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The contributions to this book analyse and submit to critique authoritarian constitutionalism as an important phenomenon in its own right, not merely as a deviant of liberal constitutionalism. Accordingly, the fourteen studies cover a variety of authoritarian regimes from Hungary to Apartheid South Africa, from China to Venezuela; from Syria to Argentina, and discuss the renaissance of authoritarian agendas and movements, such as populism, Trumpism, nationalism and xenophobia. From different theoretical perspectives the authors elucidate how authoritarian power is constituted, exercised and transferred in the different configurations of popular participation, economic imperatives, and imaginary community. Authoritarian Constitutionalism is of great interest to teachers, scholars and students of comparative constitutional law, comparative politics, and legal and political theory.
Americans tend to believe in government that is transparent and accountable. Those who govern us work for us, and therefore they must also answer to us. But how do we reconcile calls for greater accountability with the competing need for secrecy, especially in matters of national security? Those two imperatives are usually taken to be antithetical, but Heidi Kitrosser argues convincingly that this is not the case--and that our concern ought to lie not with secrecy, but with the sort of unchecked secrecy that can result from "presidentialism," or constitutional arguments for broad executive control of information. In Reclaiming Accountability, Kitrosser traces presidentialism from its start as part of a decades-old legal movement through its appearance during the Bush and Obama administrations, demonstrating its effects on secrecy throughout. Taking readers through the key presidentialist arguments--including "supremacy" and "unitary executive theory"--she explains how these arguments misread the Constitution in a way that is profoundly at odds with democratic principles. Kitrosser's own reading offers a powerful corrective, showing how the Constitution provides myriad tools, including the power of Congress and the courts to enforce checks on presidential power, through which we could reclaim government accountability.
The Bill of Rights, perhaps the single most important document in American history, has provided a strong and remarkably durable framework in which the limits of government, the scope of individual liberty, and the nature of our democratic system have been defined for more than two hundred years. In the past several decades in particular, the American Bill of Rights has been subject to virtually continual reinterpretation by the U.S. Supreme Court through a series of landmark cases, while its provisions also have exerted a powerful influence over the movement toward democracy and freedom worldwide.
This third edition of The Bill of Rights, the Courts, and the Law serves to increase public understanding of the Bill of Rights and the American judicial process by presenting select cases and their underlying issues fairly. It allows readers to examine the various legal arguments with the help of expert commentary, offering the best, most accessible introduction to the Bill of Rights available to a nonscholarly audience.
. Lynda Butler, College of William and Mary Marshall-Wythe School of Law
. A. E. Dick Howard, University of Virginia School of Law
. Robert M. O'Neil, University of Virginia School of Law and Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression
. Barbara Perry, Sweet Briar College Department of Government and International Affairs
. Rodney A. Smolla, University of Richmond T. C. Williams School of Law
. Melvin Urofsky, Virginia Commonwealth University Doctoral Program in Public Policy
Distributed for the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy
Domestic law has long been recognised as a source of international law, an inspiration for legal developments, or the benchmark against which a legal system is to be assessed. Academic commentary normally re-traces these well-trodden paths, leaving one with the impression that the interaction between domestic and international law is unworthy of further enquiry. However, a different - and surprisingly pervasive - nexus between the two spheres has been largely overlooked: the use of domestic law in the interpretation of international law. This book examines the practice of five international courts and tribunals to demonstrate that domestic law is invoked to interpret international law, often outside the framework of Articles 31 to 33 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. It assesses the appropriateness of such recourse to domestic law as well as situating the practice within broader debates regarding interpretation and the interaction between domestic and international legal systems.
This volume deals with the law governing the administrative implementation of European Union public policy. Much of this law is specific to individual policy sectors. The volume provides a study of such specialized admininstrative law for more than twenty sectors. This cross-sectoral approach allows for detailed comparisons of EU administration in diverse policy fields. It identifies situations where legal structures and approaches may be unnecessarily duplicated, thus indicating where a comprehensive, general system could be advantageous for both Union law and policy achievement. The comparative nature of the study also draws attention to policy fields which have proven to be testing grounds for approaches adopted subsequently in other areas. In addition, the work highlights the distinctive, highly networked, and strongly cooperative character of EU administration, as a reflection of, and a foundation for, the operative nature of the European Union as a whole.
It's easy to forget how important the jury really is to America. The right to be a juror is one of the fundamental rights guaranteed to all eligible citizens. The right to trial by jury helped spark the American Revolution, was quickly adopted at the Constitutional Convention, and is the only right that appears in both the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. But for most of us, a jury summons is an unwelcome inconvenience. Who has time for jury duty? We have things to do. In Why Jury Duty Matters, Andrew Guthrie Ferguson reminds us that whether we like it or not, we are all constitutional actors. Jury duty provides an opportunity to reflect on that constitutional responsibility. Combining American history, constitutional law, and personal experience, the book engages citizens in the deeper meaning of jury service. Interweaving constitutional principles into the actual jury experience, this book is a handbook for those Americans who want to enrich the jury experience. It seeks to reconnect ordinary citizens to the constitutional character of a nation by focusing on the important, and largely ignored, democratic lessons of the jury. Jury duty is a shared American tradition. It connects people across class and race, creates habits of focus and purpose, and teaches values of participation, equality, and deliberation. We know that juries are important for courts, but we don't know that jury service is important for democracy. This book inspires us to re-examine the jury experience and act on the constitutional principles that guide our country before, during, and after jury service.
Constitutional and Administrative Law guides readers through the key principles of public law, examining significant cases and recent developments along the way. The book's broad coverage is presented in a concise and easy-to-read format, while chapter summaries and self-test questions help reinforce knowledge. Highly praised by students and lecturers alike, Constitutional and Administrative Law is a must for undergraduates of all levels. Online resources The book is supported by the following online resources: - General public law updates keep you up-to-date on any significant changes in the law that have occurred since publication of the book - An extensive 'library' of web links that directs readers to further sources of information on each of the core topics taught as part of a public law course, including websites, audio and video clips, blogs, and journal articles - A timeline of key dates in British political history provides a fascinating insight into the events that have influenced the development of constitutional and administrative law in the UK
Australian Public Law provides a foundation for understanding the ideas and principles that underpin Australian public law and develops a concept of public law through analysis of the mechanisms of power and control. Now in its third edition, this text provides students with a theoretical framework for investigating and interpreting the Australian Constitution while introducing them to the core concepts that are required for the study of constitutional and administrative law.
Private Enforcement of EU Law Before National Courts provides an in-depth analysis of how, when, and why the EU legislates to facilitate the private enforcement of EU law before the courts of Member States. Conducting a detailed examination of the legal basis and prospects for private enforcement in the fields of public procurement, intellectual property law, consumer protection, and competition law, Folkert Wilman discusses not only the EU rules on remedies and procedures typically adopted, but also many broader issues arising such as: the EU's scope to act and the autonomy of the Member State, the legal and practical limits, and implications, of the EU's private enforcement model, as well as the fundamental rights dimension. The thorough and practical treatment of private enforcement mechanisms makes this book an essential reference work for practising lawyers advising or acting before domestic courts in matters of EU law. Scholars will also be attracted by the questions it raises, and answers, relating to the relationship of the EU to Member States. Key features of the book include: * Expert authorship from a Member of the Legal Service of the European Commission * Comprehensive assessment of EU legislation on the private enforcement of EU law before national courts * Detailed examination of the legal basis for private enforcement at a general level, followed by consideration of its application across several substantive fields * Extensive discussion of the scope for the EU to act vis-a-vis the autonomy of the Member State * One of the first in-depth analyses of the recently adopted and widely debated Competition Damages Directive (No. 2014/104) * Exposition of key case law relating to private enforcement and the remedies available to private parties.
This landmark book provides the first systematic overview of the key scholarly contributions in an emerging field of research on constitutionalism: the sociology of constitutions. It presents chapters offering very different normative and methodological approaches to constitutions, ranging from analysis of national constitutional law, to research on transnational legal forms, to discussions of the constitutional impact of international human rights law. The book makes an important contribution to a series of wider debates - spanning constitutional law, legal theory, comparative constitutionalism, sociology, and political science - about the changing nature of constitutionalism. Researchers and students in constitutional law will gain a comprehensive appreciation of a diverse range of distinctively sociological approaches to constitutional law and an in-depth understanding of distinctive sociological dimensions of constitutions. The book offers insights into the sources of constitutional normativity in society and it proposes different sociological methods for addressing them.
"A Guide to America's Sex Laws" is the first concise compendium of the nation's sex laws. It summarizes the laws regulating personal sexual activity, revealing gaps, anachronisms, anomalies, inequalities, and irrationalities, and providing an empirical basis for studies of sexual regulation. Judge Richard A. Posner and Katharine B. Silbaugh cover broadly defined areas of regulation, providing background and definitions and placing the laws in their historical and constitutional context. From Alabama to Wyoming, this informative and fascinating reference book will be an essential resource. "It takes only a few minutes with "A Guide to [America's] Sex" to realize that the nation's laws governing what two consenting adults can do with one another are an odd jumble."-Eric Fidler, "San Diego Commerce" "Especially noteworthy is how laws governing various sexual activities vary from state to state."-"Library Journal" "Fascinating and often surprising facts are concisely documented and conveniently organized in "A Guide.""-Carlin Meyer, "New York Law Journal"
The practices and technologies of evaluation and decision making used by professionals, police, lawyers and experts are questioned in this book for their participation in the perpetuation of historical forms of colonial violence through the enforcement of racial and eugenic policies and laws in Canada.
The European Union is a supranational organisation with a set of circumscribed powers. Although these powers do not include an all-encompassing fundamental rights' mandate, today's existential challenges - from economic to refugee crisis, via concerns for compliance with the rule of law in some of its Member States - increase the pressure on the EU to develop tools for protection and promotion of such rights. One way of addressing the tension between the lack of a general mandate and vivid calls for protection is for the EU to focus on selected fundamental rights which it has competence to regulate. One such example is EU law on the fundamental right to equal treatment that has blossomed since the late 1990s. In developing selected fundamental right policies that can be imposed on domestic actors, as EU law does, supranational intervention needs to be carefully tailored to the plural landscape where they are intended to flourish. This monograph calls for a nuanced use of the infrastructure of EU law to convey shared values at domestic level across Europe.
You can't handle the truth. These iconic words, bellowed by Jack Nicholson as Colonel Jessup in the 1992 movie A Few Good Men, became an emblem of the conflict between honor and truth that the collective imagination often considers the quintessence of military justice. The military is the rare part of contemporary society that enjoys the privilege of policing its own members' behavior, with special courts and a separate body of rules. Whether one is for or against this system, military trials are fascinating and little understood. This book opens a window on the military judicial system, offering an accessible and balanced assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of military legal regimes around the world. It illuminates US military justice through a comparison with civilian and foreign models for the administration of justice, with a particular emphasis on the UK and Canadian military justice systems. Drawing on his experience as a serving officer, private practitioner, and law professor, Eugene R. Fidell presents a hard-hitting tour of the field, exploring military justice trends across different countries and compliance (or lack thereof) with contemporary human rights standards. He digs into critical issues such as the response to sexual assault in the armed forces, the challenges of protecting judicial independence, and the effect of social media and modern technology on age-old traditions of military discipline. A rich series of case studies, ranging from examples of misconduct, such as the devastating Abu Ghraib photos, to political tangles, such as the Guantanamo military commissions, throw light on the high profile and occasionally obscure circumstances that emerge from today's military operations around the world. As Fidell's account shows, by understanding the mechanism of military justice we can better comprehend the political values of a country.
The insolvency of states is by no means a rare or new phenomenon. Despite this, it still seems to be widely felt that states do not go bankrupt. As of yet, there are no regulated insolvency proceedings for states. This book examines the current mechanisms for solving sovereign debt crises. It presents an analysis of their weaknesses and shows possibilities for dealing with such crises in the future. In this respect, the work focusses on crisis resolution measures at European level: the aid packages for Greece, the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stabilisation Facility and the European Stability Mechanism. These are examined for their appropriateness as well as whether they contain elements of insolvency law. Ultimately, it explores possible insolvency proceedings for states at EU level and their implementation options.
Sovereign debt is necessary for the functioning of many modern states, yet its impact on human rights is underexplored in academic literature. This volume provides the reader with a step-by-step analysis of the debt phenomenon and how it affects human rights. Beginning by setting out the historical, political and economic context of sovereign debt, the book goes on to address the human rights dimension of the policies and activities of the three types of sovereign lenders: international financial institutions (IFIs), sovereigns and private lenders. Bantekas and Lumina, along with a team of global experts, establish the link between debt and the manner in which the accumulation of sovereign debt violates human rights, examining some of the conditions imposed by structural adjustment programs on debtor states with a view to servicing their debt. They outline how such conditions have been shown to exacerbate the debt itself at the expense of economic sovereignty, concluding that such measures worsen the borrower's economic situation, and are injurious to the entrenched rights of peoples.
The first wave of democratization in the United States - the removal of property and taxpaying qualifications for the right to vote - was accompanied by the disenfranchisement of African American men, with the political actors most supportive of the former also the most insistent upon the latter. The United States is not unique in this respect: other canonical cases of democratization also saw simultaneous expansions and restrictions of political rights, yet this pattern has never been fully detailed or explained. Through case studies of the USA, the UK, and France, Disenfranchising Democracy offers the first cross-national account of the relationship between democratization and disenfranchisement. It develops a political institutional perspective to explain their co-occurrence, focusing on the politics of coalition-building and the visions of political community coalitions advance in support of their goals. Bateman sheds new light on democratization, connecting it to the construction of citizenship and cultural identities.
Camera Power is the first book to tackle the policy questions raised by two ongoing revolutions in recording the police: copwatching and police-worn body cameras. Drawing on original research from over 200 jurisdictions and more than 100 interviews - with police leaders and officers, copwatchers, community members, civil rights and civil liberties experts, industry leaders, and technologists - Mary D. Fan offers a vision of the great potential and perils of the growing deluge of audiovisual big data. In contrast to the customary portrayal of big data mining as a threat to civil liberties, Camera Power describes how audiovisual big data analytics can better protect civil rights and liberties and prevent violence in police encounters. With compelling stories and coverage of the most important debates over privacy, public disclosure, proof, and police regulation, this book should be read by anyone interested in how technology is reshaping the relationship with our police.
The second edition of Government Accountability: Australian Administrative Law offers an accessible and practical introduction to administrative law in Australia. The text introduces the legal principles that regulate the exercise of power by public authorities and explains the legal mechanisms that exist to remedy failures, with an emphasis on the overarching principle of accountability. Thoroughly revised and updated to incorporate recent changes to case law and legislation, this edition offers expanded, contemporary material on public investigatory bodies, information disclosure, administrative review tribunals, the limits on juridical review, and procedural fairness. Updated case examples throughout illustrate the practical operation of these principles and assist readers to connect theory with practice. Government Accountability provides readers with a concise introduction to the contexts, theory and application of administrative law and arms students with the knowledge and skills to successfully analyse and assess the decisions and actions of public authorities.
What does the 'internal market' mean? The EU is committed to the construction of an internal market, and in this analysis Stephen Weatherill explains that the EU's internal market is an ambiguous legal concept. One may readily suppose that the United Kingdom possesses an internal market. So does Germany, so does France, so does Australia, and Canada, and the United States of America. The European Union aspires to an internal market, but the detailed patterns governing these several internal markets are not uniform; in fact they vary according to the extent to which the constituent units are permitted to pursue different regulatory policies. They vary according to the scope of law-making competence and powers allocated to the central authority. They vary according to the governing institutional (judicial and political) arrangements. The quality and intensity of the regulated environment varies according to the choices made. There is a broad band of possible internal markets, ranging from one that is radically decentralized as a result of a choice in favour of unrestricted inter-jurisdictional competition to, at the other extreme, one that is radically centralized in the sense that law-making competence has been completely stripped away from the constituent units in favour of the central authority. Within that spectrum there is a huge range of options. In this inquiry into the limits and ambiguities of the internal market as a legal concept, Weatherill examines and explains the choices made by the EU and demonstrates what they entail for the shape of the EU's internal market. This book is not about 'Brexit', but it shows that one of the claims commonly made by Brexiteers - that the internal market can be confined merely to a deregulatory exercise in free market economics - has no support whatsoever in either EU constitutional law or in EU legislative and judicial practice.
Dred Scott and his landmark Supreme court case are ingrained in the national memory, but he was just one of multitudes who appealed for their freedom in courtrooms across the country. Appealing for Liberty is the first study of its kind to give voice to these African Americans, drawing from more than two thousand suits and from the testimony of more than four thousand plaintiffs from the Revolutionary Era to the Civil War. Through the petitions, evidence, and testimony introduced in these court proceedings, the lives of the enslaved come sharply and poignantly into focus, as do many other aspects of southern society. This book depicts in graphic terms, the pain, suffering, fears, and trepidations of the plaintiffs while discussing the legal system-lawyers, judges, juries, and testimony-that made judgments on their "causes," as the suits were often called. Arguments for freedom were diverse: slaves brought suits claiming they had been freed in wills and deeds, were born of free mothers, were descendants of free white women or Indian women; they charged that they were illegally imported to some states or were residents of the free states and territories. Those who testified on their behalf-usually against leaders of the communities-were generally white. So too were the lawyers who took these cases, many of them men of prominence, such as Francis Scott Key. More often than not, these men were slave owners themselves-complicating our understanding of race relations in the antebellum period. A majority of the cases examined here were not appealed, nor did they create important judicial precedent. Indeed, most of the cases ended at the county, circuit, or district court level of various southern states. Yet the narratives of both those who gained their freedom and those who failed to do so, and the issues their suits raised, shed a bold and timely light on the history of race and liberty in the "land of the free."
Imperial Citizen examines the intersection between Ottoman colonialism, control of the Iraqi frontier through centralization policies, and the impact of those policies on Ottoman citizenship laws and on the institution of marriage. In an effort to maintain control of the Iraqi province, the Ottomans adapted their 1869 citizenship law to prohibit marriages between Ottoman women and Iranian men. This prohibition was an attempt to contain the threat that the Iranian Shi'a population represented to Ottoman control of their Iraqi provinces. In Imperial Citizen, Kern establishes this 1869 law as a point of departure for an illuminating exploration of an emerging concept of modern citizenship. She unfolds the historical context of the law and systematically analyzes the various modifications it underwent, pointing to its farreaching implications throughout society, particularly on landowners, the military, and Sunni women and their children. Kern's fascinating account offers an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the Ottoman Iraqi frontier and its passage to modernity.
What are the different market types that shape the European Union's internal market? Schutze proposes three models that assist in explaining the transitions in the structure of the EU internal market. The international model demands that each state limits its external sovereignty, while retaining internal sovereignty over its national market. The federal model declares that within a "common market" states must lose a part of their internal sovereignty, and in accordance with the principle of "home state" control, goods are entitled to be sold freely on a "foreign" market in compliance with home state law. The national model proposes that the trade restrictions above a legislative or judicial Union standard should be removed. Schutze's book analyses the changing structure of European law in relation to the European internal market. The General Part starts out by offering a historical analysis of the relationship between international law and market coordination up to the twentieth century but also provides an in-depth analysis of the constitutional principles which controlled the "integration" of the US "common market". The Special Part then specifically addresses the decline of the international model in relation to the EU internal market and the corresponding rise of a federal market philosophy after Cassis de Dijon. The final chapter explores the exceptional constitutional principles that apply to fiscal matters. This is the second volume in Schutze's trilogy on the "Changing Structure of European Law". Exploring the changing structure of negative integration in the past 60 years, the book complements his previous volume "From Dual to Cooperative Federalism" which analysed the evolving structure of positive integration. A third volume will finally explore the formal constitutional aspects in the evolution of the European Union into a federal union of States.
Fundamental rights for all people with disabilities, education and employment are key for the inclusion of people with autism. They play as facilitators for the social inclusion of persons with autism and as multipliers for their enjoyment of other fundamental rights. After outlining the international and European dimensions of the legal protection of the rights to education and employment of people with autism, the book provides an in-depth analysis of domestic legislative, judicial and administrative practice of the EU Member States in these fields. Each chapter identifies the good practices on inclusive education and employment of people with autism consistent with principles and obligations enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (Articles 24 and 27). The book contains the scientific results of the European Project "Promoting equal rights of people with autism in the field of employment and education" aimed at supporting the implementation of the UN Convention in the fields of inclusive education and employment.
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