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How philosophers and theorists can find new models for the creation, publication, and dissemination of knowledge, challenging the received ideas of originality, authorship, and the book. In Pirate Philosophy, Gary Hall considers whether the fight against the neoliberal corporatization of higher education in fact requires scholars to transform their own lives and labor. Is there a way for philosophers and theorists to act not just for or with the antiausterity and student protestors-"graduates without a future"-but in terms of their political struggles? Drawing on such phenomena as peer-to-peer file sharing and anticopyright/pro-piracy movements, Hall explores how those in academia can move beyond finding new ways of thinking about the world to find instead new ways of being theorists and philosophers in the world. Hall describes the politics of online sharing, the battles against the current intellectual property regime, and the actions of Anonymous, LulzSec, Aaron Swartz, and others, and he explains Creative Commons and the open access, open source, and free software movements. But in the heart of the book he considers how, when it comes to scholarly ways of creating, performing, and sharing knowledge, philosophers and theorists can challenge not just the neoliberal model of the entrepreneurial academic but also the traditional humanist model with its received ideas of proprietorial authorship, the book, originality, fixity, and the finished object. In other words, can scholars and students today become something like pirate philosophers?
Improving the resilience of social systems is a goal increasingly adopted in our modern world. This unique and comprehensive Handbook focuses on the interdependencies of these social systems and the technologies that support them. It explores the ways in which the resilience of elements and social systems interact with each other to promote or undermine resilience for one or both, how these interactions manifest themselves through space and time, and how they can be shaped through active intervention. Original and multi-disciplinary contributions illustrate the nuances in the way resilience is interpreted through corresponding case studies and applications. The use of diverse tools, such as cost-effectiveness analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, transition theory and network science provides readers with a balanced treatment of both theoretical issues surrounding resilience and applications to specific socio-technical systems. Case studies from across the globe are used to discuss the ways in which natural disasters, terror attacks, cyber attacks and infrastructure degradation impact the resilience of these systems. Timely and innovative, this Handbook is an ideal resource for university think-tanks, researchers and advanced students exploring the resilience of both social and technical systems. Planners and policy-makers will also greatly benefit from the lessons drawn from contemporary case studies.
The Latest Scientific Discoveries Point to an Intentional Creator Most of us remember the basics from science classes about how Earth came to be the only known planet that sustains complex life. But what most people don't know is that the more thoroughly researchers investigate the history of our planet, the more astonishing the story of our existence becomes. The number and complexity of the astronomical, geological, chemical, and biological features recognized as essential to human existence have expanded explosively within the past decade. An understanding of what is required to make possible a large human population and advanced civilizations has raised profound questions about life, our purpose, and our destiny. Are we really just the result of innumerable coincidences? Or is there a more reasonable explanation? This fascinating book helps nonscientists understand the countless miracles that undergird the exquisitely fine-tuned planet we call home--as if Someone had us in mind all along.
Communications and Mobility is a unique, interdisciplinary look at mobility, territory, communication, and transport in the 21st century with extended case studies of three icons of this era: the mobile phone, the migrant, and the container box. * Urges scholars in media and communication to return to broader conceptions of the field that include mobility of all kinds information, people, and commodities * Embraces perspectives from media studies, science and technology studies, sociology, media anthropology, and cultural geography * Discusses ideas of virtual and embodied mobility, network geographies, de-territorialization, sedentarism, nomadology, connectivity, containment, and exclusion * Integrates the often-neglected transport studies into contemporary communication studies and theories of globalization
As Christians engage controversial cultural issues, we must remember that "all things hold together in Christ" (Col. 1:17)--even when it comes to science and faith. In this anthology, top Christian thinkers--including Robert Barron, Timothy George, Stanley Hauerwas, Alasdair MacIntyre, Mark Noll, and N. T. Wright--invite us to find resources for faithful, creative thinking in the riches of the church's theological heritage and its worship traditions.
In the very successful and widely discussed first volume in the Golem series, The Golem: What You Should Know about Science, Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch likened science to the Golem, a creature from Jewish mythology, a powerful creature which, while not evil, can be dangerous because it is clumsy. In this second volume, the authors now consider the Golem of technology. In a series of case studies they demonstrate that the imperfections in technology are related to the uncertainties in science described in the first volume. The case studies cover the role of the Patriot anti-missile missile in the Gulf War, the Challenger space shuttle explosion, tests of nuclear fuel flasks and of anti-misting kerosene as a fuel for airplanes, economic modeling, the question of the origins of oil, analysis of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, and the contribution of lay expertise to the analysis of treatments for AIDS.
Evolution makes good scientific sense. The question is whether it makes good theological sense as well. Christians who find evolution contrary to faith often do so because they focus solely on the issues of the world's design and the notion of the gradual descent of all life from a common ancestry. But that point of view overlooks the significance of the dramatic narrative going on beneath the surface. What evolution "is "has become more important than what it "means." Haught suggests that, rather than necessarily contradicting one another, theologians and Darwinian scientists actually share an appreciation of the underlying meaning and awe-inspiring mystery of evolution. He argues for a focus on evolution as an ongoing drama and suggests that we simply cannot-indeed need not-make complete sense of it until it has fully played out. Ultimately, when situated carefully within a biblical vision of the world as open to a God who makes all things new, evolution makes sense scientifically "and "theologically.
Learning from Science and Technology Policy Evaluation presents US and European experiences and insights on the evaluation of policies and programs to foster research, innovation, and technology (RIT). In recent years, policymakers have promoted RIT policies to accelerate scientific and technological development in emerging fields, encourage new patterns of research collaboration and commercialization, and enhance national and regional economic competitiveness. At the same time, budgetary pressures and new public management approaches have strengthened demands for RIT performance measurement and evaluation. The contributors - leading experts in science and technology policy and evaluation - analyze and contrast the need and demand for RIT performance measurement and evaluation within the US and European innovation and policy making systems. They assess current US and European RIT evaluation practices and methods in key areas, discuss applications of new evaluative approaches and consider strategies that could lead to improvements in RIT evaluation design and policies. This up-to-date volume examining current and leading-edge evaluation methodologies will make a valuable addition to the libraries of research and innovation policymakers and analysts, educators and students of science and technology policy.
An argument for retaining the notion of personal property in the products we "buy" in the digital marketplace. If you buy a book at the bookstore, you own it. You can take it home, scribble in the margins, put in on the shelf, lend it to a friend, sell it at a garage sale. But is the same thing true for the ebooks or other digital goods you buy? Retailers and copyright holders argue that you don't own those purchases, you merely license them. That means your ebook vendor can delete the book from your device without warning or explanation-as Amazon deleted Orwell's 1984 from the Kindles of surprised readers several years ago. These readers thought they owned their copies of 1984. Until, it turned out, they didn't. In The End of Ownership, Aaron Perzanowski and Jason Schultz explore how notions of ownership have shifted in the digital marketplace, and make an argument for the benefits of personal property. Of course, ebooks, cloud storage, streaming, and other digital goods offer users convenience and flexibility. But, Perzanowski and Schultz warn, consumers should be aware of the tradeoffs involving user constraints, permanence, and privacy. The rights of private property are clear, but few people manage to read their end user agreements. Perzanowski and Schultz argue that introducing aspects of private property and ownership into the digital marketplace would offer both legal and economic benefits. But, most important, it would affirm our sense of self-direction and autonomy. If we own our purchases, we are free to make whatever lawful use of them we please. Technology need not constrain our freedom; it can also empower us.
The internet is an everyday part of our contemporary lives. This book explores how it is shaped and embedded within society, fostering new social worlds and ways of talking. Using a wide range of examples to examine economic, political and cultural issues, this book is crucial reading for all those studying society, media and technology.
It is almost universally accepted that we are moving increasingly towards an information society, where knowledge and learning are the new currency of power. This book seeks to challenge this axiom by looking in more detail at the subtle relationships between knowledge and social development. The editors are at pains to differentiate the process of knowledge creation from the simple accumulation of knowledge. The original contributions within this book are aimed at capturing new socio-economic trends and finding policy strategies promoting the learning society in Europe through joint efforts and integrated actions on innovation, competence building and social cohesion. Innovation, Competence Building and Social Cohesion in Europe will be of special interest to researchers and scholars of science and innovation and technical change. Its policy recommendations will ensure that the book will also appeal to social scientists of education policy.
According to many observers, the global digital divide - the extent to which information technology is benefiting developed as opposed to developing countries - has already established itself as the single most pervasive theme of the twenty-first century. The purpose of this book is to explore some of the ways in which this divide can be overcome both within and between nations. Employing a rigorous analytical framework, the author bases his analysis on the concept of international technological dualism. He argues that one possible solution to the problem is the availability of affordable technologies, such as low-cost computers, which are specifically designed for the income levels and socio-economic conditions of developing countries. He also emphasises that the most important aim of any policy measure should be to provide universal access to information technologies, rather than individual ownership. Depending on whether or not this divide can be bridged will, to a large degree, determine whether developing countries are able to attain higher levels of productivity, prosperity and global integration. Development economists, international policymakers and NGOs will all welcome the book's emphasis on various low cost technologies and their application in communal settings in the developing world. The non-technical nature of this volume will also make it accessible to a broader audience who wish to understand ways of alleviating this critical problem which has the potential to become even more acute as new and ever more complex technologies emerge.
For much of the twentieth century, mainstream economists have treated human agents in their models as if they were rational beings of unbounded computational capacity - the notorious `Homo Economicus' of much economic theory. However, the patent inadequacies of this understanding of human nature have become increasingly apparent, and economists have begun looking for more realistic models, incorporating the insights of evolutionary theory. The authors address the question of human nature in economics, examining not only some of the recent writing on this subject in evolutionary psychology and related disciplines, but also the ideas of important thinkers in the Western intellectual tradition. Beginning with the ancient Greeks and progressing to the modern day, the contributors explore the works of such thinkers as Augustine, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Alfred Marshall and Kenneth Boulding. Many of these works are placed in a Darwinian, evolutionary perspective, with the imperative that the study of human nature must be consistent with our understanding of human evolution, and should consider how human beings are moulded by cultural and institutional influences. Naturally, Darwin's own view of human nature is also explored, undermining the mistaken notion that Darwinism promotes human nature as greedy, uncooperative and self-seeking. This enlightening, original and highly readable work will be of great interest to professional economists and students, researchers and teachers of evolutionary economics.
Why our brains aren't built for media multitasking, and how we can learn to live with technology in a more balanced way. "Brilliant and practical, just what we need in these techno-human times."-Jack Kornfield, author of The Wise Heart Most of us will freely admit that we are obsessed with our devices. We pride ourselves on our ability to multitask-read work email, reply to a text, check Facebook, watch a video clip. Talk on the phone, send a text, drive a car. Enjoy family dinner with a glowing smartphone next to our plates. We can do it all, 24/7! Never mind the errors in the email, the near-miss on the road, and the unheard conversation at the table. In The Distracted Mind, Adam Gazzaley and Larry Rosen-a neuroscientist and a psychologist-explain why our brains aren't built for multitasking, and suggest better ways to live in a high-tech world without giving up our modern technology. The authors explain that our brains are limited in their ability to pay attention. We don't really multitask but rather switch rapidly between tasks. Distractions and interruptions, often technology-related-referred to by the authors as "interference"-collide with our goal-setting abilities. We want to finish this paper/spreadsheet/sentence, but our phone signals an incoming message and we drop everything. Even without an alert, we decide that we "must" check in on social media immediately. Gazzaley and Rosen offer practical strategies, backed by science, to fight distraction. We can change our brains with meditation, video games, and physical exercise; we can change our behavior by planning our accessibility and recognizing our anxiety about being out of touch even briefly. They don't suggest that we give up our devices, but that we use them in a more balanced way.
What is the potential of the new information and communication technologies? This book assesses the relationship between technological change and employment in all its dimensions, focusing on contemporary economies in Europe. The authors discuss patterns of growth, and the type of employment that countries might expect to be created following the introduction of these new technologies. Also analysed is the extent to which firms should adjust to more favourable production and distribution patterns. Institutional change is another issue addressed in detail as this encompasses the organisation of working time, systems of education and innovation and the welfare state. The final section of the book addresses the future of European employment not only from the competitive position of Europe in a global economy but also the new societal and demographic contexts that will challenge European economies in the future. Technology and the Future of European Employment ends with an overview of the many policy priorities that European societies will have to address. As such, this book will be of interest to scholars of economics, sociology and politics as well as those involved in European studies, technology and innovation, and labour economics. Civil servants in relevant national departments and organisations will also find the book of interest and value.
This book looks at how science investigates the natural world around us. It is an examination of the scientific method, the foundation of science, and basis on which our scientific knowledge is built on. Written in a clear, concise, and colloquial style, the book addresses all concepts pertaining to the scientific method. It includes discussions on objective reality, hypotheses and theory, and the fundamental and inalienable role of experimental evidence in scientific knowledge. This collection of personal reflections on the scientific methodology shows the observations and daily uses of an experienced practitioner. Massimiliano Di Ventra also examines the limits of science and the errors we make when abusing its method in contexts that are not scientific, for example, in policymaking. By reflecting on the general method, the reader can critically sort through other types of scientific claims, and judge their ability to apply it in study and in practice.
This book makes significant advances in analysing the relationship between technology and society. It highlights both the policy implications of this relationship and new possibilities for intervention by government, policymakers, managers and the public. Shaping Technology, Guiding Policy examines and utilises a variety of recently emerging concepts which highlight the scope for local discretion and choice in the way that technologies are designed and used as well as the broader structures and systems that may serve to restrict choice. By applying these concepts to an analysis of case studies of various social and technical settings, the book explores their utility for understanding the ways in which contemporary technologies are developed and applied and how they are made to influence society. Academics and researchers from a wide variety of perspectives will find this new book fascinating reading, including scholars from science and technology studies, technology policy and the management of technology. Technology policymakers and practitioners would also find the book of interest.
The laws of thermodynamics drive everything that happens in the
universe. From the sudden expansion of a cloud of gas to the
cooling of hot metal--everything is moved or restrained by four
simple laws. Written by Peter Atkins, one of the world's leading
authorities on thermodynamics, this powerful and compact
introduction explains what these four laws are and how they work,
using accessible language and virtually no mathematics. Guiding the
reader a step at a time, Atkins begins with Zeroth (so named
because the first two laws were well established before scientists
realized that a third law, relating to temperature, should precede
them--hence the jocular name zeroth), and proceeds through the
First, Second, and Third Laws, offering a clear account of concepts
such as the availability of work and the conservation of energy.
Atkins ranges from the fascinating theory of entropy (revealing how
its unstoppable rise constitutes the engine of the universe),
through the concept of free energy, and to the brink, and then
beyond the brink, of absolute zero.
How will the industrial changes implicit within new biotechnologies affect modern agriculture? This book investigates these changes and provides an economic analysis of the industrial and distributional impacts of new biotechnologies, addressing in detail the significant consequences for developing countries. One of the most important facets of biotechnological change is the development of new technologies for appropriating the value of innovations in related industries. In agriculture these new appropriation technologies are known as `genetic use restriction technologies', which enable the innovator to capture the value of innovative plant varieties by preventing their reproduction after purchase. This book analyses the implications of such technologies in terms of global agricultural production, the rate of innovation at the technological frontier and, in particular, the diffusion of these innovations across the globe. The authors set forth the economic and institutional framework within which innovations are occurring, focusing on the impacts on the least technologically advanced nations and their incentives to conserve genetic resources for use in future research and development. This stimulating book should be widely read by agricultural and resource economists, development economists, and scholars and researchers of environmental economics. Policymakers in developing countries will also gain valuable insights into the distribution of the potential benefits from biotechnology.
This important book develops an evolutionary conception of growth in East Asia, in which technology, organizations and institutions interact and co-evolve to advance productivity. Episodic crises are seen as disruptions which bring to the fore structural and institutional flaws that need reform. The author begins with a thorough analysis of the neo-classical theory of technical change and shows that it fails to capture crucial aspects of the various learning processes involved. He goes on to develop a comprehensive framework for understanding technological progress. Productivity growth is seen as deriving from knowledge hard-coded in equipment and structures, and soft-coded in human skill, organizations and institutions that guide economic activity. The role of exports in promoting faster growth is also examined, as are the channels of technological capability acquisition. This book will be welcomed by academics, policymakers, students, government bodies and business people interested in East Asian growth and in understanding technological change in general.
Former Internet entrepreneur Andrew Keen was among the earliest to write about the dangers that the Internet poses to our culture and society. His 2007 book The Cult of the Amateur was critical in helping advance the conversation around the Internet, which has now morphed from a tool providing efficiencies and opportunities for consumers and business to an elemental force that is profoundly reshaping our societies and our world. In his new book, How to Fix the Future, Keen focuses on what we can do about this seemingly intractable situation. Looking to the past to learn how we might change our future, he describes how societies tamed the excesses of the Industrial Revolution, which, like its digital counterpart, demolished long-standing models of living, ruined harmonious environments, and altered the business world beyond recognition. Traveling the world to interview experts in a wide variety of fields, from EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager, whose recent 2.4 billion fine to Google made headlines around the world, to successful venture capitalists who nonetheless see the tide turning, to CEOs of companies including The New York Times, Keen unearths approaches to tackling our digital future. There are five key tools that Keen identifies: regulation, competitive innovation, social responsibility, worker and consumer choice, and education. His journey to discover how these tools are being put into practice around the globe takes him from digital-oriented Estonia, where Skype was founded and where every citizen can access whatever data the government holds on them by logging in to an online database, and where a "e-residency" program allows the country to expand beyond its narrow borders, to Singapore, where a large part of the higher education sector consists in professional courses in coding and website design, to India, Germany, China, Russia, and, of course, Silicon Valley. Powerful, urgent, and deeply engaging, How to Fix the Future vividly depicts what we must do if we are to try to preserve human values in an increasingly digital world and what steps we might take as societies and individuals to make the future something we can again look forward to.
Much progress has been made to understand the intricacies of the brain's workings. Some have claimed, and many assumed, that these findings have challenged faith in God to the point of destruction. Are we not mere neural machines? Are religious experiences not just 'in the mind', the products of abnormal 'brain events'? Is faith not just a side effect of evolution? Not so, according to neuroscientist Peter Clarke, after a lifetime's study of the brain. In this comprehensive book, the current state of neuroscientific evidence is weighed up alongside ideas of what it means to be human, the idea of the soul, near-death experiences, and questions of free will and responsibility. He engages with the leading thinkers in these areas, including Francis Crick, Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, and Daniel Wegner.
This book was originally published in 1971. Discoveries in modern biology can radically change human life as we know it. As our understanding of living processes, such as inheritance, grows, so do the possibilities of applying these results for good and evil, such as the treatment of disease, the control of ageing, behaviour and genetic engineering. These discoveries and their implications are discussed by some of the world's leading biologists
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