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In the years following the landmark United States Supreme Court decision on libel law in New York Times v. Sullivan, the court ruled on a number of additional cases that continued to shape the standards of protected speech. As part of this key series of judgments, the justices explored the contours of the Sullivan ruling and established the definition of ""reckless disregard"" as it pertains to ""actual malice"" in the case of St. Amant v. Thompson. While an array of scholarly and legal literature examines Sullivan and some subsequent cases, the St. Amant case- once called ""the most important of the recent Supreme Court libel decisions""- has not received the attention it warrants. Eric P. Robinson's Reckless Disregard corrects this omission with a thorough analysis of the case and its ramifications. The history of St. Amant v. Thompson begins with the contentious 1962 U.S. Senate primary election in Louisiana, between incumbent Russell Long and businessman Philemon ""Phil"" A. St. Amant. The initial lawsuit stemmed from a televised campaign address in which St. Amant attempted to demonstrate Long's alleged connections with organized crime and corrupt union officials. Although St. Amant's claims had no effect on the outcome of the election, a little-noticed statement he made during the address- that money had ""passed hands"" between Baton Rouge Teamsters leader Ed Partin and East Baton Rouge Parish deputy sheriff Herman A. Thompson- led to a defamation lawsuit that ultimately passed through the legal system to the Supreme Court. A decisive step in the journey toward the robust protections that American courts provide to comments about public officials, public figures, and matters of public interest, St. Amant v. Thompson serves as a significant development in modern American defamation law. Robinson's study deftly examines the background of the legal proceedings as well as their social and political context. His analysis of how the Supreme Court ruled in this case reveals the justices' internal deliberations, shedding new light on a judgment that forever changed American libel law.
The evolution of the battle for true equality in America seen through the men, ideas, and politics behind the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments passed at the end of the Civil War. On July 4, 1852, Frederick Douglass stood in front of a crowd in Rochester, New York, and asked, "What to the slave is the Fourth of July?" The audience had invited him to speak on the day celebrating freedom, and had expected him to offer a hopeful message about America; instead, he'd offered back to them their own hypocrisy. How could the Constitution defend both freedom and slavery? How could it celebrate liberty with one hand while withdrawing it with another? Theirs was a country which promoted and even celebrated inequality. From the very beginning, American history can be seen as a battle to reconcile the large gap between America's stated ideals and the reality of its republic. Its struggle is not one of steady progress toward greater freedom and equality, but rather for every step forward there is a step taken in a different direction. In Inventing Equality, Michael Bellesiles traces the evolution of the battle for true equality--the stories of those fighting forward, to expand the working definition of what it means to be an American citizen--from the Revolution through the late nineteenth century. He identifies the systemic flaws in the Constitution, and explores through the role of the Supreme Court and three Constitutional amendments--the 13th, 14th, and 15th--the ways in which equality and inequality waxed and waned over the decades.
Land Law and Governance: African Perspectives on Land Tenure and Title explores different ways of conceptualising secure land holding in Africa. The book brings together voices from different contexts, offering contrasting perspectives and methodological approaches. Land Law and Governance: African Perspectives on Land Tenure and Title also juxtaposes a range of political and academic viewpoints through theoretical discussions and case studies. The book thus opens up the discourse on forms of security of tenure in Africa, in a global context.
Once largely ignored, judicial elections in the states have become increasingly controversial over the past two decades. Legal organizations, prominent law professors, and a retired Supreme Court justice have advocated the elimination of elections as a means to choose judges. One of their primary concerns is interest group involvement in elections to state supreme courts, which they see as having negative effects on both the courts themselves and public perceptions of these judicial bodies. In The Battle for the Court, Lawrence Baum, David Klein, and Matthew Streb present a systematic investigation into the effects of interest group involvement in the election of judges. Focusing on personal-injury law, the issue that has played the most substantial role in spurring interest group activity in judicial elections, the authors detail how interest groups mobilize in response to unfavorable rulings by state supreme courts, how their efforts influence the outcomes of supreme court elections, and how those outcomes in turn effectively reshape public policies. The authors employ several decades' worth of new data on campaign activity, voter behavior, and judicial policy-making in one particularly colorful, important, and representative state-Ohio-to explore these connections among interest groups, elections, and judicial policy in a way that has not been possible until now.
The authoritative guide to the NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract The New Engineering Contract (NEC) is one of the leading standard forms of contract for major construction and infrastructure projects. The latest edition of the contract (NEC4) is now a suite of contracts widely used in the UK, Australia, Hong Kong, South Africa, Ireland, and New Zealand. This timely and important book provides a detailed commentary on the latest edition of the main NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract (NEC4 ECC) form. It explains how the contract is intended to operate and examines each clause to consider its application and legal interpretation. It also draws upon the author's highly successful third edition of the book covering the previous contract. It identifies and comments on the changes between the current and previous version of the form. After a brief introduction to the new edition of the form, The NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract offers in-depth chapters covering everything from main options and secondary option clauses to risk assurances and NEC 4 family contracts. In between, readers will learn about general core clauses, the obligations and responsibilities of the contractor, testing and defects, payments, compensation events, and much more. Covers the latest version of the NEC Engineering and Construction Contract, the leading standard form contract for major construction projects Examines the new contract clause by clause and compares it with the previous edition Previous editions were widely acknowledged as detailed and fair analyses of the NEC contracts Written by a highly regarded contracts commentator, experienced arbitrator, and adjudicator The NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract: A Commentary is an excellent book for construction industry professionals working for clients, employers, main contractors, project managers, subcontractors, and specialist contractors.
Developments have turned the study of South African constitutional law, even at an introductory level into a major undertaking. The purpose of this book is to guide the student of constitutional law in such an undertaking.
What is the purpose of comparative constitutional law? Comparing constitutions allows us to consider the similarities and differences in forms of government, and the normative philosophies behind constitutional choices. Constitutional comparisons offer 'hermeneutic' help: they enable us to see 'our' own constitution with different eyes and to locate its structural and normative choices by references to alternatives evident in other constitutional orders. This Cambridge Companion presents readers with a succinct yet wide-ranging companion to a modern comparative constitutional law course, offering a wide-ranging yet concise introduction to the subject. Its twenty-two chapters are arranged into five thematic parts: starting with an exploration of the 'theoretical foundations' (Part I) and some important 'historical experiences' (Part II), it moves on to a discussion of the core 'constitutional principles' (Part III) and 'state institutions' (Part IV); finally it analyses forms of 'transnational' constitutionalism (Part V) that have emerged in our 'global' times.
This text provides students with a variety of case materials on different aspects of administartive law. Each chapter begins with a short summary of the law and the legal issues raised in the chapter, followed by extracts from case law. As far as possible, the latest case law is used.
JOIN OVER HALF A MILLION STUDENTS WHO CHOSE TO REVISE WITH LAW EXPRESS Revise with the help of the UK's bestselling law revision series. Features: * Review essential cases, statutes, and legal terms before exams. * Assess and approach the subject by using expert advice. * Gain higher marks with tips for advanced thinking and further discussions. * Avoid common pitfalls with Don't be tempted to. * Practice answering sample questions and discover additional resources on the Companion website. www.pearsoned.co.uk/lawexpress
Government rules and inspectors can be an important tool to ensure trust in markets, and to protect citizens against hazards. There is, however, a perception that businesses and individuals only comply with rules because of the threat of punishment. From Chasing Violations to Managing Risks examines what actually makes people change their behaviour and how to effectively achieve the objectives of regulations. Building on decades of research, Florentin Blanc examines the development of inspection institutions and their practices, and assesses their varying effectiveness, and the reasons behind this. Bringing together historical, theoretical, and practical perspectives, Blanc provides 'large scale' testing of models through comparative case studies considering practices and their outcomes. By examining case studies, Blanc also assesses how inspection institutions might accomplish better results with less bureaucracy, comparing in particular occupational safety across France, Germany and Great Britain, identifying the key differences between the three, and asking how Britain has achieved a better safety record with fewer inspections (but more efforts to manage risks through other instruments). This book will be invaluable for practitioners of regulatory reform and public administration, as well as for students and researchers of these topics who will benefit from the unique synthesis of historical, theoretical and practical perspectives on the subject.
Administrative Law in South Africa has been dramatically transformed over the past 14 years since the enactment of the interim Constitution in 1994. This has resulted in a flood of judgments in which the new administrative law has been considered. The large volume of cases and the ever-growing length of judgments make it increasingly difficult to cut through the thicket and zoom in on the core principles of this area of law as they emerge from the materials.
This book collects the key materials on administrative law in South Africa in a focused and organised manner. It is a comprehensive resource tool that will enable anyone encountering administrative law to access the principles of this field through the primary sources.
Among the selections the reader will find both the leading authorities on particular rules and the best illustrations of their application. Apart from the judgments, the book also contains the relevant statutory provisions such as extracts from the 1993 and 1996 Constitutions and the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000.
In the face of current confusion regarding the use of articles 290 and 291 TFEU, there is a need to further develop the theory of legislative delegation in the EU Commission. This timely book approaches this question from a practical perspective with a detailed examination of how the legislator uses delegated and implementing mandates in different fields of EU law. Offering an analysis of legislative practice and providing concrete evidence of how articles 290 and 291 TFEU are actually handled, the expert contributors offer new insights into potential developments in EU administrative law. From this emerges a tentative categorisation that separates delegated rule-making from implementing rule-making according to the differentiation of substantive and procedural matters. However, as difficulties in the categorisation continue to remain, the book explores their systemic reasons, deeply rooted in the unclear constitutional shape of the EU. The Legislative Choice Between Delegated and Implementing Acts in EU Law will be essential reading for law academics and course leaders as well as practitioners in national and EU administration interested in this ongoing debate central to EU administrative law.
A comprehensive overview of the field of comparative administrative law that builds on the first edition with many new and revised chapters, additional topics and extended geographical coverage. This research handbook's broad, multi-method approach combines history and social science with more strictly legal analyses. This new edition demonstrates the growth and dynamism of recent efforts - spearheaded by the first edition - to stimulate comparative research in administrative law and public law more generally, reaching across different countries and scholarly disciplines. A particular focus is on administrative independence with its manifold implications for separation of powers, democratic self-government, and the boundary between law, politics, and policy. Several chapters highlight the tensions between impartial expertise and public accountability; others consider administrative litigation and the role of the courts in reviewing both individual decisions and secondary norms. The book concludes by asking how administrative law is shaping and is being shaped by the changing boundaries of the state, especially shifting boundaries between the public and the private, and the national and the supranational domains. This extensive and interdisciplinary appraisal of the field will be a vital resource for scholars and students of administrative and comparative law worldwide, and for public officials and representatives of interest groups engaged with government policy implementation and regulation.
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