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SHORTLISTED FOR THE ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE BOOK PRIZE 2018 Bestselling author Simon Winchester writes a magnificent history of the pioneering engineers who developed precision machinery to allow us to see as far as the moon and as close as the Higgs boson. Precision is the key to everything. It is an integral, unchallenged and essential component of our modern social, mercantile, scientific, mechanical and intellectual landscapes. The items we value in our daily lives - a camera, phone, computer, bicycle, car, a dishwasher perhaps - all sport components that fit together with precision and operate with near perfection. We also assume that the more precise a device the better it is. And yet whilst we live lives peppered and larded with precision, we are not, when we come to think about it, entirely sure what precision is, or what it means. How and when did it begin to build the modern world? Simon Winchester seeks to answer these questions through stories of precision's pioneers. Exactly takes us back to the origins of the Industrial Age, to Britain where he introduces the scientific minds that helped usher in modern production: John `Iron-Mad' Wilkinson, Henry Maudslay, Joseph Bramah, Jesse Ramsden, and Joseph Whitworth. Thomas Jefferson exported their discoveries to the United States as manufacturing developed in the early twentieth century, with Britain's Henry Royce developing the Rolls Royce and Henry Ford mass producing cars, Hattori's Seiko and Leica lenses, to today's cutting-edge developments from Europe, Asia and North America. As he introduces the minds and methods that have changed the modern world, Winchester explores fundamental questions. Why is precision important? What are the different tools we use to measure it? Who has invented and perfected it? Has the pursuit of the ultra-precise in so many facets of human life blinded us to other things of equal value, such as an appreciation for the age-old traditions of craftsmanship, art, and high culture? Are we missing something that reflects the world as it is, rather than the world as we think we would wish it to be? And can the precise and the natural co-exist in society?
Watchmakers: The Masters of Art Horology gathers the work of the most celebrated independent watchmakers in the world. Thirteen artisans, each a legend in the realm of haute horlogerie, tell their stories, describing the traditional working methods and prized watches upon which their reputations have been built. Photographs of the masters in their workshops bring their stories to life, along with detailed sketches and images of their watches in all their brilliant intricacy. Watchmakers also features insightful text from other leading figures of the independent watchmaking world, including Aurel Bacs of the Fondation Haute Horlogerie and Nicholas Foulkes, writer for Vanity Fair, The Telegraph and GQ, and author of the only authorised biography of Patek Philippe.
This volume presents novel and innovative contributions in the domain specific to nanocomposites, specifically on aspects both related and relevant to the following: * science at the nanoscale level * innovations and advances in processing * characterization, quantification, and analysis * mechanical property evaluation and rationalization * failure analysis * technological applications at the nanoscale level The collection brings together a range of developments in areas spanning basic science, processing, analysis, characterization, mechanical property evaluation, and failure analysis rationalization of composite materials.
Despite the functional obsolescence of the mechanical wristwatch (our phones and computers tell more accurate time) the early 21st Century has seen a boom in the development, production, and appreciation of all things horological. Whether it is presented to the collector as an alternative investment, as a feat of micro-mechanical technology, or as a showcase of artisanal mastery, the mechanical wristwatch has never possessed more forms, functions or facets than it does today. The Wristwatch Handbook is written from the epicentre of a renaissance, a place in time between the Quartz revolution and the rise of the smart device - where the mechanical wristwatch is the antidote to the microprocessor and the permanent buzz of your inbox. From the multi-axis tourbillion, to the split-second chronograph, to the sidereal sky chart, The Wristwatch Handbook covers it all and does so with more than 470 rich illustrations from over 90 of the World's leading brands.The book is separated into two sections. The first section provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical movement.Its chapters explore power, transmission, distribution and regulation illustrating the basic concepts before considering the innovation and complexity that takes place further toward the cutting edge. From the fifty-day power reserve, to the constant force mechanism, and the 1,000Hz mechanical escapement, section 1 will allow the reader to understand and appreciate what is happening beneath the dial of their watch. Section two allows the reader to take this understanding and apply it to the vast range of complications (functions) that exist in modern horology. Each chapter showcases a distinct category of complication. For example, the regatta timer, pulsometer, and monopusher chronograph join a host of others in a chapter entitled 'Recording Lapses of Time'; The power reserve indicator, dynamograph, and crown position indicator are featured in a chapter for 'Power and Performance Indication'; The moon phase indicator, annual calendar, and planetarium can be found in the 'Astronomical Complications' chapter.Once the functional categories are exhausted, the final three chapters explore whimsical complications that have little regard for practical function, novelty time indication, and the 'super-complicated' watch - a rare breed of timepiece that houses an intimidating host of complications featured throughout the book. Upon completion of The Wristwatch Handbook the reader will be able to identify even the most exotic complication from across the room, and be able to share their appreciation and understanding of what makes it so useful and compelling. The Wristwatch Handbook is "brand agnostic", using only those watches that most aptly illustrate the given subject-matter. As a consequence the book places equal emphasis on the classic and the cutting edge, on watches produced in large volume or exclusive runs, by industry-leading technology or at the hand of a master. In doing so the book provides an unparalleled range of watches from over 90 brands, allowing the reader to determine for themselves which brands, complications, and styles they will build their collection from.
This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped (HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the ER of the different 2D HD quantized structures (quantum wells, inversion and accumulation layers, quantum well HD superlattices and nipi structures) under different physical conditions is discussed in detail. This monograph contains 100 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph.D aspirants and researchers in the fields of condensed matter physics, solid-state sciences, materials science, nano-science and technology and allied fields.
Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal systems to tailor the physical properties via quantum effects, utilizing special growth techniques, self-assembling, wet chemical processes or lithographic tools in combination with tuneable external electric and magnetic fields. Such systems are called "Quantum Materials."The electronic, photonic, and phononic properties of these systems are governed by size quantization and discrete energy levels. The charging is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. The spin can be manipulated by the geometrical structure, external gates and by integrating hybrid ferromagnetic emitters.This book reviews sophisticated preparation methods for quantum materials based on III-V and II-VI semiconductors and a wide variety of experimental techniques for the investigation of these interesting systems. It highlights selected experiments and theoretical concepts and gives such a state-of-the-art overview about the wide field of physics and chemistry that can be studied in these systems.
The fundamental principle of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics were introduced by Wang in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry in materials, such as the wurtzite structured ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. Owing to the simultaneous possession of piezoelectricity and semiconductor properties, the piezopotential created in the crystal has a strong effect on the carrier transport at the interface/junction. Piezotronics is for devices fabricated using the piezopotential as a "gate" voltage to control charge carrier transport at a contact or junction. The piezo-phototronic effect uses the piezopotential to control the carrier generation, transport, separation and/or recombination for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as photon detector, solar cell and LED. The functionality offered by piezotroics and piezo-phototronics are complimentary to CMOS technology. There is an effective integration of piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices with silicon based CMOS technology. Unique applications can be found in areas such as human-computer interfacing, sensing and actuating in nanorobotics, smart and personalized electronic signatures, smart MEMS/NEMS, nanorobotics and energy sciences. This book introduces the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics and advanced applications. It gives guidance to researchers, engineers and graduate students.
Three years ago, car designer Olivier Gamiette became fascinated with how watches work and began drawing them in his spare time. He started to educate himself on the different elements that watches possess and how to define their proportions. His goal was to not only draw credible and realistic watches, but also to have them tell time in ways he had never seen before. Thirty-four extraordinary concept watch designs later, Soon presents Gamiette's creations in all their 3D glory. Meet Sentinelle with its six rotating glass cylinders, - the futuristic Celerity with horn-like propellers, and Sublissime with its mesmerizing crisscrossing bands. You can discover these timepieces and the magic each one holds through Gamiette's thoughtful watch descriptions, in-depth design tutorials, and, above all, his conceptual masterpieces.
Between 1608 and 1610 the canopy of the night sky changed forever, ripped open by an object created almost by accident: a cylinder with lenses at both ends. Galileo's Telescope tells the story of how an ingenious optical device evolved from a toy-like curiosity into a precision scientific instrument, all in a few years. In transcending the limits of human vision, the telescope transformed humanity's view of itself and knowledge of the cosmos. Galileo plays a leading--but by no means solo--part in this riveting tale. He shares the stage with mathematicians, astronomers, and theologians from Paolo Sarpi to Johannes Kepler and Cardinal Bellarmine, sovereigns such as Rudolph II and James I, as well as craftsmen, courtiers, poets, and painters. Starting in the Netherlands, where a spectacle-maker created a spyglass with the modest magnifying power of three, the telescope spread like technological wildfire to Venice, Rome, Prague, Paris, London, and ultimately India and China. Galileo's celestial discoveries--hundreds of stars previously invisible to the naked eye, lunar mountains, and moons orbiting Jupiter--were announced to the world in his revolutionary treatise Sidereus Nuncius. Combining science, politics, religion, and the arts, Galileo's Telescope rewrites the early history of a world-shattering innovation whose visual power ultimately came to embody meanings far beyond the science of the stars.
This essential reference acquaints developers of medical devices with the basic concepts and major issues of medical quality assurance and regulatory documents, describes the requirements listed in these documents, and provides strategies for compliance with these requirements. Medical Device Quality Assurance and Regulatory Compliance summarizes regulation activities of the FDA, the European Economic Community, and the Global Harmonization Task Force shows how to choose a standard from the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series teaches how to prepare your company for auditing, how to choose a notified body, and how to survive the audit reviews standards dealing specifically with medical devices such as EN 46000, ISO 13485, and ISO 13488 discusses the requirements for product submittals prior to product introduction addresses current issues such as third party approvals and more Including numerous key references, tables, and drawings, Medical Device Quality Assurance and Regulatory Compliance is ideal for biomedical, quality assurance, reliability, software, product design, manufacturing, research and development, and industrial engineers; project managers; biomedical technicians; medical device purchasing personnel; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics - the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial robotics) are provided. Ideal for students and practitioners, this book provides readers with a clear path to understanding rigid body mechanics and its significance in numerous sub-fields of mechanical engineering and related areas.
This book describes methodologies in the design of VLSI devices, circuits and their applications at nanoscale levels. The book begins with a discussion on the dominant role of power in highly scaled devices and circuits. The 15 chapters of the book are classified under four sections that cover design, modeling, and simulation of electronic, magnetic and compound semiconductors for their applications in VLSI devices, circuits, and systems. This comprehensive volume eloquently presents the design methodologies for ultra-low power VLSI design, potential post-CMOS devices and circuits, and their applications from the architectural and system perspective. The book shall serve as an invaluable reference book for the graduate students, Ph.D./ M.S./ M.Tech. Scholars, researchers, and practicing engineers working in the frontier areas of nanoscale VLSI design.
This book covers the state of the art of laser micro- and nanotechnology. The physical fundamentals of different processes and the application are presented. The book deals with different materials like phase change and memory alloys, thin films, polymers etc. New phenomena and mechanisms of laser-matter interaction in nano-domains are explained. This book is helpful for students, postgraduates, engineers and researches working not only in the field of laser microtechnology but also in high-tech industry, like photonics, microelectronics, information technology.
The book presents cutting-edge research in the emerging fields of micro, nano and smart devices and systems from experts working in these fields over the last decade. Most of the contributors have built devices or systems or developed processes or algorithms in these areas. The book is a unique collection of chapters from different areas with a common theme and is immensely useful to academic researchers and practitioners in the industry who work in this field.
This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians, immunoengineers, immunologists and stem cell biologists, as it offers a review of the current cutting-edge cell engineering research at multiple length scale and will be valuable in developing new strategies for efficient scale-up and clinical translation.
Chronomaster Aviator Sea Diver: this singular name belongs to one of the most original professional watches of the 1960s, combining an unparalleled number of functions with a timeless design. Created in 1961, this chronograph was produced for around ten years under several brand names, through a partnership between the Swiss company NIVADA SA and the American firm CROTON WATCH CO. This led to some of its dials bearing probably the most complicated name in watchmaking history: CROTON NIVADA GRENCHEN Chronomaster Aviator Sea Diver. Thanks to the authors' trademark rigorous methodology, the signature of the 'ONLY' reference works, this book reveals the incredible diversity of the Chronomaster models. It is intended both as an initiation for connoisseurs of exceptional watches and as a reference guide for collectors. This legendary watch will doubtless thus regain the place it deserves among the most desirable 1960s chronographs.
This third edition provides revised and expanded protocols of consolidated approaches as well as new trends in the field. Chapters guide readers through new approaches to optimize Quantum Dots' (QD) properties, to evaluate their quantum yields, important features about preparative processes and characterizations of QDs, methods related to QDs for live cell applications, and the versatility of QDs in the bioanalytical and biosensing field. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Design of Pulse Oximeters describes the hardware and software needed to make a pulse oximeter, and includes the equations, methods, and software required for them to function effectively. The book begins with a brief description of how oxygen is delivered to the tissue, historical methods for measuring oxygenation, and the invention of the pulse oximeter in the early 1980s. Subsequent chapters explain oxygen saturation display and how to use an LED, provide a survey of light sensors, and review probes and cables. The book closes with an assessment of techniques that may be used to analyze pulse oximeter performance and a brief overview of pulse oximetry applications. The book contains useful worked examples, several worked equations, flow charts, and examples of algorithms used to calculate oxygen saturation. It also includes a glossary of terms, instructional objectives by chapter, and references to further reading.
This book describes the main approaches for production and synthesis of nanostructured metals and alloys, taking into account the fatigue behavior of materials in additive manufactured components. Depending on the material type, form, and application, a deep discussion of fatigue properties and crack behavior is also provided. Pure nanostructured metals, complex alloys and composites are further considered. Prof. Cavaliere's examination is supported by the most up-to-date understanding from the scientific literature along with a thorough presentation of theory. Bringing together the widest range of perspective on its topic, the book is ideal for materials researchers, professional engineers in industry, and students interested in nanostructured materials, fracture/fatigue mechanics, and additive manufacturing. Describes in detail the relevance of nanostructures in additive manufacturing technologies; Includes sufficient breadth and depth on theoretical modelling of fatigue and crack behavior for use in the classroom; Identifies many open questions regarding different theories through experimental finding; Contextualizes the latest scientific results for readers in industry.
For Neophytes - to learn the fundamentals, and appreciate the main features of a model, its qualities and weaknesses. For amateurs - to create the desire to know more about fine watches. For connoisseurs - to revise important concepts and even increase their knowledge. This new edition includes new illustrations. What is a beautiful watch? How do you make a good choice? The Magic of Watches explains how and why these little objects are so precious, fascinating and exciting. The book presents paradoxes: why a one-million-dollar watch might be less precise and more fragile than one that costs 15 dollars. It comes back to the origins of the measurement of time: how did we go from the water clock to the wristwatch? The book goes on to technique: how does a mechanical movement work? How does a quartz one work?; delves into details: what is a 'complication' and when do we speak about 'chronometer'?; showcases art: how do we enamel a dial? The Magic of Watches is unique: it focuses in detail on the basics in order to understand and love watches better.
This book explores emerging topics in atomic- and nano-scale electronics after the era of Moore's Law, covering both the physical principles behind, and technological implementations for many devices that are now expected to become key elements of the future of nanoelectronics beyond traditional complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). Moore's law is not a physical law itself, but rather a visionary prediction that has worked well for more than 50 years but is rapidly coming to its end as the gate length of CMOS transistors approaches the length-scale of only a few atoms. Thus, the key question here is: "What is the future for nanoelectronics beyond CMOS?" The possible answers are found in this book. Introducing novel quantum devices such as atomic-scale electronic devices, ballistic devices, memristors, superconducting devices, this book also presents the reader with the physical principles underlying new ways of computing, as well as their practical implementation. Topics such as quantum computing, neuromorphic computing are highlighted here as some of the most promising candidates for ushering in a new era of atomic-scale electronics beyond CMOS.
How can you tell a fake watch from a real one? Where are fakes made? What grades of quality can one find among so-called "replicas"? How can one buy a watch on the internet? How can one avoid fraudulent copies? These are just some of the questions to which any wristwatch enthusiast needs to find answers in an era when counterfeiting luxury products has become an industry in its own right. This book, of which the greater part is devoted to the most prestigious watch brands, provides readers with vital information on identifying fakes. It aims to ensure that buying a watch from a private individual, from a professional or on the internet (the global hub for the sale of fake watches) does not turn out to be a nightmare! Illustrated with over 500 photos, the differences between original and counterfeit models are exposed in detail (mechanisms, dials, bracelets, etc.). To our knowledge, no other work of this type has been published to date, doubtless due to the explosive nature of this fascinating topic.
This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems
The tenth anniversary edition of the dramatic human story of an epic scientific quest: the search for the solution of how to calculate longitude and the unlikely triumph of an English genius. With a new Foreword by the celebrated astronaut Neil Armstrong. `Sobel has done the impossible and made horology sexy - no mean feat' New Scientist Anyone alive in the 18th century would have known that `the longitude problem' was the thorniest scientific dilemma of the day - and had been for centuries. Lacking the ability to measure their longitude, sailors throughout the great ages of exploration had been literally lost at sea as soon as they lost sight of land. Thousands of lives, and the increasing fortunes of nations, hung on a resolution. The quest for a solution had occupied scientists and their patrons for the better part of two centuries when, in 1714, Parliament upped the ante by offering a king's ransom (GBP20,000) to anyone whose method or device proved successful. Countless quacks weighed in with preposterous suggestions. The scientific establishment throughout Europe - from Galileo to Sir Isaac Newton - had mapped the heavens in both hemispheres in its certain pursuit of a celestial answer. In stark contrast, one man, John Harrison, dared to imagine a mechanical solution. Full of heroism and chicanery, brilliance and the absurd, LONGITUDE is also a fascinating brief history of astronomy, navigation and clockmaking.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
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