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For one-semester, undergraduate-level courses in Optoelectronics and Photonics, in the departments of electrical engineering, engineering physics, and materials science and engineering. This text takes a fresh look at the enormous developments in electo-optic devices and associated materials-such as Pockels (Lithium Niobate) modulators.
Metamaterials have established themselves as one of the most important topics in physics and engineering, and have found practical application across a wide variety of fields including photonics, condensed matter physics, materials science, and biological and medical physics. This modern and self-contained text delivers a pedagogical treatment of the topic, rooted within the fundamental principles of nanophotonics. A detailed and unified description of metamaterials and metasurfaces is developed, beginning with photonic crystals and their underlying electromagnetic properties before introducing plasmonic effects and key metamaterial configurations. Recent developments in research are also presented along with cutting-edge applications in the field. This advanced textbook will be invaluable to students and researchers working in the fields of optics and nanophotonics.
This comprehensive and self-contained text presents the fundamentals of optical imaging from the viewpoint of both ray and wave optics, within a single volume. Comprising three distinct parts, it opens with an introduction to electromagnetic theory, including electromagnetic diffraction problems and how they can be solved with the aid of standard numerical methods such as RCWA or FDTD. The second part is devoted to the basic theory of geometrical optics and the study of optical aberrations inherent in imaging systems, including large-scale telescopes and high-resolution projection lenses. A detailed overview of state-of-the-art optical system design provides readers with the necessary tools to successfully use commercial optical design software. The final part explores diffraction theory and concludes with vectorial wave propagation, image formation and image detection in high-aperture imaging systems. The wide-ranging perspective of this important book provides researchers and professionals with a comprehensive and rigorous treatise on the theoretical and applied aspects of optical imaging.
An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
'Rana el Kaliouby's vision for how technology should work in parallel with empathy is bold, inspired and hopeful' Arianna Huffington, founder and CEO of Thrive Global 'This lucid and captivating book by a renowned pioneer of emotion-AI tackles one of the most pressing issues of our time: How can we ensure a future where this technology empowers rather than surveils and manipulates us?' Max Tegmark, professor of physics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and author of Life 3.0 We are entering an empathy crisis. Most of our communication is conveyed through non-verbal cues - facial expressions, tone of voice, body language - nuances that are completely lost when we interact through our smartphones and other technology. The result is a digital universe that's emotion-blind - a society lacking in empathy. Rana el Kaliouby discovered this when she left Cairo, a newly-married, Muslim woman, to take up her place at Cambridge University to study computer science. Many thousands of miles from home, she began to develop systems to help her better connect with her family. She started to pioneer the new field of Emotional Intelligence (EI). She now runs her company, Affectiva (the industry-leader in this emerging field) that builds EI into our technology and develops systems that understand humans the way we understand one another. In a captivating memoir, Girl Decoded chronicles el Kaliouby's mission to humanise technology and what she learns about humanity along the way.
"Jay Gao's book on the analysis of remote sensing imagery is a well-written, easy-to-read, and informative text best serving graduate students in geosciences, and practitioners in the field of digital image analysis. Although Dr. Gao states that he has targeted his book at upper-level undergraduates and lower-level postgraduate students, its rigor and depth of mathematical analysis would challenge most students without prior experience in remote sensing and college-level mathematics. The book covers a lot of ground quickly, beginning with a basic explanation of pixels, digital numbers and histograms and advancing rapidly through a description of the most well-known satellite systems to data storage formats, rectification and classification. It best serves students who have already taken an introductory course in remote sensing. Following a three-chapter description of the basics the remaining eleven chapters are dedicated to the description of the most common image processing systems and the details of the image analysis functions which can be carried out. The largest portion of the text covers classification - spectral and spatial, neural networks, decision trees and expert systems - and is an invaluable reference to anyone interested in understanding image analysis terminology and the algorithms behind these different systems. The last chapter of the text is addressed to practitioners wishing to integrate remote sensing image data with GIS and/or GPS data. The text is nicely structured so that individual chapters can easily be skipped when their content is not of interest to the reader without impairing the understanding of later chapters.
"The first three chapters of the book cover introductory material that the reader should be familiar with for the most part, but also includes a very handy summary of today's satellite systems. Chapter one addresses basic material, such as pixel DN, coordinates, feature space, histograms, and spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution normally covered in an introductory course in remote sensing. Chapter two presents a very informative and up-to-date overview of today's satellite instruments including meteorological, oceanographic, earth resources, hyperspectral and radar instruments. Instrument and orbital parameters are presented in tabular form and make it easy to look up technical details such as spectral and spatial resolution, orbit type, repeat cycle and other instrument characteristics quickly. Written explanations are clear, readable and provide lots of interesting insight and useful tidbits of information such as potential problems and the cost of imagery. For technicians and programmers the third chapter provides details on storage formats, including descriptions of BSQ, BIL and BIP binary formats, and the most common graphics formats like GIF, TIFF and JPEG together with data compression techniques. Non-technicians can skip this chapter since image processing software will generally take care of format conversions internally without a need for understanding the nuances of each.
"Chapters four will be of interest to anyone considering the purchase of image processing software, or trying to understand the differences between systems. Gao provides a useful overview of existing software - IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, ENVI, ER Mapper, PCI, eCognition and GRASS. A brief history of each provides useful background, and a discussion of the features of each together with a comparison (also given in tabular form) is informative to anyone considering a purchase.
"Chapter five can also be viewed as a stand-alone reference on rectification, but also serves as an excellent overview of the problems of dealing with mapping on a curved surface and has particular application for geographers and cartographers. It discusses the sources of geometric distortion, coordinated systems and projections, how image rectification is done - including the use of ground control points and implications for the order of transformation employed. There is a nice example showing how accuracy is influenced by the number of GCPs employed for SPOT and Landsat TM. For non-technical students the transformation mathematics can be skipped. A rather minimal section on image subsetting and mosaicking is included. Chapter six continues in much the same vein as the previous chapter, but discussing image enhancement - techniques that improve the visual quality of an image. The terms introduced here, such as density slicing, linear enhancement, stretching, and histogram equalization, will be familiar to users of image processing software and Gao provides a useful explanation of each in turn. Other application-oriented utilities such as band ratioing, vegetation indices, IHS and Tasseled Cap transformations and principal component analysis are presented in a form which is understandable to students with good mathematical grounding.
"The remainder of the text deals, to a large extent, with the topic of classification. Chapter seven initially discusses elements of image interpretation, but then devotes the chapter to a detailed presentation of the most common (and affordable) of these - spectral analysis. Gao presents the different algorithms used to define spectral distance, and then devotes text to a discussion of the inner workings of unsupervised classification systems. The section on supervised classification is a very useful reference for anyone undertaking this process - describing how to set about the classification process, the differences between the different classifiers, and how to choose an appropriate one. The concepts of fuzzy logic and sub-pixels classifiers are also presented briefly.
"From this point on, the text becomes much more specialized and technical and is geared towards graduate students, those carrying out research projects, and those interested in algorithmic detail. Chapter 8 is the first dealing with artificial intelligence and describes th
This is a comprehensive guide to the characteristics and use of high resolution optical images from satellite-borne sensors, concentrating on sensors designed for mapping. It considers in detail the SPOT series of satellites and sensors with a ground sample distance (GSD) of less than 15m, operational since SPOT 1 and particularly the commercial sensors launched since 1999 with GSD of less than 1m The book explains to students, anyone working in map production and scientists working in fields other than mapping, the way in which high resolution imagery is obtained and the issues which surround its collection and use. It deals progressively with the fundamentals of mapping from imagery, followed by the key features in the design of sensors and methods of data storage and transmission, including data compression. Subsequent chapters cover the sensors, calibration, sensor models and the methods of determining the orientation elements and extracting coordinates from the images. Rigorous orientation, use of rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) and approximate methods are covered.Results from tests showing the accuracy which can be obtained, generation of digital elevations models, their accuracy and the production of orthoimages are included, as are image processing and data fusion. Finally, future missions and the issues which face further development are discussed. High Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery is written by a team of acknowledged international experts and is the only comprehensive text on the subject.
Because of their high noise immunity and low static power supply drain, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices produce less heat than other forms of logic and allow a high density of logic functions on a chip. These beneficial characteristics have fueled the use of CMOS image sensors in consumer electronics, robot vision, biotechnology, and medicine. With the introduction of smart functions in CMOS image sensors, even more versatile applications are now possible. Exploring this popular technology, Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications focuses on the smart functions implemented in CMOS image sensors as well as the applications of these sensors. After discussing the history of smart CMOS image sensors, the book describes the fundamental elements of CMOS image sensors. It covers some optoelectronic device physics and introduces typical CMOS image sensor structures, such as an active pixel sensor (APS). Subsequent chapters elucidate the functions and materials of smart CMOS image sensors and present examples of smart imaging. The final chapter explores various applications of smart CMOS image sensors. Several appendices supply a range of information on constants, illuminance, MOSFET characteristics, and optical resolution. This book provides a firm foundation in existing smart CMOS image sensor technology and applications, preparing you for the next phase of smart CMOS image sensors.
The second edition of Rad Tech's Guide to MRI provides practicing and training technologists with a succinct overview of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Designed for quick reference and examination preparation, this pocket-size guide covers the fundamental principles of electromagnetism, MRI equipment, data acquisition and processing, image quality and artifacts, MR Angiography, Diffusion/Perfusion, and more. Written by an expert practitioner and educator, this handy reference guide: Provides essential MRI knowledge in a single portable, easy-to-read guide Covers instrumentation and MRI hardware components, including gradient and radio-frequency subsystems Provides techniques to handle flow imaging issues and improve the quality of MRIs Explains the essential physics underpinning MRI technology Rad Tech's Guide to MRI is a must-have resource for student radiographers, especially those preparing for the American Registry of Radiation Technologist (ARRT) exams, as well as practicing radiology technologists looking for a quick reference guide.
This book is a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in modern ophthalmic optics. It makes use of the powerful matrix formalism to describe curvature and power, providing a unified view of the optical and geometrical properties of lenses. This unified approach is applicable to the design and properties of not only spectacle lenses, but also contact and intraocular lenses (IOL). The newest developments in lens design, manufacturing and testing are discussed, with an emphasis on the description of free-form technology, which has surpassed traditional manufacturing methods and allows digital lenses to be specifically designed with the unique requirements of the user. Other important topics which are covered include modern lens materials, up-to-date lens measuring techniques, contact and intraocular lenses, progressive power lenses, low vision aids, ocular protection and coatings. Providing a broad overview of recent developments in the field, it is ideal for researchers, manufacturers and practitioners involved in ophthalmic optics.
A state-of-the-art review of key topics in medical image perception science and practice, including associated techniques, illustrations and examples. This second edition contains extensive updates and substantial new content. Written by key figures in the field, it covers a wide range of topics including signal detection, image interpretation and advanced image analysis (e.g. deep learning) techniques for interpretive and computational perception. It provides an overview of the key techniques of medical image perception and observer performance research, and includes examples and applications across clinical disciplines including radiology, pathology and oncology. A final chapter discusses the future prospects of medical image perception and assesses upcoming challenges and possibilities, enabling readers to identify new areas for research. Written for both newcomers to the field and experienced researchers and clinicians, this book provides a comprehensive reference for those interested in medical image perception as means to advance knowledge and improve human health.
"Furnishes table of nonlinear optical properties of organic substances as well as experimental procedures for measuring the nonlinearity of the elements tabulated, including composite materials-offering support for scientists and engineers involved in characterizing, optimizing, and producing materials for manufacturing optical devices."
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. An enlightening guide to optics Are you in the dark when it comes to understanding the science of optics? Now there's a glimmer in the gloom! Optics Demystified brings this challenging topic into focus. Written in an easy-to-follow format, this practical guide begins by covering the nature of light, the electromagnetic spectrum, reflection, refraction, and color dispersion. You'll move on to common optical devices and effects, lasers, and optical data transmission technology. Industrial, medical, and military applications are discussed, as are exotic optics such as holography. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce learning. It's a no-brainer! You'll get: Explanations of the particle and wave theories Analysis of optical microscopes and telescopes Functional details of fiber optics A sampling of optical illusions A time-saving approach to performing better on an exam or at work Simple enough for a beginner but challenging enough for an advanced student, Optics Demystified illuminates this vital physics topic.
This book explores recursive architectures in designing progressive hyperspectral imaging algorithms. In particular, it makes progressive imaging algorithms recursive by introducing the concept of Kalman filtering in algorithm design so that hyperspectral imagery can be processed not only progressively sample by sample or band by band but also recursively via recursive equations. This book can be considered a companion book of author's books, Real-Time Progressive Hyperspectral Image Processing, published by Springer in 2016.
This is the textbook and reference resource that instructors, students, and researchers in biomedical optics have been waiting for. Comprehensive and up to date, it covers a broad range of areas in biomedical optics, from light interactions at the single-photon and single-biomolecule levels, to the diffusion regime of light propagation in tissue. Subjects covered include spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence, Raman, infrared, near-infrared, and elastic scattering), imaging techniques (diffuse optical tomography, photoacoustic imaging, several forms of modern microscopy, and optical coherence tomography), and laser-tissue interactions, including optical tweezers. Topics are developed from the fundamental principles of physical science, with intuitive explanations, while rigorous mathematical formalisms of theoretical treatments are also provided. For each technique, descriptions of relevant instrumentation and examples of biomedical applications are outlined, and each chapter benefits from references and suggested resources for further reading, and exercise problems with answers to selected problems.
Understand the fundamental concepts, theoretical background, major experimental observations, and device applications of graphene photonics with this self-contained text. Systematically and rigorously developing each concept and theoretical model from the ground up, it guides readers through the major topics, from basic properties and band structure to electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and nonlinear optical properties, and plasmonics and photonic devices. The connections between theory, modeling, experiment, and device concepts are demonstrated throughout, and every optical process is analyzed through formal electromagnetic analysis. Suitable for both self-study and a one-semester or one-quarter course, this is the ideal text for graduate students and researchers in photonics, optoelectronics, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and optical and solid-state physics, who are working in this rapidly developing field.
The Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics provides fast, up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide fields of optics and lasers. It is written for daily use in the office or laboratory and offers explanatory text, data, and references needed for anyone working with lasers and optical instruments.
Each chapter or section is authored by respected experts and contains the basic principles, applications and latest information in the field. Among the subjects covered are geometrical and wave optics, linear and nonlinear optics, optical materials and components, detectors, incoherent and all essential types of coherent light sources, generation of ultrashort pulses, spectroscopic techniques, laser safety as well as current trends in such modern areas as quantum optics, femto- and attosecond physics, and nanooptics as well as optics beyond the diffraction limit.
This new edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially 4 new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs and Interferometry reflect the changes since the first edition.
In addition, major complete updates for the chapters: Optical
Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics,
andOptics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit
The handbook is written and compiled for physicists, engineers and other scientists at universities and in industrial research who develop and use optical techniques.
The first book to summarize the applications of CAFM as the most important method in the study of electronic properties of materials and devices at the nanoscale. To provide a global perspective, the chapters are written by leading researchers and application scientists from all over the world and cover novel strategies, configurations and setups where new information will be obtained with the help of CAFM. With its substantial content and logical structure, this is a valuable reference for researchers working with CAFM or planning to use it in their own fields of research.
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.
With the demands of quality management and process control in an industrial environment machine vision is becoming an important issue. This handbook of machine vision is written by experts from leading companies in this field. It goes through all aspects of image acquisition and image processing. From the viewpoint of the industrial application the authors also elucidate in topics like illumination or camera calibration. Attention is paid to all hardware aspects, starting from lenses and camera systems to camera-computer interfaces. Besides the detailed hardware descriptions the necessary software is discussed with equal profoundness. This includes sections on digital image basics as well as image analysis and image processing. Finally the user is introduced to general aspects of industrial applications of machine vision, such as case studies and strategies for the conception of complete machine vision systems. With this handbook the reader will be enabled not only to understand up to date systems for machine vision but will also be qualified for the planning and evaluation of such technology.
With full color throughout, this unique text provides an accessible yet rigorous introduction to the basic principles, technology, and applications of nanophotonics. It explains key physical concepts such as quantum confinement in semiconductors, light confinement in metal and dielectric nanostructures, and wave coupling in nanostructures, and describes how they can be applied in lighting sources, lasers, photonic circuitry, and photovoltaic systems. Readers will gain an intuitive insight into the commercial implementation of nanophotonic components, in both current and potential future devices, as well as challenges facing the field. The fundamentals of semiconductor optics, optical material properties, and light propagation are included, and new and emerging fields such as colloidal photonics, Si-based photonics, nanoplasmonics, and bioinspired photonics are all discussed. This is the 'go-to' guide for graduate students and researchers in electrical engineering who are interested in nanophotonics, and students taking nanophotonics courses.
This invaluable practical guide shows how to set up working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses and projecting systems, then shows how to conduct experiments for determining accuracy, resolving power, identifying aberration, and more. Only elementary mathematics required. Index. 234 diagrams.
So far there does not exist any theory of adaptive spatial signal processing (ASSP) for signals with uncertain parameters. This monograph is devoted to the development of this theory, which is very important in connection with wide spreading of telecommunications and radio links in the modern society. This theory can be applied for the development of effective radio communications. In the book some original approaches are proposed targeting the development of effective algorithms of ASSP with not exactly known parameters. They include both probabilistic and deterministic approaches for synthesis of robust algorithms of ASSP. The solution of problems also can be reduced to the construction of some operators for the Banach space which is presented in the book. "Methods of Signal Processing for Adaptive Antenna Arrays" targets professionals, students and PhD students in the area of telecommunications and should be useful for everybody connected with the new information technologies.
This fully updated, self-contained textbook covering modern optical microscopy equips students with a solid understanding of the theory underlying a range of advanced techniques. Two new chapters cover pump-probe techniques, and imaging in scattering media, and additional material throughout covers light-sheet microscopy, image scanning microscopy, and much more. An array of practical techniques are discussed, from classical phase contrast and confocal microscopy, to holographic, structured illumination, multi-photon, and coherent Raman microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Fundamental topics are also covered, including Fourier optics, partial coherence, 3D imaging theory, statistical optics, and the physics of scattering and fluorescence. With a wealth of end-of-chapter problems, and a solutions manual for instructors available online, this is an invaluable book for electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and physics students taking graduate courses on optical microscopy, as well as advanced undergraduates, professionals, and researchers looking for an accessible introduction to the field.
This book presents a complete and accurate study of algebraic circuits, digital circuits whose performance can be associated with any algebraic structure. The authors distinguish between basic algebraic circuits, such as Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) andcellular automata and algebraic circuits, such as finite fields or Galois fields.
The book includes a comprehensive review of representation systems, of arithmetic circuits implementing basic and more complex operations and of the residue number systems (RNS). It presents a study of basic algebraic circuits such as LFSRs and cellular automata as well as a study of circuits related to Galois fields, including two real cryptographic applications of Galois fields."
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