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Exam Board: Edexcel Level: A level Subject: History First teaching: September 2015 First exams: June 2017 This book: covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities provides assessment support for both AS and A level with sample answers, sources, practice questions and guidance to help you tackle the new-style exam questions. It also comes with three years' access to ActiveBook, an online, digital version of your textbook to help you personalise your learning as you go through the course - perfect for revision.
Who was the real Marie-Antoinette? She was mistrusted and reviled in her own time, and today she is portrayed as a lightweight incapable of understanding the events that engulfed her. In this new account, John Hardman redresses the balance and sheds fresh light on Marie-Antoinette's story. Hardman shows how Marie-Antoinette played a significant but misunderstood role in the crisis of the monarchy. Drawing on new sources, he describes how, from the outset, Marie-Antoinette refused to prioritize the aggressive foreign policy of her mother, Maria-Theresa, bravely took over the helm from Louis XVI after the collapse of his morale, and, when revolution broke out, listened to the Third Estate and worked closely with repentant radicals to give the constitutional monarchy a fighting chance. For the first time, Hardman demonstrates exactly what influence Marie-Antoinette had and when and how she exerted it.
The European Union (EU) stands out as a fascinatingly unique political organisation. On the one hand, it has shown the potential for developing deep and wide-ranging cooperation between member states, going far beyond that found anywhere else in the world. On the other, it is currently in the throes of a phase of profound uncertainty about its viability and future. Showing how and why the EU has developed from 1950 to the present day, this Very Short Introduction covers a range of topics, including the Union's early history, the workings of its institutions and what they do, the interplay between 'eurosceptics' and federalists, and the role of the Union beyond Europe in international affairs and as a peace-keeper. In this fully updated fourth edition, Pinder and Usherwood cover the migrant crisis and the UK's decision to leave the Union, set in the context of a body that is now involved in most areas of public policy. Discussing how the EU continues to draw in new members, they conclude by considering the future of the Union and the choices and challenges that may lie ahead. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
To its many tourists and visitors, the Tuscan landscape evokes a sense of timelessness and harmony. Yet, the upheavals of the twentieth century profoundly reshaped rural Tuscany. Uncovering the experiences of ordinary people, Professor Gaggio traces the history of Tuscany to show how the region's modern conflicts and aspirations have contributed to forging its modern-day beauty. He demonstrates how the rise of Fascism was particularly violent in rural Tuscany, and how struggles between Communist sharecroppers and their landlords raged long after the end of the dictatorship. The flight from the farms in the 1950s and 1960s disorientated many Tuscans, prompting ambitious development projects, and in more recent decades the emergence of the heritage industry has raised the spectre of commodification. This book tells the story of how many Tuscans themselves have become tourists in their own land - forced to adapt to rapid change and reinvent their landscape in the process.
A vivid and human glimpse into Europe's borderlands as they emerged from Soviet rule - back in print after nearly 20 years 'In this superb book, in which one senses the spirit of Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz, the dramatic world of the Eastern borderlands comes to life' Ryszard Kapuscinski As Europe's borderlands emerged from Soviet rule, Anne Applebaum travelled from the Baltic to the Black Sea, through Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and the Carpathian mountains. Rich in vivid characters and stories of tragedy and survival, Between East and West illuminates the soul of a place, and the secret history of its people. 'A beautifully written and thought-provoking account of a journey along Europe's forgotten edge' Timothy Garton Ash 'A vivid and penetrating assessment of the lands between the Baltic and the Black Sea in all their drama and desolation . . . a wise and useful book' Robert Conquest 'Combines the excitement of a well-written and adventurous travelogue with sophisticated reportage' Norman Davies 'You will be totally absorbed' Norman Stone Anne Applebaum is a historian and journalist, a regular columnist for the Washington Post and Slate, and the author of several books, including Gulag: A History, which won the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction, and Iron Curtain, which in 2013 won the Duke of Westminster Medal for Military Literature and the Cundill Prize in Historical Literature. She is the Director of Political Studies at the Legatum Institute in London, and she divides her time between Britain and Poland, where her husband, Radek Sikorski, serves as Foreign Minister.
Even before soaring to the apparently impossible challenge of an outright majority at Holyrood in 2011, the Scottish National Party had long dominated the political narrative in Scotland. With the independence referendum in 2014 and their near clean sweep in the general election the following year, the full force of the SNP's power was felt throughout the UK. Now, with the party's rivals still trailing limply in their wake, this new account by two established SNP-watchers explains just how they have stormed to victory, changing the face of Scottish - and British - politics for ever.Tracing the path from grassroots party of protest to professional, highly centralised electoral machine, Rob Johns and James Mitchell explore the differing leadership styles and often radical shifts in the party's image, from 'tartan Tories' to self-styled anti-austerity crusaders. Along the way, they analyse the internal battles between the leadership, members and activists; map the changing profi le of the average SNP voter; and outline the new challenges that have come with increased electoral success.Engaging, impartial and above all insightful, Takeover charts the rise and rise of Scotland's biggest party and asks: where now for the SNP in the wake of a historic third successive victory?
Isaiah Berlin, in his Tribute to a Friend, wrote about the historian Jacob L. Talmon (19161980): No matter what his theoretical interests were, or the topics on which he was lecturing or writing, his deepest concern was with the Jewish people, its history, its religious, moral and social values, its place among the nations, its future in Israel and the diaspora. These words capture the essence of Talmons political essays presented in Mission and Testimony. Talmon was chosen by an international committee of scholars as one of the twenty major historians of the twentieth century, declaring that his historiography was a convincing apologia for human freedom. He owes his fame primarily to his magnum opus, the trilogy that began with The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (1952), continued with Political Messianism (1960) and concluded with The Myth of the Nation and the Vision of Revolution (1981). This edited collection of Talmons essays comprises the following: Part I, The Nature of Jewish history, deals with the Jewish presence in history, the universal significance of Jewish history, and the impact of Jewish intellectuals. Part II, From Anti-Semitism to the Holocaust, concerns the anti-Semitic climate of opinion that led to the Holocaust. Part III depicts the regional and global situation of the State of Israel. In Part IV, Intellectual and Political Debates, Talmon confronts intellectuals and statesmen such as Arnold Toynbee and Menachem Begin. Part V, Profiles in History, depicts the intellectual portraits of the historian Lewis Namier and the physicist and champion of human rights Andrei Sakharov.
In December 1943, among rising realisation that the Allies are planning to invade, Field Marshal Rommel was assigned the title of General Inspector for the Atlantic Wall. His mission was to assess their readiness - what he finds disgusts him. The famed Atlantic Wall, the first defence against invasion, is nothing more than a paper tiger, woefully unprepared for the forces being massed across the English Channel. His task to turn back the Allied assault already seems hopeless. Alongside Rommel are a set of elite commanders, each driven by their own ambitions, ideas and armies. At the frontline sits Erich Marcks, the wounded General tasked with the mighty burden of building up the coastal defences, all with inadequate supplies and a shortage of men. He is flanked by Hans von Salmuth, a relative novice but a favourite of the Fuhrer, who has been assigned the lofty duty of defending Calais; the place Command believes will be the focal point of the Allied Invasion. At the rear, General Major Bayerlien is preparing the elite panzer divisions for what may lie ahead, while General Major Pemsel is struggling to coordinate efforts to prepare the Seventh Army, believing that should an invasion come, he will be the hub of the German response. All of these local commanders are subject to the whims of Hitler, hundreds of miles away but continually issuing orders increasingly divorced from the reality of the war. Countdown to D-Day takes a journal approach, tracing the daily activities and machinations of the OKH as they try to prepare for the Allied invasion.
After her parents' death in 2000, author Joanie Holzer Schirm found hundreds of letters held together by rusty paperclips and stamped with censor marks, sent from Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, China, South and North America, along with journals, vintage film, taped interviews, and photographs. In working through the various materials documenting Oswald "Valdik" Holzer's journey from Czechoslovakia to China, America to Peru and Ecuador, Schirm learned of her family history through her father's experience of exile and loss, resiliency and hope. In this poignant, posthumous memoir, Schirm reconstructs her father's youthful voice as he comes of age as a Jew in interwar Prague, escapes from a Nazi-held army unit, practices medicine in China's war-ravaged interior, and resettles in America to start a family. Encountering a diverse cast of characters from the humorous to the menacing, Holzer's corresponded with family, friends, and authorities across Europe, China, and the Americas. After the war, Holzer receives a letter from his father "that changed everything". Written in 1942 before his parents were transported to a Nazi death camp, the letter begins: "My dear boy." The legacy of this remarkable piece of correspondence is the book's culmination-a universal formula for redemption and triumph.
Rex A. Wade presents an essential overview of the Russian Revolution from its beginning in February 1917, through the numerous political crises under Kerensky, to the victory of Lenin and the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. This thoroughly revised and expanded third edition introduces students to new approaches to the Revolution's political history and clears away many of the myths and misconceptions that have clouded studies of the period. It also gives due space to the social history of the Revolution, incorporating people and places too often left out of the story, including women, national minority peoples, peasantry, and front soldiers. The third edition has been updated to include new scholarship on topics such as the coming of the Revolution and the beginning of Bolshevik rule, as well as the Revolution's cultural context. This highly readable book is an invaluable guide to one of the most important events of modern history.
Chosen 16 times as a 'Book of the Year' - the top non-fiction pick of 2012 'The best work of modern history I have ever read' A. N. Wilson, Financial Times At the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union unexpectedly found itself in control of a huge swathe of territory in Eastern Europe. Stalin and his secret police set out to convert a dozen radically different countries to a completely new political and moral system: Communism. Anne Applebaum's landmark history of this brutal time shows how societies were ruthlessly eviscerated by Communist regimes, how opposition was destroyed and what life was like for ordinary people who had to choose whether to fight, to flee or to collaborate. A haunting reminder of how fragile freedom can be, Iron Curtain is an exceptional work of historical and moral reckoning. ANNE APPLEBAUM is a historian and journalist, a regular columnist for the Washington Post and Slate, and the author of several books, including Gulag: A History, which won the 2004 Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction. She is the Director of Political Studies at the Legatum Institute in London, and she divides her time between Britain and Poland, where her husband, Radek Sikorski, serves as Foreign Minister. 'The outstanding book of the year ... a masterpiece' Oliver Kamm, The Times, Books of the Year 'Exceptionally important, wise, perceptive, remarkably objective' Antony Beevor 'Explains in a manner worthy of Arthur Koestler what totalitarianism really means ... it is a window into a world of lies and evil that we can hardly imagine' Edward Lucas, Standpoint 'At last the story can be told ... a magisterial history' Orlando Figes, Mail on Sunday
Between 1728 and 1744 the Catholic lawyer Mannock Strickland (1673-1744) acted as agent for English nuns living on the Continent, including St Monica's, Louvain, the Brussels Dominicans and the Dunkirk Benedictines. Most convent archives perished at the French Revolution, but Strickland's papers survived in the archives of Mapledurham House, Oxfordshire, offering a unique insight into the workings of English convents. These extraordinary documents reveal the reality of exile for a group of formidable yet vulnerable women, "doubly dead" to English law. Two hundred letters tell stories of hardship, isolation, severe winters, war, starvation, Jacobite intrigue and international finance. They show that convent bursars became skilled at playing international exchange markets yet remained at the mercy of unscrupulous investors. The letters are presented here with full notes; a thorough introduction sets the letters, cash day books, bills of exchange and other documents in context. Richard G. Williams is Librarian and Archivist of Mapledurham House; he has also held senior posts at the University of Warwick, Imperial College London, Birkbeck College London and at Yale University.
This concise, approachable introduction to Khrushchev explores the innovative theme of Khrushchev as reformer, arguing that the 'bumbling' nature of those reforms only partly reflected Khrushchev's uncertainty about how to act. Swain provides a cogent account of Khrushchev's political career and of his wider role in Soviet and world politics.
'Mr Gorbachev, tear down this wall!' This declamation by president Ronald Reagan when visiting Berlin in 1987 is widely cited as the clarion call that brought the Cold War to an end. The West had won, so this version of events goes, because the West had stood firm. American and Western European resoluteness had brought an evil empire to its knees. Michael Meyer, in this extraordinarily compelling account of the revolutions that roiled Eastern Europe in 1989, begs to differ. Drawing together breathtakingly vivid, on-the-ground accounts of the rise of Solidarity in Poland, the stealth opening of the Hungarian border, the Velvet Revolution in Prague, and the collapse of the infamous wall in Berlin, Meyer shows that western intransigence was only one of the many factors that provoked such world-shaking change. More important, Meyer contends, were the stands taken by individuals in the thick of the struggle, leaders such as poet and playwright Vaclav Havel in Prague; Lech Walesa; the quiet and determined reform prime minister in Budapest, Miklos Nemeth; and the man who realized his empire was already lost and decided, with courage and intelligence, to let it go in peace, Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. Michael Meyer captures these heady days in all their rich drama and unpredictability, providing a thrilling chronicle of perhaps the most important year of the 20th century.
THE SUNDAY TIMES AND ECONOMIST BOOKS OF THE YEAR 2016 'A definitive study of the amorphous state that lasted a thousand years ... The Holy Roman Empire deserves to be hailed as a magnum opus' Tom Holland, Daily Telegraph 'Engrossing ... staggering ... a book that is relevant to our own times' The Times 'Masterly ... If, like most people, you know little more about the Holy Roman Empire other than Voltaire's bon mot - "neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire" - then this is the book for you' Daniel Johnson, Sunday Times 'A history that helps us understand Europe's problems today ... interesting and provocative, makes the complex understandable' Christopher Kissane, Guardian A great, sprawling, ancient and unique entity, the Holy Roman Empire, from its founding by Charlemagne to its destruction by Napoleon a millennium later, formed the heart of Europe. It was a great engine for inventions and ideas, it was the origin of many modern European states, from Germany to the Czech Republic, its relations with Italy, France and Poland dictated the course of countless wars - indeed European history as a whole makes no sense without it. In this strikingly ambitious book, Peter H. Wilson explains how the Empire worked. It is not a chronological history, but an attempt to convey to readers why it was so important and how it changed over its existence. The result is a tour de force - a book that raises countless questions about the nature of political and military power, about diplomacy and the nature of European civilization and about the legacy of the Empire, which has continued to haunt its offspring, from Imperial and Nazi Germany to the European Union.
As Germany fought the Soviet Union during World War II, a much smaller but equally vicious struggle was unfolding in southeastern Poland, fueled by longstanding ethnic and territorial conflicts between Poles and Ukrainians. Both sides organized large partisan armies and sought control over territory each deemed integral to their postwar national visions. The violence reached a fever pitch in the years immediately following the war. This comprehensive study surveys Polish-Ukrainian relations dating back to the tenth century. Rapawy follows centuries of ethnic strife, population shifts, and the formation of national states after the First World War on multi-ethnic territories, illuminating the long-term historical processes that informed later events.
Jacob and Esau is a profound new account of two millennia of Jewish European history that, for the first time, integrates the cosmopolitan narrative of the Jewish diaspora with that of traditional Jews and Jewish culture. Malachi Haim Hacohen uses the biblical story of the rival twins, Jacob and Esau, and its subsequent retelling by Christians and Jews throughout the ages as a lens through which to illuminate changing Jewish-Christian relations and the opening and closing of opportunities for Jewish life in Europe. Jacob and Esau tells a new history of a people accustomed for over two-and-a-half millennia to forming relationships, real and imagined, with successive empires but eagerly adapting, in modernity, to the nation-state, and experimenting with both assimilation and Jewish nationalism. In rewriting this history via Jacob and Esau, the book charts two divergent but intersecting Jewish histories that together represent the plurality of Jewish European cultures.
The essays collected here embody the Haskins Society's commitment to historical and interdisciplinary research on the early and central Middle Ages, especially in the Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and Angevin worlds, but also on the continent. Their topics range from the discovery of Bede's use of catechesis to educate readers on conversion, the discovery of an early eleventh-century Viking mass burial, and historical interpretations of Eadric Streona, to the development of monastic liturgy at Durham Cathedral, the Franco-centricity of Latin accounts of the First Crusade, and an investigation of Gerald of Wales' rarely considered Speculum duorum virorum. Contributions on the charters of the countesses of Ponthieu and Blanche of Navarre's role in military dimensions of governance explore the nature and mechanisms of female lordship on the continent, while others investigate the nature of kingship through close readings, respectively, of John of Worcester and William of Malmesbury and the Vie de Saint Gilles; a further chapter considers the changing image of William the Conqueror in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century French historiography. Finally, a study of Serlo of Bayeux's defense of clerical marriage, along with a critical edition and facing translation of his poem The Capture of Bayeux offers readers new insights and access to this often overlooked witness to Norman history in the early twelfth century. Contributors: Angela Boyle, Marcus Bull, Philippa Byrne, Jay Paul Gates, Veronique Gazeau, Wendy Marie Hoofnagle, Elizabeth van Houts, Kathy M. Krause, Charlie Rozier, Katrin E. Sjursen, Carolyn Twomey, Emily A. Winkler
The changing face of the liberal creed from the ancient world to today The Lost History of Liberalism challenges our most basic assumptions about a political creed that has become a rallying cry "and a term of derision "in today (TM)s increasingly divided public square. Taking readers from ancient Rome to today, Helena Rosenblatt traces the evolution of the words oeliberal and oeliberalism, revealing the heated debates that have taken place over their meaning. In this timely and provocative book, Rosenblatt debunks the popular myth of liberalism as a uniquely Anglo-American tradition centered on individual rights. She shows that it was the French Revolution that gave birth to liberalism and Germans who transformed it. Only in the mid-twentieth century did the concept become widely known in the United States "and then, as now, its meaning was hotly debated. Liberals were originally moralists at heart. They believed in the power of religion to reform society, emphasized the sanctity of the family, and never spoke of rights without speaking of duties. It was only during the Cold War and America (TM)s growing world hegemony that liberalism was refashioned into an American ideology focused so strongly on individual freedoms. Today, we still can (TM)t seem to agree on liberalism (TM)s meaning. In the United States, a oeliberal is someone who advocates big government, while in France, big government is contrary to oeliberalism. Political debates become befuddled because of semantic and conceptual confusion. The Lost History of Liberalism sets the record straight on a core tenet of today (TM)s political conversation and lays the foundations for a more constructive discussion about the future of liberal democracy.
This heavily revised third edition of an award-winning text offers a keen insight into the development of scientific thought in early modern Europe. Including coverage of the central scientific figures of the time, including Copernicus, Kelper, Galileo, Newton and Bacon, this book provides a comprehensive overview of how the Scientific Revolution happened and why. Highlighting Europe's colonial and trade expansion in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Peter Dear traces the revolution in scientific thought that changed the natural world from something to be contemplated into something to be used. This book is ideal for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Early Modern History, European History, History of Medicine, History of Science and Technology and the History and Philosophy of Science. The first edition was the winner of the Watson Davis and Helen Miles Davis Prize of the History of Science Society.
When Baroness Valtraute von Bruegen's officer husband's body is severed in two she is delighted to find that the lower half has been sewn onto the upper body of the humble local Captain Ulste. She conceives a child only to see the return of her husband in one piece. What happens next is both indescribably funny and darkly painful. A beautifully written Surrealist novel cum political allegory, Flesh-Coloured Dominoes transports the reader between 18th-century Baltic gentry and the narrator's life in the modern world. The connection between the two narratives gradually becomes clear in a mesmerising fantasy of love, lust, and loss as Skijuns creates a work of sublime art that is funny, moving, enlightening and philosophical in equal measure.
A fresh, concise, and accessible history of one of the medieval world's greatest empires For more than a millennium, the Byzantine Empire presided over the juncture between East and West, as well as the transition from the classical to the modern world. Jonathan Harris, a leading scholar of Byzantium, eschews the usual run-through of emperors and battles and instead recounts the empire's extraordinary history by focusing each chronological chapter on an archetypal figure, family, place, or event. Harris's action-packed introduction presents a civilization rich in contrasts, combining orthodox Christianity with paganism, and classical Greek learning with Roman power. Frequently assailed by numerous armies-including those of Islam-Byzantium nonetheless survived and even flourished by dint of its somewhat unorthodox foreign policy and its sumptuous art and architecture, which helped to embed a deep sense of Byzantine identity in its people. Enormously engaging and utilizing a wealth of sources to cover all major aspects of the empire's social, political, military, religious, cultural, and artistic history, Harris's study illuminates the very heart of Byzantine civilization and explores its remarkable and lasting influence on its neighbors and on the modern world.
The Longest Day is one of the best-selling military history books of all time. Its author, war journalist Cornelius Ryan, created a new style of military-history writing based on interview research with hundreds of battle participants. The book was made into the legendary war movie in 1962. This beautifully designed new archive edition is published to commemorate the 70th anniversary of D-Day in 2014. For the first time, Ryan's unabridged classic text is enhanced with the addition of 120 stunning photographs and the inclusion of 30 previously unpublished removable facsimile documents from the Cornelius Ryan Archive, as well as an audio CD featuring Ryan's original research interviews with those who fought this most famous and decisive battle.
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