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SHORTLISTED FOR THE ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE BOOK PRIZE 2018 Bestselling author Simon Winchester writes a magnificent history of the pioneering engineers who developed precision machinery to allow us to see as far as the moon and as close as the Higgs boson. Precision is the key to everything. It is an integral, unchallenged and essential component of our modern social, mercantile, scientific, mechanical and intellectual landscapes. The items we value in our daily lives - a camera, phone, computer, bicycle, car, a dishwasher perhaps - all sport components that fit together with precision and operate with near perfection. We also assume that the more precise a device the better it is. And yet whilst we live lives peppered and larded with precision, we are not, when we come to think about it, entirely sure what precision is, or what it means. How and when did it begin to build the modern world? Simon Winchester seeks to answer these questions through stories of precision's pioneers. Exactly takes us back to the origins of the Industrial Age, to Britain where he introduces the scientific minds that helped usher in modern production: John `Iron-Mad' Wilkinson, Henry Maudslay, Joseph Bramah, Jesse Ramsden, and Joseph Whitworth. Thomas Jefferson exported their discoveries to the United States as manufacturing developed in the early twentieth century, with Britain's Henry Royce developing the Rolls Royce and Henry Ford mass producing cars, Hattori's Seiko and Leica lenses, to today's cutting-edge developments from Europe, Asia and North America. As he introduces the minds and methods that have changed the modern world, Winchester explores fundamental questions. Why is precision important? What are the different tools we use to measure it? Who has invented and perfected it? Has the pursuit of the ultra-precise in so many facets of human life blinded us to other things of equal value, such as an appreciation for the age-old traditions of craftsmanship, art, and high culture? Are we missing something that reflects the world as it is, rather than the world as we think we would wish it to be? And can the precise and the natural co-exist in society?
This volume presents novel and innovative contributions in the domain specific to nanocomposites, specifically on aspects both related and relevant to the following: * science at the nanoscale level * innovations and advances in processing * characterization, quantification, and analysis * mechanical property evaluation and rationalization * failure analysis * technological applications at the nanoscale level The collection brings together a range of developments in areas spanning basic science, processing, analysis, characterization, mechanical property evaluation, and failure analysis rationalization of composite materials.
This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped (HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the ER of the different 2D HD quantized structures (quantum wells, inversion and accumulation layers, quantum well HD superlattices and nipi structures) under different physical conditions is discussed in detail. This monograph contains 100 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph.D aspirants and researchers in the fields of condensed matter physics, solid-state sciences, materials science, nano-science and technology and allied fields.
The fundamental principle of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics were introduced by Wang in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry in materials, such as the wurtzite structured ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. Owing to the simultaneous possession of piezoelectricity and semiconductor properties, the piezopotential created in the crystal has a strong effect on the carrier transport at the interface/junction. Piezotronics is for devices fabricated using the piezopotential as a "gate" voltage to control charge carrier transport at a contact or junction. The piezo-phototronic effect uses the piezopotential to control the carrier generation, transport, separation and/or recombination for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as photon detector, solar cell and LED. The functionality offered by piezotroics and piezo-phototronics are complimentary to CMOS technology. There is an effective integration of piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices with silicon based CMOS technology. Unique applications can be found in areas such as human-computer interfacing, sensing and actuating in nanorobotics, smart and personalized electronic signatures, smart MEMS/NEMS, nanorobotics and energy sciences. This book introduces the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics and advanced applications. It gives guidance to researchers, engineers and graduate students.
Between 1608 and 1610 the canopy of the night sky changed forever, ripped open by an object created almost by accident: a cylinder with lenses at both ends. Galileo's Telescope tells the story of how an ingenious optical device evolved from a toy-like curiosity into a precision scientific instrument, all in a few years. In transcending the limits of human vision, the telescope transformed humanity's view of itself and knowledge of the cosmos. Galileo plays a leading--but by no means solo--part in this riveting tale. He shares the stage with mathematicians, astronomers, and theologians from Paolo Sarpi to Johannes Kepler and Cardinal Bellarmine, sovereigns such as Rudolph II and James I, as well as craftsmen, courtiers, poets, and painters. Starting in the Netherlands, where a spectacle-maker created a spyglass with the modest magnifying power of three, the telescope spread like technological wildfire to Venice, Rome, Prague, Paris, London, and ultimately India and China. Galileo's celestial discoveries--hundreds of stars previously invisible to the naked eye, lunar mountains, and moons orbiting Jupiter--were announced to the world in his revolutionary treatise Sidereus Nuncius. Combining science, politics, religion, and the arts, Galileo's Telescope rewrites the early history of a world-shattering innovation whose visual power ultimately came to embody meanings far beyond the science of the stars.
This essential reference acquaints developers of medical devices with the basic concepts and major issues of medical quality assurance and regulatory documents, describes the requirements listed in these documents, and provides strategies for compliance with these requirements. Medical Device Quality Assurance and Regulatory Compliance summarizes regulation activities of the FDA, the European Economic Community, and the Global Harmonization Task Force shows how to choose a standard from the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series teaches how to prepare your company for auditing, how to choose a notified body, and how to survive the audit reviews standards dealing specifically with medical devices such as EN 46000, ISO 13485, and ISO 13488 discusses the requirements for product submittals prior to product introduction addresses current issues such as third party approvals and more Including numerous key references, tables, and drawings, Medical Device Quality Assurance and Regulatory Compliance is ideal for biomedical, quality assurance, reliability, software, product design, manufacturing, research and development, and industrial engineers; project managers; biomedical technicians; medical device purchasing personnel; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics - the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial robotics) are provided. Ideal for students and practitioners, this book provides readers with a clear path to understanding rigid body mechanics and its significance in numerous sub-fields of mechanical engineering and related areas.
This book covers the state of the art of laser micro- and nanotechnology. The physical fundamentals of different processes and the application are presented. The book deals with different materials like phase change and memory alloys, thin films, polymers etc. New phenomena and mechanisms of laser-matter interaction in nano-domains are explained. This book is helpful for students, postgraduates, engineers and researches working not only in the field of laser microtechnology but also in high-tech industry, like photonics, microelectronics, information technology.
The book presents cutting-edge research in the emerging fields of micro, nano and smart devices and systems from experts working in these fields over the last decade. Most of the contributors have built devices or systems or developed processes or algorithms in these areas. The book is a unique collection of chapters from different areas with a common theme and is immensely useful to academic researchers and practitioners in the industry who work in this field.
This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians, immunoengineers, immunologists and stem cell biologists, as it offers a review of the current cutting-edge cell engineering research at multiple length scale and will be valuable in developing new strategies for efficient scale-up and clinical translation.
This third edition provides revised and expanded protocols of consolidated approaches as well as new trends in the field. Chapters guide readers through new approaches to optimize Quantum Dots' (QD) properties, to evaluate their quantum yields, important features about preparative processes and characterizations of QDs, methods related to QDs for live cell applications, and the versatility of QDs in the bioanalytical and biosensing field. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Design of Pulse Oximeters describes the hardware and software needed to make a pulse oximeter, and includes the equations, methods, and software required for them to function effectively. The book begins with a brief description of how oxygen is delivered to the tissue, historical methods for measuring oxygenation, and the invention of the pulse oximeter in the early 1980s. Subsequent chapters explain oxygen saturation display and how to use an LED, provide a survey of light sensors, and review probes and cables. The book closes with an assessment of techniques that may be used to analyze pulse oximeter performance and a brief overview of pulse oximetry applications. The book contains useful worked examples, several worked equations, flow charts, and examples of algorithms used to calculate oxygen saturation. It also includes a glossary of terms, instructional objectives by chapter, and references to further reading.
This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems
The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
Why did Pythagoras pause outside a Blacksmith's workshop? Can the nature of Harmony really be understood visually? Why do harmonies leave gaps or 'commas' when added together? In this charming little book Anthony Ashton uses a Victorian device called a Harmonograph to tell the story of Harmony and the intervals in the scale. With useful appendices and exquisite line drawings this is a unique and original introduction to this magical subject. WOODEN BOOKS are small but packed with information. "Fascinating" FINANCIAL TIMES. "Beautiful" LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS. "Rich and Artful" THE LANCET. "Genuinely mind-expanding" FORTEAN TIMES. "Excellent" NEW SCIENTIST. "Stunning" NEW YORK TIMES. Small books, big ideas.
Ion beams have been used for decades for characterizing and analyzing materials. Now energetic ion beams are providing ways to modify the materials in unprecedented ways. This book highlights the emergence of high-energy swift heavy ions as a tool for tailoring the properties of materials with nanoscale structures. Swift heavy ions interact with materials by exciting/ionizing electrons without directly moving the atoms. This opens a new horizon towards the 'so-called' soft engineering. The book discusses the ion beam technology emerging from the non-equilibrium conditions and emphasizes the power of controlled irradiation to tailor the properties of various types of materials for specific needs.
This book focuses on the latest advances in the field of nanomaterials synthesis and processes, and provides a comprehensive overview of the state of art of research in this rapidly developing field. The book is divided into 11 chapters on various aspects of nanomaterials, moving from the synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide to graphene quantum dots and other interesting nanomaterials. Some chapters based on theoretical simulation of nanomaterials and their properties and applications of nanomaterials have also presented in this book. Given the depth and breadth of coverage, the book offers a valuable guide for researchers and students working in the area of nanomaterials.
Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal systems to tailor the physical properties via quantum effects, utilizing special growth techniques, self-assembling, wet chemical processes or lithographic tools in combination with tuneable external electric and magnetic fields. Such systems are called "Quantum Materials."The electronic, photonic, and phononic properties of these systems are governed by size quantization and discrete energy levels. The charging is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. The spin can be manipulated by the geometrical structure, external gates and by integrating hybrid ferromagnetic emitters.This book reviews sophisticated preparation methods for quantum materials based on III-V and II-VI semiconductors and a wide variety of experimental techniques for the investigation of these interesting systems. It highlights selected experiments and theoretical concepts and gives such a state-of-the-art overview about the wide field of physics and chemistry that can be studied in these systems.
Metallic quantum clusters belonging to intermediate size regime between two and few hundred of atoms, represent unique building blocks of new materials. Nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics of liganded silver and gold quantum clusters reveal remarkable features which can be tuned by size, structure and composition. The two-photon absorption cross sections of liganded noble metal quantum clusters are several orders of magnitude larger than that of commercially-available dyes. Therefore, the fundamental photophysical understanding of those two-photon processes in liganded clusters with few metal atoms deserve special attention, in particularly in context of finding the mechanisms responsible for these properties. A broad range of state-of-the-art experimental methods to determine nonlinear optical properties (i.e. two-photon absorption, two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation) of quantum clusters are presented. The experimental setup and underlying physical concepts are described. Furthermore, the theoretical models and corresponding approaches are used allowing to explain the experimental observations and simultaneously offering the possibility to deduce the key factors necessary to design new classes of nanoclusters with large NLO properties. Additionally, selected studied cases of liganded silver and gold quantum clusters with focus on their NLO properties will be presented as promising candidates for applications in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or Second-Harmonic Generation microscopy.
This book offers detailed insights into spin transfer torque (STT) based devices, circuits and memories. Starting with the basic concepts and device physics, it then addresses advanced STT applications and discusses the outlook for this cutting-edge technology. It also describes the architectures, performance parameters, fabrication, and the prospects of STT based devices. Further, moving from the device to the system perspective it presents a non-volatile computing architecture composed of STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices and demonstrates that efficient STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices can turn the dream of instant on/off non-volatile computing into reality.
Surface Engineering constitutes a variety of processes and sub processes. Each chapter of this work covers specific processes by experts working in the area. Included for each topic are tribological performances for each process as well as results of recent research. The reader also will benefit from in-depth studies of diffusion coatings, nanocomposite films for wear resistance, surfaces for biotribological applications, thin-film wear, tribology of thermal sprayed coatings, hardfacing, plating for tribology and high energy beam surface modifications. Material scientists as well as engineers working with surface engineering for tribology will be particularly interested in this work.
This book covers biological synthesis approaches for nanomaterials and nanoparticles, including introductory material on their structure, phase compositions and morphology, nanomaterials chemical, physical, and biological properties. The chapters of this book describe in sequence the synthesis of various nanoparticles by microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, algae, and actynomycetes; plant and plant extract-based synthesis; and green synthesis methods. Each chapter provides basic knowledge on the synthesis of nanomaterials, defines fundamental terms, and aims to build a solid foundation of knowledge, followed by explanations, examples, visual photographs, schemes, tables and illustrations. Each chapter also contains control questions, problem drills, as well as case studies that clarify theory and the explanations given in the text. This book is ideal for researchers and advanced graduate students in materials engineering, biotechnology, and nanotechnology fields. As a reference book this work is also appropriate for engineers in R&D and product manufacturing.
In this thesis, real-time evolution of the nanopore channel growth and self-ordering process in anodic nanoporous alumina are simulated on the basis of an established kinetics model. The simulation results were in accordance with the experiments on the (i) growth sustainability of pore channels guided by pre-patterns; and (ii) substrate grain orientation dependence on self-ordering. In addition, a new fabrication method for the rapid synthesis of highly self-ordered nanoporous alumina is established, based on a systematic search for the self-ordering conditions in experiments. Lastly, it reports on a novel surface-charge induced strain in nanoporous alumina-aluminium foils, which indicates that nanoporous alumina can be used as a new type of actuating material in micro-actuator applications.
This book presents cutting-edge research on the design and development of novel, advanced high-strength, light-weight materials via the incorporation of novel reinforcements, namely, metallic amorphous alloys/bulk metallic glasses (BMG), in light metal matrix composites (LMMCs) based on Al and Mg. The book begins with an introduction to conventional ceramic reinforced light metal matrix composites, along with the major drawbacks which limit their application. Metallic amorphous alloys/Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) are new class of metallic materials that are distinctly differently from conventional metals/alloys in terms of their structure and thermal behavior, and exhibit extremely high strength (1 to 2 GPa) and large elastic strain limit (1 to 2%). Given these unique properties, upon their incorporation into Al/Mg-matrices, they provide superior interfacial properties, i.e. high degree of compatibility with the matrix due to their metallic nature when compared to conventional ceramic reinforcements, and thereby significantly enhance the mechanical performance of LMMCs. Amorphous/BMG reinforced LMMCs is an emerging research field and the existing literature is meager. This book discusses the various processing methods that would be suitable for these novel materials. A comparison of mechanical properties and strengthening mechanisms of amorphous/BMG reinforced composites with those of conventional ceramic composites is presented. Future research directions and wider research potential of the novel materials are discussed, and prospective applications are highlighted. For ease of understanding and comparison, appropriate schematics, tables, and figures are provided.
The aim of this book is to present foundational research on the nano-crystallization, high-temperature modification, micro-structure evolution and plastic deformation induced by laser shock processing. In this regard, the focus is on heat-resistant steel, aluminum alloy, Ti alloys and Ni-based alloys, offering valuable scientific insights into the industrial applications of laser shock processing (LSP) technology. The book addresses various topics, i.e., the formation mechanism and productivity improvement of nano-crystalline diamond by laser processing, the surface integrity and fatigue lives of heat-resistant steels, Ti alloys and Ni-based alloys after LSP with different processing parameters, tensile properties and fractural morphology after LSP at different temperatures, strain-rates and grain refinement mechanisms based on the micro-structure evolution. Moreover, the effect of heating temperature and exposure time on stress thermal relaxation and the influence of compressive stress on the stress intensity factor of hole-edge cracks by high strain rate laser shock processing are also analyzed. A new type of statistical data model to describe the fatigue cracking growth with limited data is proposed based on the consideration of the effects of fracture growth on the reliability and confidence level. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates in the fields of nanotechnology and micro-engineering who are interested in the partial or overall strengthening of materials, especially those with a focus on surface integrity and fatigue life.
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