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Books > History > European history > General

Zhukov (Paperback, Revised ed.): Otto Preston Chaney Zhukov (Paperback, Revised ed.)
Otto Preston Chaney; Foreword by Mackintosh Malcolm
R617 Discovery Miles 6 170 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov, hero of Leningrad, defender of Moscow and Stalingrad, commander of the victorious Red Army at Berlin, was the most decorated soldier in Soviet history. Yet for many years Zhukov was relegated to the status of "unperson" in his homeland. Now, following glasnost and the fall of the Soviet Union, Zhukov is being restored to his rightful place in history. In this completely updated version of his classic 1971 biography of Zhukov, Otto Preston Chaney provides the definitive account of the man and his achievements.

Zhukov's career spanned most of the Soviet period, reflecting the turmoil of the civil war, the hardships endured by the Russian people in World War II, the brief postwar optimism evidenced by the friendship between Zhukov and Eisenhower, repression in Poland and Hungary, and the rise and fall of such political figures as Stalin, Beria, and Krushchev. The story of Russia's greatest soldier thus offers many insights into the history of the Soviet Union itself.

The Spanish Civil War - Reaction, Revolution and Revenge (Paperback): Paul Preston The Spanish Civil War - Reaction, Revolution and Revenge (Paperback)
Paul Preston
R240 R189 Discovery Miles 1 890 Save R51 (21%) Shipped within 4 - 8 working days

UPDATED EDITION A rousing and full-blooded account of the Spanish Civil War and the rise to prominence of General Franco. No modern conflict has inflamed the passions of both civilians and intellectuals as much as the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39. Burned into our collective historical consciousness, it not only prefigured the imminent Second World War but also ushered in a new and horrific form of warfare that would come to define the twentieth century. At the same time it echoed the revolutionary aspirations of millions of Europeans and Americans after the painful years of the Great Depression. In this authoritative history, Paul Preston vividly recounts the political ideals and military horrors of the Spanish Civil War - including the controversial bombing of Guernica - and tracks the emergence of General Franco's brutal but extraordinarily durable fascist dictatorship.

My Revision Notes: OCR AS/A-level History: The French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon 1774-1815 (Paperback): Mike Wells,... My Revision Notes: OCR AS/A-level History: The French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon 1774-1815 (Paperback)
Mike Wells, Dave Martin
R226 Discovery Miles 2 260 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Exam Board: OCR Level: AS/A-level Subject: History First Teaching: September 2015 First Exam: Summer 2016 Target success in OCR AS/A-level History with this proven formula for effective, structured revision; key content coverage is combined with exam preparation activities and exam-style questions to create a revision guide that students can rely on to review, strengthen and test their knowledge. - Enables students to plan and manage a successful revision programme using the topic-by-topic planner - Consolidates knowledge with clear and focused content coverage, organised into easy-to-revise chunks - Encourages active revision by closely combining historical content with related activities - Helps students build, practise and enhance their exam skills as they progress through activities set at three different levels - Improves exam technique through exam-style questions with sample answers and commentary from expert authors and teachers - Boosts historical knowledge with a useful glossary and timeline

IB Diploma - History for the IB Diploma Paper 3 Italy (1815-1871) and Germany (1815-1890) (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition):... IB Diploma - History for the IB Diploma Paper 3 Italy (1815-1871) and Germany (1815-1890) (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition)
Mike Wells
R500 Discovery Miles 5 000 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Comprehensive books to support study of History for the IB Diploma Paper 3, revised for first assessment in 2017. This coursebook covers Paper 3, HL option 4: History of Europe, Topic 11: Italy (1815-1871) and Germany (1815-1890) of the History for the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma syllabus for first assessment in 2017. Tailored to the requirements of the IB syllabus, and written by experienced examiners and teachers it offers authoritative and engaging guidance through events in Italy and Germany in the 19th century, from the impact of revolutions to the emergence of nationalism and the factors involved in the unification process.

The Mercenary Mediterranean - Sovereignty, Religion, and Violence in the Medieval Crown of Aragon (Paperback): Hussein Fancy The Mercenary Mediterranean - Sovereignty, Religion, and Violence in the Medieval Crown of Aragon (Paperback)
Hussein Fancy
R575 R535 Discovery Miles 5 350 Save R40 (7%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Sometime in April 1285, five Muslim horsemen crossed from the Islamic kingdom of Granada into the realms of the Christian Crown of Aragon to meet with the king of Aragon, who showered them with gifts, including sumptuous cloth and decorative saddles, for agreeing to enter the Crown's service. They were not the first or only Muslim soldiers to do so. Over the course of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Christian kings of Aragon recruited thousands of foreign Muslim soldiers to serve in their armies and as members of their royal courts. Based on extensive research in Arabic, Latin, and Romance sources, The Mercenary Mediterranean explores this little-known and misunderstood history. Far from marking the triumph of toleration, Hussein Fancy argues, the alliance of Christian kings and Muslim soldiers depended on and reproduced ideas of religious difference. Their shared history represents a unique opportunity to reconsider the relation of medieval religion to politics, and to demonstrate how modern assumptions about this relationship have impeded our understanding of both past and present.

Europe's Tragedy - A New History of the Thirty Years War (Paperback): Peter H. Wilson Europe's Tragedy - A New History of the Thirty Years War (Paperback)
Peter H. Wilson
R458 R315 Discovery Miles 3 150 Save R143 (31%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Winner of the Society for Military History Distinguished Book Award 2011 The horrific series of conflicts known as the Thirty Years War (1618-48) tore the heart out of Europe, killing perhaps a quarter of all Germans and laying waste to whole areas of Central Europe to such a degree that many towns and regions never recovered. All the major European powers apart from Russia were heavily involved and, while each country started out with rational war aims, the fighting rapidly spiralled out of control, with great battles giving way to marauding bands of starving soldiers spreading plague and murder. The war was both a religious and a political one and it was this tangle of motives that made it impossible to stop. Whether motivated by idealism or cynicism, everyone drawn into the conflict was destroyed by it. At its end a recognizably modern Europe had been created but at a terrible price. Peter Wilson's book is a major work, the first new history of the war in a generation, and a fascinating, brilliantly written attempt to explain a compelling series of events. Wilson's great strength is in allowing the reader to understand the tragedy of mixed motives that allowed rulers to gamble their countries' future with such horrifying results. The principal actors in the drama (Wallenstein, Ferdinand II, Gustavus Adolphus, Richelieu) are all here, but so is the experience of the ordinary soldiers and civilians, desperately trying to stay alive under impossible circumstances.

German Invasion Plans for the British Isles, 1940 (Hardcover): Bodleian Library the German Invasion Plans for the British Isles, 1940 (Hardcover)
Bodleian Library the
R142 R113 Discovery Miles 1 130 Save R29 (20%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

"I have decided to prepare for, and if necessary to carry out, an invasion against England."--Adolph Hitler, July 16, 1940
Operation Sealion was the codename for the Nazi invasion of Britain that Hitler ordered his generals to plan after France fell in June 1940. Although the plan ultimately never came to fruition, a few sets of the Germans' detailed strategy documents are housed in the rare book rooms of libraries across Europe. But now the Bodleian Library has made documents from their set available for all to peruse in this unprecedented collection of the invasion planning materials.
The planned operation would have involved landing 160,000 German soldiers along a forty-mile stretch of coast in southeast England. Packets of reconnaissance materials were put together for the invading forces, and the most intriguing parts are now reproduced here. Each soldier was to be given maps and geographical descriptions of the British Isles that broke down the country by regions, aerial photographs pinpointing strategic targets, an extensive listing of British roads and rivers, strategic plans for launching attacks on each region, an English dictionary and phrase book, and even a brief description of Britain's social composition.
Augmenting the fascinating documents is an informative introduction that sets the materials in their historical and political context. A must-have for every military history buff, "German Invasion Plans for the British Isles, 1940" is a remarkable revelation of the inner workings of Hitler's most famous unrealized military campaign.

OCR A Level History: The French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon 1774-1815 (Paperback): Mike Wells OCR A Level History: The French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon 1774-1815 (Paperback)
Mike Wells
R587 Discovery Miles 5 870 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Exam board: OCR Level: A Level Subject: History First teaching: September 2015 First exams: AS: Summer 2016, A Level: Summer 2017 An OCR endorsed resource Successfully cover Unit Group 2 with the right amount of depth and pace. This bespoke series from the leading History publisher follows our proven and popular approach for OCR A Level, blending clear course coverage with focused activities and comprehensive assessment support. - Develops understanding of the period through an accessible narrative that is tailored to the specification content and structured around key questions for each topic - Builds the skills required for Unit Group 2, from explanation, assessment and analysis to the ability to make substantiated judgements - Enables students to consolidate and extend their topic knowledge with a range of activities suitable for classwork or homework - Helps students achieve their best by providing step-by-step assessment guidance and practice questions - Facilitates revision with useful summaries at the start and end of each chapter - Ensures that students understand key historical terms and concepts by defining them in the glossary

The Dark Charisma of Adolf Hitler (Paperback): Laurence Rees The Dark Charisma of Adolf Hitler (Paperback)
Laurence Rees 1
R175 R138 Discovery Miles 1 380 Save R37 (21%) Shipped within 4 - 8 working days

Adolf Hitler was an unlikely leader - fuelled by hate, incapable of forming normal human relationships, unwilling to debate political issues - and yet he commanded enormous support. So how was it possible that Hitler became such an attractive figure to millions of people? That is the important question at the core of Laurence Rees' new book. The Holocaust, the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the outbreak of the Second World War - all these cataclysmic events and more can be laid at Hitler's door. Hitler was a war criminal arguably without precedent in the history of the world. Yet, as many who knew him confirm, Hitler was still able to exert a powerful influence over the people who encountered him. In this fascinating book to accompany his new BBC series, the acclaimed historian and documentary maker Laurence Rees examines the nature of Hitler's appeal, and reveals the role Hitler's supposed `charisma' played in his success. Rees' previous work has explored the inner workings of the Nazi state in The Nazis: A Warning from History and the crimes they committed in Auschwitz: The Nazis and the Final Solution. The Charisma of Adolf Hitler is a natural culmination of twenty years of writing and research on the Third Reich, and a remarkable examination of the man and the mind at the heart of it all.

The French in London (Paperback, UK ed.): Isabelle Janvrin, Catherine Rawlinson The French in London (Paperback, UK ed.)
Isabelle Janvrin, Catherine Rawlinson
R303 R233 Discovery Miles 2 330 Save R70 (23%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Ever since 1066 there has been a substantial French presence in London. It is now said to be the sixth most populous French city and this book illustrates, explains, and exposes how this came about over more than a 1000 years. Full of individual stories and overlooked details covering a common history, from William the Conqueror, via the Huguenots (e.g. David Garrick's family), and the emigres of the French Revolution ( such as the families of Joseph Bazelgette, Augustus Pugin and Isambard Brunel), and on to London, the capital of the Free French during WWII. It is also a guide book to those streets, museums, monuments, churches and art dedicated to the French of London. Voltaire, Rimbaud, Verlaine, Foch and dozens of others are all honoured by plaques or statues. Traces and stories of those escaping the French Revolution and the Commune are remembered. Talleyrand, Chateaubriand and Madame de Stael all lived in London during those turbulent years.

Cambridge Concise Histories - A Concise History of Switzerland (Paperback, New): Clive H. Church, Randolph C. Head Cambridge Concise Histories - A Concise History of Switzerland (Paperback, New)
Clive H. Church, Randolph C. Head
R530 R421 Discovery Miles 4 210 Save R109 (21%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Despite its position at the heart of Europe and its quintessentially European nature, Switzerland's history is often overlooked within the English-speaking world. This comprehensive and engaging history of Switzerland traces the historical and cultural development of this fascinating but neglected European country from the end of the Dark Ages up to the present. The authors focus on the initial Confederacy of the Middle Ages; the religious divisions which threatened it after 1500 and its surprising survival amongst Europe's monarchies; the turmoil following the French Revolution and conquest, which continued until the Federal Constitution of 1848; the testing of the Swiss nation through the late nineteenth century and then two World Wars and the Depression of the 1930s; and the unparalleled economic and social growth and political success of the post-war era. The book concludes with a discussion of the contemporary challenges, often shared with neighbours, that shape the country today.

Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America, 1792 - Juan Francisco de la Bodega Y Quadra and the Nootka Sound Controversy... Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America, 1792 - Juan Francisco de la Bodega Y Quadra and the Nootka Sound Controversy (Hardcover)
Juan Francisco de La Bodega y Quadra; Translated by Freeman M. Tovell; Edited by Robin Inglis, Iris H.W. Engstrand; Foreword by Chief Michael Maguinna
R810 Discovery Miles 8 100 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days
The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere - An Inquiry Into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Paperback, New Ed):... The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere - An Inquiry Into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Paperback, New Ed)
Jurgen. Habermas
R422 R400 Discovery Miles 4 000 Save R22 (5%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

This major work retraces the emergence and development of the Bourgeois public sphere - that is, a sphere which was distinct from the state and in which citizens could discuss issues of general interest. In analysing the historical transformations of this sphere, Habermas recovers a concept which is of crucial significance for current debates in social and political theory.

Habermas focuses on the liberal notion of the bourgeois public sphere as it emerged in Europe in the early modern period. He examines both the writings of political theorists, including Marx, Mill and de Tocqueville, and the specific institutions and social forms in which the public sphere was realized.

This brilliant and influential work has been widely recognized for many years as a classic of contemporary social and political thought, of interest to students and scholars throughout the social sciences and humanities.

Nein! - Standing Up to Hitler 1935-1944 (Hardcover, Epub Edition): Paddy Ashdown Nein! - Standing Up to Hitler 1935-1944 (Hardcover, Epub Edition)
Paddy Ashdown 1
R587 R462 Discovery Miles 4 620 Save R125 (21%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

From bestselling and prize-winning author Paddy Ashdown, a revelatory new history of German opposition to Hitler. `Ashdown has a great gift for narrative history. He unearths little known stories and places them in context with great dexterity. His new book throws fresh and important light on a crucial topic.' JONATHAN DIMBLEBY In his last days, Adolf Hitler raged in his bunker that he had been betrayed by his own people, defeated from the inside. In part, he was right. By 1945, his armies were being crushed on all fronts, his regime collapsing with many fleeing retribution for their crimes. Yet, even before the war started, there were Germans very high in Hitler's command committed to bringing about his death and defeat. Paddy Ashdown tells, for the first time, the story of those at the very top of Hitler's Germany who tried first to prevent the Second World War and then to deny Hitler victory. Based on newly released files, the repeated attempts of the plotters to warn the Allies about Hitler's plans are revealed. Key strands to the book's narrative lie with the actions of Abwehr head Admiral Wilhelm Canaris to frustrate Hitler's policies once the war had started; the plots to kill Hitler and, finally the systematic passage of key German military secrets to London, Washington and Moscow through MI6, the OSS (fore-runner to the CIA) and the "Lucy Ring" Russian spy network based in Switzerland. From 1943 onwards, concerted efforts were made to strike a separate peace with the West to shorten the war and prevent eastern Europe falling under the Soviet yoke. What is revealed is that the anti-Hitler bomb plots, which have received so much attention are, in fact only a small part of a much wider story; one in which those at the highest levels of the German state used every means possible - conspiracy, assassination, espionage - to ensure that, for the sake of the long-term reputation of their country and the survival of liberal and democratic values, Hitler could not be allowed to win the war. It is a matter of record that the European Union we have today and the nature and central position of Germany within it, is, in very large measure, the future envisaged by the plotters and for which they gave their lives.

CCEA A2-level History Student Guide: Clash of Ideologies in Europe (1900-2000) (Paperback): Henry Jefferies CCEA A2-level History Student Guide: Clash of Ideologies in Europe (1900-2000) (Paperback)
Henry Jefferies
R282 Discovery Miles 2 820 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Build, reinforce and assess students' knowledge throughout their course; tailored to the 2016 CCEA specification and brought to you by the leading History publisher, this study and revision guide combines clear content coverage with practice questions and sample answers. - Ensure understanding of the period with concise coverage of all Unit content, broken down into manageable chunks - Develop the analytical and evaluative skills that students need to succeed in A-level History - Consolidate understanding with exam tips and knowledge-check questions - Practise exam-style questions matched to the CCEA assessment requirements for every question type - Improve students' exam technique and show them how to reach the next grade with sample student answers and commentary for each exam-style question - Use flexibly in class or at home, for knowledge acquisition during the course or focused revision and exam preparation

Burning Down the Haus - Punk Rock, Revolution, and the Fall of the Berlin Wall (Paperback): Tim Mohr Burning Down the Haus - Punk Rock, Revolution, and the Fall of the Berlin Wall (Paperback)
Tim Mohr
R375 R271 Discovery Miles 2 710 Save R104 (28%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days
1000 Years of Annoying the French (Paperback, Completely revised, updated and expanded edition): Stephen Clarke 1000 Years of Annoying the French (Paperback, Completely revised, updated and expanded edition)
Stephen Clarke 1
R215 R169 Discovery Miles 1 690 Save R46 (21%) Shipped within 4 - 8 working days

NEW UPDATED EDITION Was the Battle of Hastings a French victory? Non! William the Conqueror was Norman and hated the French. Were the Brits really responsible for the death of Joan of Arc? Non! The French sentenced her to death for wearing trousers. Did the French write "God Save the Queen"? Non! But that's what they claim. Ten centuries' worth of French historical 'facts' bite the dust as Stephen Clarke looks at what has really been going on since 1066 ... Featuring new annoyances - both historical and recent - inflicted on the French, including Napoleon's "banned" chamber pot, Louis XIV's painful operation, Anglo-French jibes during the 2012 London Olympics, French niggles about William and Kate's royal wedding, and much more ...

St Petersburg - Shadows of the Past (Hardcover): Catriona Kelly St Petersburg - Shadows of the Past (Hardcover)
Catriona Kelly
R1,151 R1,046 Discovery Miles 10 460 Save R105 (9%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Fragile, gritty, and vital to an extraordinary degree, St. Petersburg is one of the world's most alluring cities-a place in which the past is at once ubiquitous and inescapably controversial. Yet outsiders are far more familiar with the city's pre-1917 and Second World War history than with its recent past. In this beautifully illustrated and highly original book, Catriona Kelly shows how creative engagement with the past has always been fundamental to St. Petersburg's residents. Weaving together oral history, personal observation, literary and artistic texts, journalism, and archival materials, she traces the at times paradoxical feelings of anxiety and pride that were inspired by living in the city, both when it was socialist Leningrad, and now. Ranging from rubbish dumps to promenades, from the city's glamorous center to its grimy outskirts, this ambitious book offers a compelling and always unexpected panorama of an extraordinary and elusive place.

Oxford AQA History for A Level: France in Revolution 1774-1815 (Paperback): Sally Waller Oxford AQA History for A Level: France in Revolution 1774-1815 (Paperback)
Sally Waller
R718 Discovery Miles 7 180 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Retaining well-loved features from the previous editions, France in Revolution 1774-1815 has been approved by AQA and matched to the new 2015 specification.This textbook explores in depth a key period of history which was to change the relationship between the ruler and the governed, not only in France but throughout Europe and, in time, the wider world. It focuses on key ideas such as absolutism, enlightenment, republic and dictatorship, and covers events and developments with precision. Students can further develop vital skills such as historical interpretations and source analyses via specially selected sources and extracts. Practice questions and study tips provide additional support to help familiarize students with the new exam style questions, and help them achieve their best in the exam.

The Cold War - A World History (Paperback): Odd Arne Westad The Cold War - A World History (Paperback)
Odd Arne Westad 1
R501 R401 Discovery Miles 4 010 Save R100 (20%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days
The Transformation of Modern France (Paperback, 1st ed): William Cohen The Transformation of Modern France (Paperback, 1st ed)
William Cohen
R1,353 R1,118 Discovery Miles 11 180 Save R235 (17%) Shipped within 8 - 13 working days

This anthology of essays describes the major forces that have transformed France in the two centuries since the Revolution. Reflecting the work and research of leading North American and French historians, these essays engage students intellectually by providing a clearly developed point of view.

Raised to Rule - Educating Royalty at the Court of the Spanish Habsburgs, 1601-1634 (Hardcover): Martha K Hoffman Raised to Rule - Educating Royalty at the Court of the Spanish Habsburgs, 1601-1634 (Hardcover)
Martha K Hoffman
R888 Discovery Miles 8 880 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

The children of Philip III of Spain (1578--1621) and Margarita de Austria (1584--1611) inherited great potential power: the abilities to declare war or make peace, to advocate religious doctrine, and to exert lasting influence over art, culture, and taste. The leadership provided by this generation raises the question of how royal families learned the roles they played in court, country, and on the international stage. In Raised to Rule, Hoffman presents a deeply researched and stimulating study of the formative experiences of children in the royal households of early modern Spain.

Five of the eight children born to the royal couple survived to adulthood: the future king Philip IV; the future queen regent of France, Anne of Austria; the Cardinal-Infante Fernando, who rose to international fame as a general during the Thirty Years' War; the future Empress Mar?a, briefly known as the princess of England during Charles Stuart's 1623 pursuit of a "Spanish match"; and the Infante Carlos, the constant companion of Philip IV and his heir-presumptive for nearly a decade, who was named governor of Portugal but died before he could serve. Hoffman elucidates the formal instruction and informal training that prepared these individuals to shape the history of their country and influence all of Europe.

For the heirs of Philip and Margarita, developmental experiences took place within the social structures and patronage systems of the royal court -- a place that proved to be influential and precarious, where public and private relationships overlapped and political metaphors of family relationships reflected the reality of public service based on personal ties. Drawing on a wide variety of sources, including palace rulebooks, chronicles, household accounts, a journal of the royal chapel, diplomatic and personal correspondence, published and unpublished advice to kings, and treatises on the education of princes, Hoffman illustrates the formation of the leadership of Spain and early modern perceptions of the proper education and function of royalty.

Hoffman's Raised to Rule provides an insightful account of the education of the Spanish Habsburgs from 1601 to 1634. Her work fills a significant historiographical gap and offers new revelations into a previously neglected aspect of royal life.

Heimskringla, Volume I (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition): Snorri Sturluson Heimskringla, Volume I (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition)
Snorri Sturluson; Translated by Alison Finlay, Anthony Faulkes
R287 R242 Discovery Miles 2 420 Save R45 (16%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days
IB Diploma - The Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia (1924-2000) (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition): Allan Todd IB Diploma - The Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia (1924-2000) (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition)
Allan Todd
R504 Discovery Miles 5 040 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Comprehensive books to support study of History for the IB Diploma Paper 3, revised for first assessment in 2017. This coursebook covers Paper 3, History of Europe, Topic 16: The Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1924-2000) of the History for the IB Diploma syllabus for first assessment in 2017. Tailored to the Higher Level requirements of the IB syllabus and written by experienced IB History examiners and teachers, it offers authoritative and engaging guidance through the topic.

Judging Maria de Macedo - A Female Visionary and the Inquisition in Early Modern Portugal (Hardcover, New): Bryan Givens Judging Maria de Macedo - A Female Visionary and the Inquisition in Early Modern Portugal (Hardcover, New)
Bryan Givens
R987 Discovery Miles 9 870 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

On February 20, 1665, the Inquisition of Lisbon arrested Maria de Macedo, the wife of a midlevel official of the Portuguese Treasury, after she revealed during a deposition that, since she was ten years old, an enchanted Moor had frequently "taken" her to a magical castle in the legendary land of wonders known as the Hidden Isle. The island paradise was also the home of Sebastian, the former king of Portugal (1557--1578), who had died in battle in Morocco while on crusade in 1578. His body remained undiscovered, however, and many people in seventeenth-century Portugal -- including Maria -- eagerly awaited his return in glory. In Judging Maria de Macedo, Bryan Givens offers a microhistorical examination of Maria's trial before the Inquisition in Lisbon in 1665--1666, providing an intriguing glimpse into Portuguese culture at the time.

Maria's trial record includes a unique piece of evidence: a pamphlet she dictated to her husband fifteen years before her arrest. In the pamphlet, reproduced in its entirety in the book, Maria recounts in considerable detail her "journeys" to the Hidden Isle and her discussions with the people there, King Sebastian in particular. Not all of the components of Maria's vision were messianic in nature or even Christian in origin; her beliefs therefore represent a unique synthesis of disparate cultural elements in play in seventeenth-century Portugal.

Because the pamphlet antedates the Inquisition's involvement in Maria's case, it offers a rare example of a non-elite voice preserved without any mediation from an elite institution such as the Inquisition, as is the case with most early modern judicial records. In addition to analyzing Maria de Macedo's vision, Givens also uses the trial record to gain insight into the values, concerns, and motives of the Inquisitors in their judgment of her unusual case. He thus not only examines separately two important subcultures in early modern Portugal, but also analyzes how they interacted with each other.

Introducing a unique feminine voice from the early modern period, Judging Maria de Macedo opens a singular window onto seventeenth-century Portuguese culture.

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