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This collection addresses the pressing needs for sustainable technologies with reduced energy consumption and environmental pollutions and the development and application of alternative sustainable energy to maintain a green environment and efficient and long-lasting energy supply. Contributors represent both industry and academia and focus on new and efficient energy technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, and recycling and waste heat recovery, as well as emerging novel energy solutions. The volume also covers a broad range of mature and new technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems, processes that improve energy efficiency, reduce thermal emissions, and reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions. Authors also explore the valorization of materials and their embodied energy including byproducts or coproducts from ferrous and nonferrous industries, batteries, electronics, and other complex secondary materials.
Since the beginning of the US shale gas revolution in 2005, the development of unconventional oil and gas resources has gathered tremendous pace around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key geologic, geophysical, and engineering principles that govern the development of unconventional reservoirs. The book begins with a detailed characterization of unconventional reservoir rocks: their composition and microstructure, mechanical properties, and the processes controlling fault slip and fluid flow. A discussion of geomechanical principles follows, including the state of stress, pore pressure, and the importance of fractures and faults. After reviewing the fundamentals of horizontal drilling, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, and stimulation of slip on pre-existing faults, the key factors impacting hydrocarbon production are explored. The final chapters cover environmental impacts and how to mitigate hazards associated with induced seismicity. This text provides an essential overview for students, researchers, and industry professionals interested in unconventional reservoirs.
This book addresses energy research from four distinct International Political Economy perspectives: energy security, governance, legal and developmental areas. Energy is too important to be neglected by political scientists. Yet, within the mainstream of the discipline energy research still remains a peripheral area of academic enquiry seeking to plug into the discipline's theoretical debates. The purpose of this book is to assess how existing perspectives fit with our understanding of social science energy research by focusing on the oil and gas dimension.
This book delves into the climate surrounding the economic development of the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, with a spotlight on Qatar given recent political developments. Since the 1960s, the GCC states have harnessed their potential to exploit the wealth accrued from the oil boom to build their infrastructure and grow their economies. But, the high level of dependency on oil as the primary source feeding their Gross Domestic Product also made their economies volatile and vulnerable to fluctuations in the global oil price. The decline in oil price and the threat of depletion of this natural resource has presented subsequent challenges in the economic, environmental and social spheres in the Gulf. Consequently, the GCC countries have realised the importance of diversifying their economies following the need to move away from dependency on oil. This book presents a variety of recommendations for ways in which these states can achieve economic diversification in shifting towards a non-hydrocarbon environment and a knowledge economy. With a growing need for stronger allegiances in this turbulent region, particularly so in the wake of the Qatar diplomatic crisis, cooperative relations between the GCC countries in economic, socio-cultural, political and, to a certain extent, military domains have become more pressing. The book discusses related challenges facing policymakers, investors, and other stakeholders in the region, and analyses the alliances between the region and its international partners, specifically Turkey and India.
This book introduces the geological concept of the "windfield-source-basin system," based on integrated modern and ancient sedimentology studies. It identifies wind field as a main sedimentation-controlling factor that combines with provenance and basin dynamics to determine the formation and distribution of depositional systems. Using the unary properties of facies, sedimentary models and the duality properties of source-to-sink approaches, the concept of a "wind-source-basin system" introduces the "sedimentary system trinity": wind field, provenance and basin properties. "Wind-source-basin systems" provide more plausible genetic interpretations of depositional systems (including both continental and marine facies, and clastic and carbonate systems), as well as more comprehensive and precise predictions of depositional systems (hydrocarbon reservoirs) in unknown regions. Further, the book proposes a series of methods on paleowind field reconstruction, which fill the gaps in paleo-atmospheric field studies in paleoclimatology, and shows that allocating relationships among source-reservoir-cap in petroliferous basins are limited by the "wind-source-basin system". This trinity system also provides a new perspective on petroleum geology assessment. The book appeals to all those engaged in sedimentology, petroleum geology and climatology studies.
The book integrates the fundamental factors that determine current and future impacts of biofuels production on water supply and demand in the context of climatic changes. The effects of biofuels production on ground water quality with increasing water scarcity are examined, and the utilization of water sources in the commercial scale production of biofuels are sketched, covering the complete route from growing of crops to biorefinery. Biofuel's chemical composition, characteristics and uses as fuel in terms of water consumption are also investigated. Overall, the diversity of biomass, various technological approaches and microbial contribution are reviewed. Learning objectives on this topic are presented by means of a series of tables and figures in order to guide both professionals and students. The present manuscript deals with biofuel and bioenergy courses and is therefore invaluable to students. The book provides thorough coverage of all industrial aspects of biofuels production, including impacts of climate change and water availability. It will play vital role for industry employees involved in product development, production management, quality management and helpful source to those studying for professional qualification. Academics involved in teaching elements of the subject and persons involved in an environment regulatory capacity would be able to take advantage from this book.
Chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience.
This book provides insights into the development and usage of coal in chemical engineering. The reactivity of coal in processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, combustion and swelling is related to its structural properties. Using experimental findings and theoretical analysis, the book comprehensively answers three crucial issues that are fundamental to the optimization of coal chemical conversions: What is the structure of coal? How does the underlying structure determine the reactivity of different types of coal? How does the structure of coal alter during coal conversion? This book will be of interest to both individual readers and institutions involved in teaching and research into chemical engineering and energy conversion technologies. It is aimed at advanced- level undergraduate students. The text is suitable for readers with a basic knowledge of chemistry, such as first-year undergraduate general science students. Higher-level students with an in-depth understanding of the chemistry of coal will also benefit from the book. It will provide a useful reference resource for students and university-level teachers, as well as practicing engineers.
Completely revised and updated, the third edition of this bestseller discusses the concept and ongoing development of using methanol as a transportation fuel, energy storage medium, and as a raw material to replace oil. The contents have also been expanded by 15% with new chapters on energy storage, methanol from biomass and waste products, as well as on carbon dioxide recycling. Written by Nobel laureate George Olah, this is an inspiring read for anyone concerned with the major challenge posed by tomorrow?s energy and environmental problems.
The federal government has encouraged the development and use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with aviation and to enhance economic development and energy security for the United States. To help achieve these goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the aviation industry is actively supporting alternative jet fuels. This book examines the role of the federal government in the development and use of alternative jet fuels; and key challenges to developing and using alternative jet fuels and actions that the federal government plans to or could take to help address those challenges.
"Cleaner Combustion and Sustainable World"" "is the proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Coal Combustion which has a significant international influence. It concerns basic research on coal combustion and clean utilization, techniques and equipments of pulverized coal combustion, techniques and equipments of fluidized bed combustion, basic research and techniques of emission control, basic research and application techniques of carbon capture and storage (CCS), etc.
Professor Haiying Qi and Bo Zhao both work at the Tsinghua University, China
This book summarizes the authors' extensive experience and interdisciplinary approach to demonstrate how acquiring and integrating data using a variety of analytical equipment can provide better insights into unconventional shale reservoir rocks and their constituent components. It focuses on a wide range of properties of unconventional shale reservoirs, discussing the use of conventional and new analytical methods for detailed measurements of mechanical properties of both organic and inorganic constituent elements as well as of the geochemical characteristics of organic components and their origins. It also addresses the investigation of porosity, pore size and type from several perspectives to help us to define unconventional shale formation. All of these analyses are treated individually, but brought together to present the rock sample on a macro scale. This book is of interest to researchers and graduate students from various disciplines, such as petroleum, civil, and mechanical engineering, as well as from geoscience, geology, geochemistry and geophysics. The methods and approaches can be further extended to biology and medicine.
"Auzanneau has created a towering telling of a dark and dangerous addiction."-Nature The story of oil is one of hubris, fortune, betrayal, and destruction. It is the story of a resource that has been undeniably central to the creation of our modern culture, and ever-present during the darkest exploits of empire the world over. For the past 150 years, oil has become the most essential ingredient for economic, military, and political power. And it has brought us to our present moment in which political leaders and the fossil-fuel industry consider extraordinary, and extraordinarily dangerous, policy on a world stage marked by shifting power bases. Upending the conventional wisdom by crafting a "people's history," award-winning journalist Matthieu Auzanneau deftly traces how oil became a national and then global addiction, outlines the enormous consequences of that addiction, sheds new light on major historical and contemporary figures, and raises new questions about stories we thought we knew well: What really sparked the oil crises in the 1970s, the shift away from the gold standard at Bretton Woods, or even the financial crash of 2008? How has oil shaped the events that have defined our times: two world wars, the Cold War, the Great Depression, ongoing wars in the Middle East, the advent of neoliberalism, and the Great Recession, among them? With brutal clarity, Oil, Power, and War exposes the heavy hand oil has had in all of our lives-and illustrates how much heavier that hand could get during the increasingly desperate race to control the last of the world's easily and cheaply extractable reserves.
Full coverage of the expander machines used to extract power from waste fluid gas in the chemical process and refining industries
"Expanders for Chemical Process" describes the engineering analyses required to design and build expanders for particular applications. In an ever-increasing push toward energy conservation, sustainability, green manufacturing, and green chemistry, chemical plants are recovering waste fluid gas energy using expanders. This book explains how to harvest this energy to power other machines. In each case, there are unique conditions that require specialized design and applications. This timely guide offers complete details on expanders. Written by recognized world experts and engineers with experience in the design, application, operation, and troubleshooting of expanders Evaluates existing designs for various applications and considers design modifications and enhancements Covers materials of construction, flowpath configuration, rotor and blade designs, pressure casings, and auxiliaries such as bearings, seals, and cooling Discusses troubleshooting large, expensive equipment Describes the operating facilities in which expanders are applied
This dictionary provides a synthesis of information currently available but only in a diverse array of sources. Through judicious choice and careful scrutiny, the author has gathered together a very handy ready-reference in the same style as his companion volumes, Dictionary of Energy and Fuels and Dictionary of Fire Protection Engineering. Although the material covered is diverse, particular entries are focused and linked with each other so as to provide a good degree of comprehensiveness. For example, there is much information on well engineering including example calculations, and this is linked to wells at particular oil fields. There is also much on offshore production and again principles are linked, often by calculation, with particular offshore production platforms. The North Sea features, but not exclusively, and the vast bulk of the information presented is relevant to all locations. Commercial products, including those for oil well maintenance, are featured and information on the web from suppliers is expanded by drawing on the physics and chemistry of how such products work.
This book covers the state-of-the-art advances in several areas of energy, combustion, power, propulsion, and environment, focusing on the use of conventional and alternative fuels. It presents novel developments in the areas of biofuels and value added products from various feedstock materials, along with thermal management, emission control and environmental issues from energy conversion. Written by internationally renowned experts, the chapters in this volume cover the latest fundamental and applied research innovations on cleaner energy utilization for a wide range of devices extending from micro scale energy conversion to hypersonic propulsion using hydrocarbon fuels. The book will be useful as a ready reference for managers and practicing and research engineers, as well as graduate students and research organizations and institutions.
This book discusses different aspects of energy consumption and environmental pollution, describing in detail the various pollutants resulting from the utilization of natural resources and their control techniques. It discusses diagnostic techniques in a simple and easy-to-understand manner. It will be useful for engineers, agriculturists, environmentalists, ecologists and policy makers involved in area of pollutants from energy, environmental safety, and health sectors.
This book covers the exchange of greenhouse gases in various ecosystems, biomes and climatic zones, and discusses the measurement, modelling and processes involved in these exchange dynamics. It reflects the growing body of knowledge on the characterization, feedback processes and interaction of greenhouse gases with ecosystems and the impact of human activities. Offering a compilation of selected case studies prepared by international researchers working in the field, it represents a valuable resource for researchers and students alike.
This book is a product of the initial phase of a broader study evaluating the voluntary and regulatory compliance protocols that are used to account for the contributions of forests in U.S.-based greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation programs. The research presented here is particularly concerned with these protocols' use of the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to describe forest conditions, ownership, and management scenarios, and is oriented towards providing regulators and other interested parties with an objective comparison of the options, uncertainties, and opportunities available to offset GHG emissions through forest management. Chapters focus on the protocols for recognizing forest carbon offsets in the California carbon cap-and-trade program, as described in the Compliance Offset Protocol; U.S. Forest Projects (California Air Resources Board, 2011). Readers will discover the protocols used for quantifying the offset of GHG emissions through forest-related project activity. As such, its scope includes a review of the current methods used in voluntary and compliance forest protocols, an evaluation of the metrics used to assign baselines and determine additionality in the forest offset protocols, an examination of key quantitative and qualitative components and assumptions, and a discussion of opportunities for modifying forest offset protocols, in light of the rapidly changing GHG-related policy and regulatory environment. Finally, the report also discusses accounting and policy issues that create potential barriers to participation in the California cap-and-trade program, and overall programmatic additionality in addressing the needs of a mitigation strategy.
This edited volume discusses scientific and technological aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in national and international contexts. The search for oil for industrial uses began in the nineteenth century, the first drills made in Azerbaijan and the United States. This intense search for a substance to become one of the most important energy sources was, many times, based on skill as well as luck, resulting in knowledge and the development of prospecting and exploration technologies. The demand for oil improved expertise in geological science, in areas such as micropaleontology, stratigraphy or sedimentology and informed different disciplines such as geophysics. These contributions made possible not only the discovery of new oil fields but also new applications and methods of exploration. Beyond the scientific and technological aspects, an industry that grew to such considerable size also impacted the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and diplomatic issues in history. The book approaches these changes in different scales, countries, areas, and perspectives. This edited book appeals to researchers, student, practitioners in various fields from geology and geophysics to history. It is also an important resource for professionals in the oil and gas industry.
This book describes the scale and complexity of China's energy system, using Sankey diagrams to visualize the energy flows across the economy and categorizing the differences between provinces. China's provinces extend over a vast area and are at different stages of economic development. Regional planning and inter-regional optimization will be essential for planning a future infrastructure that will allow China as a whole to optimize and avoid overcapacity and inefficiency. In this context, it introduces a new energy systems modeling approach and demonstrates its application in the power sector. This power model can help optimize the overall design of the power system and reveal how different future investment choices, e.g. natural gas fired power, only emerge when details such as regional, seasonal and diurnal demand factors are considered. Lastly, it looks at options for mitigating carbon and the major role that renewables & natural gas could play, as well as carbon pricing.
A fully updated edition of a popular textbook covering the four disciplines of chemical technology?featuring new developments in the field Clear and thorough throughout, this textbook covers the major sub-disciplines of modern chemical technology?chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical reaction engineering, and general chemical technology?alongside raw materials, energy sources and detailed descriptions of 24 important industrial processes and products. It brings information on energy and raw material consumption and production data of chemicals up to date and offers not just improved and extended chapters, but completely new ones as well. This new edition of Chemical Technology: From Principles to Products features a new chapter illustrating the global economic map and its development from the 15th century until today, and another on energy consumption in human history. Chemical key technologies for a future sustainable energy system such as power-to-X and hydrogen storage are now also examined. Chapters on inorganic products, material reserves, and water consumption and resources have been extended, while another presents environmental aspects of plastic pollution and handling of plastic waste. The book also adds four important processes to its pages: production of titanium dioxide, silicon, production and chemical recycling of polytetrafluoroethylene, and fermentative synthesis of amino acids. -Provides comprehensive coverage of chemical technology?from the fundamentals to 24 of the most important processes -Intertwines the four disciplines of chemical technology: chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical reaction engineering and general chemical technology -Fully updated with new content on: power-to-X and hydrogen storage; inorganic products, including metals, glass, and ceramics; water consumption and pollution; and additional industrial processes -Written by authors with extensive experience in teaching the topic and helping students understand the complex concepts Chemical Technology: From Principles to Products, Second Edition is an ideal textbook for advanced students of chemical technology and will appeal to anyone in chemical engineering.
A new edition of this established text has been expanded and updated, treating this important field in a holistic manner. The structure of the previous book has been retained, but enhanced with new text and illustrations, and more numerical problems with a wider scope. Readers will find much on the background to the industry and details of such centrally important operations as refining, heat exchange, cracking, polymerisation and hydrogenation. There is a chapter on offshore matters, which includes some incidents that occurred since the first edition. National and international standards are considered as these relate to such things as site layout. The coverage of the fire and explosion behaviour of hydrocarbons has been extended, in particular in relation to flash points. The topic of leaked gas detection has been introduced, and there is considerable extension of the coverage of static electricity hazards. There is more on liquefied natural gas (LNG), including details of processes for its regasification. Natural gas condensate features, having grown considerably in importance since the first edition.Re-refining of crude oil products that have previously been used as lubricants or as hydraulic fluids has also experienced growth, and this too has its place in the book from the perspective of safety. Tight gas and coal bed methane feature, as does the controversial matter of hydraulic fracture to obtain them. The chemical processing chapter has been extended to include hydrocracking, hydrodesulphurisation and hydrodenitrogenation. The COMAH (Control of Major Accident Hazards) regulations are covered and sign conventions for hazards are explained with illustrations.
One principal need in petroleum recovery from carbonate reservoirs is the description of the three-dimensional distribution of petrophysical properties in order to improve performance predictions by means of fluid-flow computer simulations. The book focuses on a rock based approach for the integration of geological, petrophysical, and geostatistical methods to construct a reservoir model suitable to input into flow simulation programs. This second edition includes a new chapter on model construction and new examples of limestone, dolostone, and touching-vug reservoir models as well as improved chapters on basic petrophysical properties, rock-fabric/petrophysical relationships, calibration of wireline logs, and sequence stratigraphy.
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