustrated throughout with stunning historical images and informative drawings and diagrams. This unique compendium also features easy-to-use appendixes as well as exercises that originally appeared in textbooks from the eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries.
This volume gives an historical overview of the development of professional optical and radio observatories from 1945 to today. It covers the environment in which these facilities were developed by organisations in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, often led by larger-than-life individuals, as well as exploring the financial and political factors that both constrained and encouraged progress. As ever more expensive optical facilities were built, they exploited new technologies to significantly improve their performance: CCDs, active and adaptive optics, and spun honeycomb and segmented mirrors. The second half of this volume turns to the parallel history of radio astronomy facilities throughout the world, finishing with the ALMA observatory in Chile. This is the ground-based companion to the author's previous work on space astronomy, New Cosmic Horizons (2001). It is written for both technical and non-technical readers interested in the modern history of astronomy and its observational facilities.
Many fieldguides and popular books on amateur astronomy have been written, but few are devoted entirely to the rich skies of the southern hemisphere. Now updated, ""Stars of the Southern Skies"" draws on the knowledge of South African experts to offer stargazers some unique insights into the night skies in their half of the world. Superb photographs, star charts, and graphics complement the text. This is a book for anybody who has ever gazed in wonder at the glory of a star-filled sky, a must for all amateur astronomers, and an interesting addition to the shelves of the experts.
Ever since their discovery in 1967, pulsars and neutron stars have provided an unprecedented opportunity to study the extremes of physics. This started with the very rapid identification of pulsars as rotating neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields and, selecting just a few highlights from the following decades, was followed by the discovery of the Hulse-Taylor binary, millisecond pulsars, the first pulsars in globular clusters, the pulsar planets and the double pulsar. In the last decade alone, we have made some amazing discoveries and observations with an impact across all areas of astronomy. With these proceedings of IAU Symposium 337, the 50th anniversary of the discovery of pulsars is celebrated by reflecting on what we have learned from these remarkable physical laboratories and by casting our eyes forward to the exciting opportunities they will provide for physical and astrophysical studies in the coming decades.
A sweeping tour of the infrared universe as seen through the eyes of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope Astronomers have been studying the heavens for thousands of years, but until recently much of the cosmos has been invisible to the human eye. Launched in 2003, the Spitzer Space Telescope has brought the infrared universe into focus as never before. Michael Werner and Peter Eisenhardt are among the scientists who worked for decades to bring this historic mission to life. Here is their inside story of how Spitzer continues to carry out cutting-edge infrared astronomy to help answer fundamental questions that have intrigued humankind since time immemorial: Where did we come from? How did the universe evolve? Are we alone? In this panoramic book, Werner and Eisenhardt take readers on a breathtaking guided tour of the cosmos in the infrared, beginning in our solar system and venturing ever outward toward the distant origins of the expanding universe. They explain how astronomers use the infrared to observe celestial bodies that are too cold or too far away for their light to be seen by the eye, to conduct deep surveys of galaxies as they appeared at the dawn of time, and to peer through dense cosmic clouds that obscure major events in the life cycles of planets, stars, and galaxies. Featuring many of Spitzer's spectacular images, More Things in the Heavens provides a thrilling look at how infrared astronomy is aiding the search for exoplanets and extraterrestrial life, and transforming our understanding of the history and evolution of our universe.
IAU Symposium 285 addresses studies of variability among the whole gamut of cosmic objects. While new fields involving transients, blazars, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei and quasars are still emerging, the puzzles posed by longer-term sources of variability still remain. This volume adopts an interdisciplinary theme, examining different manifestations of variability to gain new scientific insights that may be missed when one type of object or variability is studied in isolation. By integrating discussions from participants across the breadth of astronomical science, it addresses the core question: 'How can technology and collaboration be better harnessed to enhance the science requirements and outcomes?' With major new transient surveys coming online soon to lay the groundwork for LSST, the results, research tools and visions presented here will help both researchers and database managers collaborate in the exciting challenges of time-domain astronomy.
One of the questions about which humanity has often wondered is the arrow of time. Why does temporal evolution seem irreversible? That is, we often see objects break into pieces, but we never see them reconstitute spontaneously. This observation was first put into scientific terms by the so-called second law of thermodynamics: entropy never decreases. However, this law does not explain the origin of irreversibly; it only quantifies it. Kinetic theory gives a consistent explanation of irreversibility based on a statistical description of the motion of electrons, atoms, and molecules. The concepts of kinetic theory have been applied to innumerable situations including electronics, the production of particles in the early universe, the dynamics of astrophysical plasmas, quantum gases or the motion of small microorganisms in water, with excellent quantitative agreement. This book presents the fundamentals of kinetic theory, considering classical paradigmatic examples as well as modern applications. It covers the most important systems where kinetic theory is applied, explaining their major features. The text is balanced between exploring the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed.
This self-contained astrophysics textbook for advanced undergraduates explores how stars form, what happens to them as they age, and what becomes of them when they die. Students can investigate the physical processes sustaining the energy output of stars during each stage of their evolution and which drive the progression from one stage to the next, and examine the relationship between different stages of stellar evolution and the production of the chemical elements. The textbook contains a wealth of worked examples and exercises with full solutions. Summaries, key facts and equations are clearly identified, and there are full colour illustrations throughout. Drawing on decades of experience in supported learning and independent study, this textbook is an ideal bridging text for astrophysics and physics majors looking to move on from the introductory texts. Accompanying resources to this textbook are available at: http: //www.cambridge.org/features/astrophysics
This essential book describes the mathematical formulations and subsequent computer simulations required to accurately project the trajectory of spacecraft and rockets in space, using the formalism of optimal control for minimum-time transfer in general elliptic orbit. The material will aid research students in aerospace engineering, as well as practitioners in the field of spaceflight dynamics, in developing simulation software to carry out trade studies useful in vehicle and mission design. It will teach readers to develop flight software for operational applications in autonomous mode, so to actually transfer space vehicles from one orbit to another. The practical, real-life applications discussed will give readers a clear understanding of the mathematics of orbit transfer, allow them to develop their own operational software to fly missions, and to use the contents as a research tool to carry out even more complex analyses.
Astrometry has historically been fundamental to all the fields of astronomy, driving many revolutionary scientific results. ESA's Gaia mission is astrometrically, photometrically and spectroscopically surveying the full sky, measuring around a billion stars to magnitude 20, to allow stellar distance and age estimations with unprecedented accuracy. With the complement of radial velocities, it will provide the full kinematic information of these targets, while the photometric and spectroscopic data will be used to classify objects and astrophysically characterize stars. IAU Symposium 330 reviews the first 2.5 years of Gaia activities and discusses the scientific results derived from the first Gaia data release (GDR1). This significant increase in the precision of the astrometric measurements has sharpened our view of the Milky Way and the physical processes involved in stellar and galactic evolution. To many, the Gaia revolution heralds a transformation comparable to the impact of the telescope's invention four centuries ago.
This book explains how the Universe is made up, from stars and their systems to galaxies and globular clusters.
The Mindful Universe explores the scientific workings of the Universe, its awe-inspiring nature and how it can be partnered with mindfulness to bring meaning to our lives. Part of the Mindfulness series, this book looks at science through the lens of mindfulness and spirituality, bringing together two seemingly opposed beliefs through topics such as: The journey of a photon Our chemical origins from the birth of stars The nature of time The limits to our senses The beauty of nebulae Non-duality and quantum theory ... and much more Mark Westmoquette takes you on a fascinating journey through space, time, our mind and the mysteries of the cosmos in this lovingly-written book. Through practical meditations, facts and anecdote, he points the reader to a life-affirming realisation: that when we start to observe things mindfully, just as they really are, we start to find the secrets of the Universe revealing themselves before our very eyes. If you like this, you might also be interested in Einstein and the Art of Mindful Cycling . . .
By September 2014, almost two thousand exoplanets -- planets orbiting other suns -- have been confirmed, among these are also Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of their sun. These breakthrough discoveries during the bygone two decades raise questions with regard to the existence of Life elsewhere in our Milky Way Galaxy. The present book addresses the formation of planetary systems in the wake of collapsing interstellar gas and dust clouds, and the generation as well as the survival and germination of simple molecules serving as modules for more complex molecular constructs that constitute life. In this context, the survival of extremophiles in niches on Earth, and the potentiality of primitive life forms on Mars and the subsurface oceans of selected moons in the Solar System are also addressed, as much as the through-space travel of germs, denoted as panspermia. Readers possessing basic knowledge in chemistry and astronomy will additionally profit from the text in terms of an advanced approach towards facts that introduce more complex background information, in particular information provided in sidebars. However, the book is conceptualized in such a way that the less scholarly reader will equally profit from the narrative style by which background information is provided. Along with panspermia, the Gaia hypothesis and other historical thematisations of life beyond Earth are briefly looked at.
This book examines the interplay between astronomy and dynastic power in the course of ancient Egyptian history, focusing on the fundamental role of astronomy in the creation of the pyramids and the monumental temple and burial complexes. Bringing to bear the analytical tools of archaeoastronomy, a set of techniques and methods that enable modern scholars to better understand the thought, religion, and science of early civilizations, Giulio Magli provides in-depth analyses of the pyramid complexes at Giza, Abusir, Saqqara, and Dahshur, as well as of the Early Dynastic necropolis at Abydos and the magnificent new Kingdom Theban temples. Using a variety of data retrieved from study of the sky and measurements of the buildings, he reconstructs the visual, symbolic, and spiritual world of the ancient Egyptians and thereby establishes an intimate relationship among celestial cycles, topography, and architecture. He also shows how they were deployed in the ideology of the pharaoh's power in the course of Egyptian history.
'Bite-sized, cutting edge science delivered with enormous enthusiasm - all you need to travel the cosmos' CHRIS LINTOTT 'A lot of astrophysics is packed into this neat little book . . . I guarantee you will come away knowing your dark matter from your supermassive black holes' JIM AL-KHALILI This book is for anyone who wants to easily understand the mind-blowing fundamentals of our extraordinary, expanding universe. Written by Oxford astrophysicist Dr Becky Smethurst and composed of ten captivating, simple essays, it guides you swiftly through the galaxies, explaining the mysteries of black holes, dark matter and what existed before the Big Bang, presenting the evidence as to whether we really are alone, illuminating what we still don't know, and much more besides. If you have big questions about Space, this book will provide you with the answers in an engaging and succinct way.
A star finder that allows visible stars to be identified for any date and time for locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Compiled by astronomical experts, Storm Dunlop and Wil Tirion and approved by the astronomers of the Royal Observatory Greenwich. Easy-to-use practical tool to help any astronomers identify the constellations and stars every day of the year. Just dial in the date and time by rotating the inner plastic disk showing the time until it lines up with the relevant day of the year on the outer ring. The part of the sky appearing on the planisphere shows the arrangement of the stars above you. This star chart is suitable for use anywhere in Britain and Ireland, Northern Europe, Canada and Northern USA. Best viewed as near to latitude 50 degrees north as possible. The moveable disk also comes in a wallet which contains further information about stargazing.
The early 21st century marks a new era in space exploration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States, The European Space Agency (ESA), as well as space agencies of Japan, China, India, and other countries have sent their probes to the Moon, Mars, and other planets in the solar system. Planetary Remote Sensing and Mapping introduces original research and new developments in the areas of planetary remote sensing, photogrammetry, mapping, GIS, and planetary science resulting from the recent space exploration missions. Topics covered include: Reference systems of planetary bodies Planetary exploration missions and sensors Geometric information extraction from planetary remote sensing data Feature information extraction from planetary remote sensing data Planetary remote sensing data fusion Planetary data management and presentation Planetary Remote Sensing and Mapping will serve scientists and professionals working in the planetary remote sensing and mapping areas, as well as planetary probe designers, engineers, and planetary geologists and geophysicists. It also provides useful reading material for university teachers and students in the broader areas of remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, GIS, and geodesy.
White dwarfs are the most numerous members of the stellar graveyard. More than ninety percent of all stars will end their lives as white dwarfs. Research on these objects is fascinating in its own right, requiring developments in atomic data and the study of properties of matter under extreme conditions. However, these studies also have enormous impact on other areas of astrophysics, including: cosmology, the composition of extrasolar planets and fundamental physics. The proceedings of IAU Symposium 357 bring together experts from different branches of science working on white dwarfs, but also astronomers with expertise in a wide range of relevant disciplines. The resulting papers are organized around several key themes: SN Ia progenitors, debris from extrasolar planetary systems, fundamental physics, precision studies of white dwarf structure and stellar physics and Galactic evolution. They provide a framework for guiding the direction of white dwarf research for the next decade.
Is there a secret visual language all around us? What's so special about the shape of the Great Pyramid? Why is there something so sixy about circles? How many ways can you tile the plane? Lavishly illustrated by the author, this enchanting small introduction to one of the oldest and most widely-used ancient traditions on Earth will forever change the way you look at a triangle, arch, window, fabric repeat, ceramic pattern, graphic design, painting, spiral or flower. WOODEN BOOKS are small but packed with information. "Fascinating" FINANCIAL TIMES. "Beautiful" LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS. "Rich and Artful" THE LANCET. "Genuinely mind-expanding" FORTEAN TIMES. "Excellent" NEW SCIENTIST. "Stunning" NEW YORK TIMES. Small books, big ideas.
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