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The essential introduction to modern string theory-now fully expanded and revised String Theory in a Nutshell is the definitive introduction to modern string theory. Written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject, this concise and accessible book starts with basic definitions and guides readers from classic topics to the most exciting frontiers of research today. It covers perturbative string theory, the unity of string interactions, black holes and their microscopic entropy, the AdS/CFT correspondence and its applications, matrix model tools for string theory, and more. It also includes 600 exercises and serves as a self-contained guide to the literature. This fully updated edition features an entirely new chapter on flux compactifications in string theory, and the chapter on AdS/CFT has been substantially expanded by adding many applications to diverse topics. In addition, the discussion of conformal field theory has been extensively revised to make it more student-friendly. The essential one-volume reference for students and researchers in theoretical high-energy physics Now fully expanded and revised Provides expanded coverage of AdS/CFT and its applications, namely the holographic renormalization group, holographic theories for Yang-Mills and QCD, nonequilibrium thermal physics, finite density physics, and entanglement entropy Ideal for mathematicians and physicists specializing in theoretical cosmology, QCD, and novel approaches to condensed matter systems An online illustration package is available to professors
IAU Symposium 285, New Horizons in Time-Domain Astronomy, gave a comprehensive overview of the status quo in 2011, exploring, astronomical variability at both Galactic and extragalactic distances. Several years later, IAU Symposium 339 witnessed a new level of activity and planning, with ambitious instruments that add a new dimension to some of those current in 2011 and ingenious methodology in the emerging field of astroinformatics. Major new instruments, whose output dwarfs those previously available, and analysis techniques that could not have been implemented until very recently, are being coupled with a broadening diversity in wavelengths. IAU S339 introduces the rich potential for new techniques for both analysis and communication, while covering the basic fundamentals such as data quality, standardization and archive access. Many early-career scientists are already central players in these projects: time-domain astronomy is the future and in their hands may it flourish and grow.
What is life and where can it exist? What searches are being made to identify conditions for life on other worlds? If extraterrestrial inhabited worlds are found, how can we explore them? In this book, two leading astrophysicists provide an engaging account of where we stand in our quest for habitable environments, in the Solar System and beyond. Starting from basic concepts, the narrative builds scientifically, including more in-depth material as boxed additions to the main text. The authors recount fascinating recent discoveries from space missions and observations using ground-based telescopes, of possible life-related artefacts in Martian meteorites, extrasolar planets, and subsurface oceans on Europa, Titan and Enceladus. They also provide a forward look to future missions. This is an exciting, informative read for anyone interested in the search for habitable and inhabited planets, and an excellent primer for students in astrobiology, habitability, planetary science and astronomy.
Without the mighty Saturn V rocket, the Apollo 11 moon landing would not have been possible in July 1969. Even today, nearly fifty years later, it remains by far the largest and most powerful rocket ever used. Equipped with computers that are easily surpassed today by any mobile phone, the Saturn V was an unprecedented technical achievement. This book, part of the America in Space series, tells the gripping story of the development and creation of the Saturn V in concise, detailed text, and features numerous high-quality color images, technical drawings, and specification/dimension charts. As well as a detailed look at the Saturn V's design and construction, all thirty-two Apollo missions are discussed, including the later Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
Take a tour of the universe with this breathtaking calendar featuring remarkable photographs from the archives of NASA. Astonishing images of space will captivate anyone with an interest in science and astronomy, while engaging and informative text will spark wonder all year long.
A fun, fascinating, accessible introduction to astronomy basics
In this latest installment in the bestselling Utterly Confused series, an astronomy professor and a popular science writer team up to fill you in on all the essentials of modern astronomy. From the solar system and the constellations to space-time, gravity, and quantum physics, you'll go on a fascinating journey through the cosmos, becoming acquainted with the most recent astronomical phenomena and concepts, and dozens of fun facts.
This is an abbreviated volume of Universe by Freedman et al., focusing on the solar system. Known for their state-of-the-science coverage, the various Universe books place the basics of astronomy and the process of science within the grasp of introductory students. The fifth edition has been updated with new material and new discoveries.
Today's photographic equipment allows amateurs to take pictures of the stars that far surpass images taken just a few decades ago by the largest observatories-and this book will teach you how. Author and world-renowned astrophotographer Thierry Legault teaches the art and techniques of astrophotography-from simple camera-on-tripod night-scene imaging of constellations, star trails, eclipses, artificial satellites, and polar auroras to more intensive astrophotography using specialized equipment for lunar, planetary, solar, and deep-sky imaging. Legault shares advice about equipment and guides you through techniques for achieving excellent results. The first edition of this book received the jury special prize at the Astronomy Festival of Haute-Maurienne in France. Now in its second edition, Astrophotography provides the most thorough treatment of the topic available. This richly illustrated book is intended for all sky enthusiasts-newcomers and veterans alike. Learn how to: Select the most useful equipment: cameras, adapters, filters, focal reducers/extenders, field correctors, and guide telescopes Set up your camera (digital, video, or CCD) and your lens or telescope for optimal results Plan your observing sessions Mount the camera on your telescope and focus it for razor-sharp images Polar-align your equatorial mount and improve tracking for pin-point star images Make celestial time-lapse videos Calculate the shooting parameters: focal length and ratio, field of view, exposure time, etc. Combine multiples exposures to reveal faint galaxies, nebulae details, elusive planetary structures, and tiny lunar craters Adjust contrast, brightness, light curves, and colors Postprocess your images to fix defects such as vignetting, dust shadows, hot pixels, uneven background, and noise Identify problems with your images and improve your results
Long recognized as the "Gold Standard" text for astrobiology courses, The Search for Life in the Universe now appears in a completely revised and updated Third Edition. This book engages students in astronomy by presenting a great, unsolved mystery: How likely is life beyond earth, and how can we find it if it exists? The text covers the fundamentals of astronomy and astrophysics, including the discovery of more than 55 planets around other stars, and also provides an overview of biology, geology, evolution, and the possibilities of interstellar travel and communication. Written for readers with no background in mathematics, the book includes 24 color insert pages and brilliantly rendered illustrations by Jon Lomberg.
How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the core of this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this story revealing what we have discovered about phenomena from eclipses to neutrinos, space weather, and global warming. This second edition is updated throughout, and features results from the current spacecraft that are aloft, especially NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, for which one of the authors designed some of the telescopes.
The search for life in the Universe, once the domain of science fiction, is now a robust research program with a well-defined roadmap, from studying the extremes of life on Earth to exploring the possible niches for life in the Solar System and discovering thousands of planets far beyond it. In addition to constituting a major scientific endeavor, astrobiology is one of the most popular topics in astronomy, and is of growing interest to a broad community of thinkers from across the academic spectrum. In this volume, distinguished philosophers, theologians, anthropologists, historians and scientists discuss the big questions about how the discovery of extraterrestrial life, whether intelligent or microbial, would impact society. Their remarkable and often surprising findings challenge our foundational concepts of what the discovery of alien life may hold for humankind. Written in easily accessible language, this thought-provoking collection engages a wide audience of readers from all backgrounds.
Research on massive stars is undergoing a period of rapid progress, with long-held convictions being shown to be incomplete. While these stars are relatively few in number, they are the main driver of chemical and dynamical evolution in galaxies through their stellar winds and explosive deaths in core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore the impact of massive stars is widely recognized in many areas, as they are often used as tools to interpret the conditions and processes arising in different environments. In parallel, the development of new instrumentation, analysis techniques and dedicated surveys across all possible wavelengths have delivered large amounts of exquisite new data. These data are now providing a harsh test for the current state-of-the-art theoretical calculations of massive star birth, evolution and death. IAU Symposium 329 covers these topics and is therefore an invaluable resource for researchers in the field of massive stars and their evolution.
Now featuring a major new epilogue that brings the story up to date, this classic work by a Nobel Prize-winning physicist is "science writing at its best" (New York Review of Books). Translated in 18 languages.
The 2015 centenary of the publication of Einstein's general theory of relativity, and the first detection of gravitational waves have focused renewed attention on the question of whether Einstein was right. This review of experimental gravity provides a detailed survey of the intensive testing of Einstein's theory of gravity, including tests in the emerging strong-field dynamical regime. It discusses the theoretical frameworks needed to analyze gravitational theories and interpret experiments. Completely revised and updated, this new edition features coverage of new alternative theories of gravity, a unified treatment of gravitational radiation, and the implications of the latest binary pulsar observations. It spans the earliest tests involving the Solar System to the latest tests using gravitational waves detected from merging black holes and neutron stars. It is a comprehensive reference for researchers and graduate students working in general relativity, cosmology, particle physics and astrophysics.
This textbook on the nature of space and time explains the new theory of Space Dynamics, which describes the dynamics of gravity as the evolution of conformal 3-dimensional geometry. Shape Dynamics is equivalent to Einstein's General Relativity in those situations in which the latter has been tested experimentally, but the theory is based on different first principles. It differs from General Relativity in certain extreme conditions. Shape Dynamics allows us to describe situations in which the spacetime picture is no longer adequate, such as in the presence of singularities, when the idealization of infinitesimal rods measuring scales and infinitesimal clocks measuring proper time fails. This tutorial book contains both a quick introduction for readers curious about Shape Dynamics, and a detailed walk-through of the historical and conceptual motivations for the theory, its logical development from first principles and a description of its present status. It includes an explanation of the origin of the theory, starting from problems posed first by Newton more than 300 years ago. The book will interest scientists from a large community including all foundational fields of physics, from quantum gravity to cosmology and quantum foundations, as well as researchers interested in foundations. The tutorial is sufficiently self-contained for students with some basic background in Lagrangian/Hamiltonian mechanics and General Relativity.
This second edition of Mike Inglis's classic guide to observing the Milky Way in the Southern Hemisphere updates all of the science about the target objects with new findings from the astrophysics field. In addition, the book boasts a larger format with entirely re-drawn maps. Newly laid out for ease of use with an increased number of images in color, it updates and improves the first edition to remain the most comprehensive text on the subject. One of the wonders of the universe we live in is the Milky Way, and this book provides a wonderful tour of its highlights for amateur astronomers observing below the equator. In its pages, Southern Hemisphere observers interested in viewing our own galaxy's finest features will find every constellation that the Milky Way passes through with detailed descriptions of the many objects that can be found therein, including stars, double and multiple stars, emission nebulae, planetary nebulae, dark nebulae and supernovae remnants, open and galactic clusters, and galaxies. The book also details the one thing that is often left out of observing guides - the amazing star clouds of the Milky Way itself. Accompanying the descriptive text there are many star charts and maps, as well as the latest images made by observatories around the world and in space along with those taken by amateur astronomers. This second edition's updated scientific material and an easy-to-use layout perfect for many nights of fruitful observation.
Well-balanced, carefully reasoned study relates astronomy to political, social conditions of the day. Part I covers ancient astronomy, including Ptolemaic theory; Part II discusses Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, laws of celestial mechanics. Part III covers modern developments up to work of Eddington. Author saw astronomy as an adventure of the mind. Illustrated.
Over the past decade, modelling the panchromatic emission of galaxies has become one of the key tools in measuring their properties. As new and next-generation facilities progressively herald a new era in observational astronomy, we face new and specific challenges: LSST (recently named the Vera C. Rubin Observatory) and SKA will provide us with an avalanche of data; the advent of e-ROSITA and the preparation for Athena make it ever more pressing to include X-ray emission into the standard UV to radio panchromatic models; JWST will observe the first galaxies with extreme stellar populations; and, in the meantime, ALMA is already starting to provide us with remarkable dust and metal observations at high redshift. The proceedings of IAU Symposium 341 offer a broad overview of the state of the field from theoreticians, modellers, and observers to present and discuss the current frontier in the panchromatic modelling of galaxies.
With their best-selling astronomy textbook, HORIZONS, International Edition authors Mike Seeds and Dana Backman help you understand your place in the universe--not just your location in space but your role in the unfolding history of the physical universe. To achieve this goal, they focuses on two central questions: "What Are We?" which highlights your place as a planet dweller in an evolving universe, guiding you to better understand where we came from and how we formed; and "How Do We Know?" which provides insights into how the process of science can teach us more about what we are.
Although the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, has become synonymous with the United States' planetary exploration during the past half century, its most recent focus has been on Mars. Beginning in the 1990s and continuing through the Mars Phoenix mission of 2007, JPL led the way in engineering an impressive, rapidly evolving succession of Mars orbiters and landers, including roving robotic vehicles whose successful deployment onto the Martian surface posed some of the most complicated technical problems in space flight history. In Exploration and Engineering, Erik M. Conway reveals how JPL engineers' creative technological feats led to major breakthroughs in Mars exploration. He takes readers into the heart of the lab's problem-solving approach and management structure, where talented scientists grappled with technical challenges while also coping, not always successfully, with funding shortfalls, unrealistic schedules, and managerial turmoil. Conway, JPL's historian, offers an insider's perspective into the changing goals of Mars exploration, the ways in which sophisticated computer simulations drove the design process, and the remarkable evolution of landing technologies over a thirty-year period.
The revised second edition of this established dictionary contains over 4,300 up-to-date entries covering all aspects of astronomy. Compiled with the help of over 20 expert contributors under the editorship of renowned author and broadcaster Ian Ridpath, A Dictionary of Astronomy covers everything from space exploration and the equipment involved, to astrophysics, cosmology, and the concept of time. The dictionary also includes biographical entries on eminent astronomers, as well as worldwide coverage of observatories and telescopes. Supplementary material is included in the appendices, such as tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations, a table of planetary data, and numerous other tables and diagrams complement the entries. The entries have been fully revised and updated for this edition, and new entries have been added to reflect the recent developments within the field of astronomy, including magnetic reconnection, Fornax cluster, luminosity density, and Akatsuki. The content is enhanced by entry-level web links, which are listed and regularly updated on a companion website. A Dictionary of Astronomy is an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, amateur astronomers, and space enthusiasts.
How does the scientific enterprise really work to illuminate the origins of life and the universe itself? The quest to understand our universe, how it may have originated and evolved, and especially the conditions that allow it to support the existence of life forms, has been a central theme in religion for millennia and in science for centuries. In the past half-century, in particular, enormous progress in particle and nuclear physics and cosmology has clarified the essential role of imperfections - deviations from perfect symmetry or homogeneity or predictability - in establishing conditions that allow for structure in the universe that can support the development of life. Many of these deviations are tiny and seem mysteriously fine-tuned to allow for life. The goal of this book is to review the recent and ongoing scientific research exploring these imperfections, in a broad-ranging, non-mathematical approach with an emphasis on the intricate tapestry of elegant experiments that bear on the conditions for habitability in our universe. This book makes clear what we know and how we know it, as distinct from what we speculate and how we might test it. At the same time, it attempts to convey a sense of wonderment at the tuning of these imperfections and of the rapid rate at which the boundary between knowledge and speculation is currently shifting.
Make: High-Power Rockets is for all the science geeks who look at the moon and try to figure out where Neil Armstrong walked, watch in awe as rockets lift off, and want to fly their own model rockets. Starting with an overview of mid- and high-power rocketry, readers will start out making rockets with F and G engines, and move on up to H engines.
Seismology is a highly effective tool for investigating the internal structure of the Earth. Similar techniques have also successfully been used to study other planetary bodies (planetary seismology), the Sun (helioseismology), and other stars (asteroseismology). Despite obvious differences between stars and planetary bodies, these disciplines share many similarities and together form a coherent field of scientific research. This unique book takes a transdisciplinary approach to seismology and seismic imaging, reviewing the most recent developments in these extraterrestrial contexts. With contributions from leading scientists, this timely volume systematically outlines the techniques used in observation, data processing, and modelling for asteroseismology, helioseismology, and planetary seismology, drawing comparisons with seismic methods used in geophysics. Important recent discoveries in each discipline are presented. With an emphasis on transcending the traditional boundaries of astronomy, solar, planetary and Earth sciences, this novel book is an invaluable resource and reference for undergraduates, postgraduates and academics.
Most astronomers and physicists now believe that the matter content of the Universe is dominated by dark matter: hypothetical particles which interact with normal matter primarily through the force of gravity. Though invisible to current direct detection methods, dark matter can explain a variety of astronomical observations. This book describes how this theory has developed over the past 75 years, and why it is now a central feature of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Current attempts to directly detect dark matter locally are discussed, together with the implications for particle physics. The author comments on the sociology of these developments, demonstrating how and why scientists work and interact. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the leading alternative to this theory, is also presented. This fascinating overview will interest cosmologists, astronomers and particle physicists. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, so the book can be understood by non-specialists.
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