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For courses in Embedded System Design, Microcontroller's Software and Hardware, Microprocessor Interfacing, Microprocessor Assembly Language Programming, Peripheral Interfacing, Senior Project Design, Embedded System programming with C. The AVR Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C features a step-by-step approach in covering both Assembly and C language programming of the AVR family of Microcontrollers. It offers a systematic approach in programming and interfacing of the AVR with LCD, keyboard, ADC, DAC, Sensors, Serial Ports, Timers, DC and Stepper Motors, Opto-isolators, and RTC. Both Assembly and C languages are used in all the peripherals programming. In the first 6 chapters, Assembly language is used to cover the AVR architecture and starting with chapter 7, both Assembly and C languages are used to show the peripherals programming and interfacing.
Most people in the world have either no access to electricity or a poor and unreliable supply, yet the importance of access to electricity cannot be overstated. This source book aims to provide practical help in gaining accessibility to electricity for those living in remote or rural communities as well as individual home owners and small businesses.;The book begins with a brief introduction to the national grid and then focuses on some of the possibilities for independent production of electricity in the quantities used by households, micro-enterprises and small communities: diesel generators; micro-hydro; wind energy; solar photovoltaic energy (PV); gasifiers; biogas; steam; and batteries. Descriptions of the technologies and their costs are given, as well as their different requirements in terms of inputs and skill requirements for installation and operation. Information and advice is given on using electricity; indications on how to calculate the size of technology needed; and how to choose appropriate appliances. The text contains case studies from developing countries, highlighting successful women's initiatives with these technologies.; The book is intended to provide resourc
The participation of such diverse scientific and technical disciplines as meteorology, astronomy, atmospheric electricity, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, electromagnetic wave propagation, and radio techniques in the research of atmospherics means that results are published in scientific papers widely spread throughout the literature. This Handbook collects the latest knowledge on atmospherics and presents it in two volumes. Each chapter is written by an expert in his or her field. Topics include the physics of thunderclouds, thunder, global atmospheric electric currents, biological aspects of sferics, and various space techniques for detecting lightning within our own atmosphere as well as in the atmospheres of other planets. Up-to-date applications and methodology are detailed. Volumes I and II offer a comprehensive discussion that together will serve as an important resource for practitioners, professionals, and students alike.
Published in association with Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi The State Electricity Boards (SEB) present huge potential for daily change in the lives of a billion-strong Indian population. Often described as nearly impossible to reform, SEBs offer huge untapped potential for higher technological efficiency, that in turn could mean reliable electricity for day-to-day life, reduced bills for the users and the public exchequer, higher environmental sustainability. For this potential to appear clearly in the public debate, the so-called technicalities of the power sector should no longer be the monopoly of a few specialists and technocrats. And indeed, Indias history of economic regulation has entered into a new era when, in the power sector, the model of independent regulation for utilities got enacted through the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998, then followed by the new Electricity Act 2003. The regulatory commissions gained a saying in virtually all technical matters within the utilities. The biggest chasse gardee of the SEBs engineers had not resisted. This volume comes as third in a series on the power sector reforms in India. The series attempts at understanding (i) the organizational tasks, (ii) the tariffs aspects, (iii) the role of the private, (iv) the role of technology in the complex, variegated, state-specific Indian scenario. A clear and sound public debate on tariffs, service, advantages, and limits of privatization in the Indian scenario can only come from an informed assessment of current margins in technological enhancement of SEBs and on the relevance of the Act in framing such a new Indian power system. This volume wishes to contribute to this debate.
There have been several recent developments that have affected the design and operation of refrigerator compressors. The most significant changes have been brought about through legislation concerning the use of CFCs and those relating to the close control of chilled food storage cabinets. Other developments affecting the selection and operation of refrigerator compressors include the steady fall in the cost of electronic components, which has challenged designers to produce innovative control systems. In addition, the recent application of advanced scroll and screw compressors, and developments in heat exchanger technology, have lead to more compact and efficient refrigeration systems.
This book consolidates some of the most promising advanced smart grid functionalities and provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for their implementation/evaluation using DIgSILENT Power Factory. It includes specific aspects of modeling, simulation and analysis, for example wide-area monitoring, visualization and control, dynamic capability rating, real-time load measurement and management, interfaces and co-simulation for modeling and simulation of hybrid systems. It also presents key advanced features of modeling and automation of calculations using PowerFactory, such as the use of domain-specific (DSL) and DIgSILENT Programming (DPL) languages, and utilizes a variety of methodologies including theoretical explanations, practical examples and guidelines. Providing a concise compilation of significant outcomes by experienced users and developers of this program, it is a valuable resource for postgraduate students and engineers working in power-system operation and planning.
Volume 1 of a 4-volume series is a concise, authoritative and an eminently readable and enjoyable experience related to hydrogen production, storage and usage for portable and stationary power. Although the major focus is on hydrogen, discussion of fossil fuels and nuclear power is also presented where appropriate. This monograph is written by recognized experts in the field, and is both timely and appropriate as this decade will see application of hydrogen as an energy carrier, for example in transportation sector. The world's reliance on fossil fuels is due to the ever growing need for energy to sustain life and on-going progress; however exploitation also brings consequences such as emission of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur dioxides into the atmosphere. The collective influence of these photochemical gases is production of acid rain and an alternation of global temperatures, leading to record high temperatures in many parts of the world. The fossil fuel is unsustainable and thus there is a critical need for alternative sustainable energy resources. One universal energy carrier is hydrogen, which is the focus of this volume. This book is suitable for those who work in the energy field as technical experts, including engineers and scientists, as well as managers, policy and decision-makers, environmentalists and consultants. Students and practitioners such as lectures, teachers, legislators and their aids in the field of energy will find this book invaluable and a practical handbook or guide in the field of sustainable energy with emphasis on hydrogen as an energy carrier.
Helps planners identify energy needs early on so they can be integrated into project design. Summarizes key issues, with detailed discussion of energy options and the dynamics of supply and demand; plus fact sheets and checklists for quick reference.
"Let There Be Light." Borrowing from the bible, the Eveready Co. used this phrase on the cover of its 1899 catalog, along with a hand from the heavens pointing a flashlight at the earth. Those were the beginning years of the flashlight, originally promoted to help sell batteries and growing to become an essential safety product in every American household and automobile. Never before has there been an extensive treatment of the flashlight from an historical and collectible point of view. In this beautifully illustrated full color volume, Stuart Schneider brings a fascinating world to "light." With flashlights ranging from the purely practical to the elegantly stylish, to the playthings of children, the reader will begin to appreciate the beauty of their design and their inventiveness. 458 color photographs illustrate the book, each accompanied by an informative caption and the value of the model in today's market. Histories of many companies and important information for collectors is also included.
A thoroughly revised and redesigned edition of this excellent title, previously published in 1995.
The practical application of second law energy analysis and associated thermoeconomics is increasingly generating practical applications. It is the aim of "Combined Power and Process - An Exergy Approach" to accelerate this process by providing selected examples of applications which demonstrate the fresh and altered sense of proportion obtainable from exergy methods.
Using exergy analysis attention is successfully channelled
towards economic improvement, and this book can thus be recommended
as a valuable aid to all those engineers and designers associated
with the analysis of engineering projects involving, for example,
Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology - with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element - is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.
From the preeminent Edison scholar . . . The definitive life of the inventor of the modern age
The conventional story is so familiar and reassuring that it has come to read more like American myth than history: With only three months of formal education, a curious and hardworking young man beats the odds and becomes one of the greatest inventors in history. Not only does he invent the phonograph and the first successful electric light bulb, but he also establishes the first electrical power distribution company and lays the technological groundwork for today's movies, telephones, and sound recording industry. Through relentless tinkering, by trial and error, the story goes, Thomas Alva Edison perseveres—and changes the world.
In the revelatory Edison: A Life of Invention, author Paul Israel exposes and enriches this one-dimensional view of the solitary "Wizard of Menlo Park," expertly situating his subject within a thoroughly realized portrait of a burgeoning country on the brink of massive change. The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed the birth of corporate America, and with it the newly overlapping interests of scientific, technological, and industrial cultures. Working against the common perception of Edison as a symbol of a mythic American past where persistence and individuality yielded hard-earned success, Israel demonstrates how Edison's remarkable career was actually very much a product of the inventor's fast-changing era. Edison drew widely from contemporary scientific knowledge and research, and was a crucial figure in the transformation of invention into modern corporate research and collaborative development.
Informed by more than five million pages of archival documents, Paul Israel's ambitious life of Edison brightens the unexamined corners of a singularly influential and triumphant career in science. In these pages, history's most prolific inventor—he received an astounding 1,093 U.S. patents—comes to life as never before. Edison is the only biography to cover the whole of Edison's career in invention, including his early, foundational work in telegraphy. Armed with unprecedented access to Edison's workshop diaries, notebooks, and letters, Israel brings fresh insights into how the inventor's creative mind worked. And for the first time, much attention is devoted to his early family life in Ohio and Michigan—where the young Edison honed his entrepreneurial sense and eye for innovation as a newsstand owner and editor of a weekly newspaper—underscoring the inventor's later successes with new resonance and pathos.
In recognizing the inventor's legacy as a pivotal figure in the second Industrial Revolution, Israel highlights Edison's creation of the industrial research laboratory, driven by intricately structured teams of researchers. The efficient lab forever changed the previously serendipitous art of workshop invention into something regular, predictable, and very attractive to corporate business leaders. Indeed, Edison's collaborative research model became the prototype upon which today's research firms and think tanks are based.
The portrait of Thomas Alva Edison that emerges from this peerless biography is of a man of genius and astounding foresight. It is also a portrait rendered with incredible care, depth, and dimension, rescuing our century's godfather of invention from myth and simplification.
Advance Praise for Edison: A Life of Invention
"Familiar Edison stories come alive with fresh insight . . . Israel's scholarship is impeccable while his deceptively easy grace transforms a challenging story into a page turner. One hundred years of history texts have been right all along. Thomas Edison, a protean actor on the American landscape, requires our attention. Paul Israel has given us a book to satisfy that requirement for a long time to come."— John M. Staudenmaier, S.J., Editor, Technology and Culture
Praise for Paul Israel's Edison's Electric Light "Well documented and significant."
"An accurate and exciting narrative . . . the standard source on Edison's greatest invention."—Science
"Eminently readable and meticulously researched . . . a scholarly work of high order."—Library Journal
Thermal power plants are one of the most important process industries for engineering professionals. The most fundamental challenge is meeting the growing power demand in sustainable and efficient ways. Therefore, technological advancement is the requirement of the hour in every field of industrialization for improvement in their efficiencies by reduction in operating expenditure, judicious utilization of natural resources and protection damage to our natural environment. There will come a day when much quantity will be limited like charcoal. In addition, the use of these fossil fuels results in greater pollution, despite the measures taken. The details of the research results and the new development in fields are highlighted in this book. The subject looked after research and development, starting from power generation to environmental aspects of power plants. With regards to the thermal power plants research, the technological advance discussed in this book include experimentation, investigation assessment and analysis new models, new processes and control process concept for improving efficiencies and reducing emissions of CO. Advances of the use of solar energy to realize a new type of thermal power plant are also discussed.
The book presents a stochastic analysis based on production risk and application of this method in the industrial sector under production risk where energy use is an input factor. Using South Korea as a case study, the book empirically models energy demand at the industrial level and analyzes the results to identify key determinants of energy demand, productions level, productions risk and energy usage efficiency. Particular attention is paid to the factors that enhance production risk or increase variations in energy input during production. A dynamic panel model is specified and applied to 25 Korean industrial sectors over the period 1970-2007. The determinants of energy usage are identified and their effects in the form of elasticities of energy usage are estimated. In addition the structural changes in the energy demand pattern are explored. Stochastic production technology is applied to create two primary models: A production model where the energy usage is a determinant of output and an energy demand model based on an inverted factor demand model where demand is a key determinant of the level of energy usage. The findings reveal that: First, there are large variations in the degree of overuse or inefficiency in energy usage among the individual industries and over time; second, ICT (information and communication technology) capital and labor are substituting energy; third, ICT capital and value added services are two input factors decreasing the variability of energy demand while non-ICT capital, material and labor are increasing the variability of energy demand. Finally, the results suggest that technical progress contributes more to the increase of mean of energy demand than to the reduction of the level of risk. An emerging recommendation is that industries increase the level of ICT capital and digitalization and invest more in R&D activities and value added services to reduce the uncertainty related to their demand for energy. This study forms the structure of the demand for energy under stochastic production risk for the South Korean industrial sector. Public research programs aimed at the industrial sector should be concerned about both mean and risk properties in research on new technologies and in the investigation of possible alternative energy inputs. This book describes the state of the art in energy usage analysis and production risk, applying factor requirement methodology. It will be of use as a main or supplementary text in the teaching of advanced graduate courses but also as a reference for those working on empirically advanced research. The book is an important addition to the existing literature on industrial development, with its focus on energy as a core production input.
"Provides detailed, comprehensive descriptions of electrostatic processes as well as their applications in areas such as rheology, atomization and spraying, industrial dust particle precipitation and filtering, biomedical engineering, gas treatments, atmospheric electricity, chemical reactors, and electronic devices. Summarizes electrostatic fundamentals and electrical phenomena in solids and fluids."
The planning of hydropower developments is still a great challenge covering a wide range of technical, economic and environmental issues. The present volume addresses these issues and highlights the ways in which hydropower can be developed to meet varying demands and changing conditions.
There is widespread interest throughout the world in improving appliance energy efficiency. Methods to reach that end include energy labeling, energy efficiency standards and market conditioning (e.g, energy efficient procurement and DSM programs). Energy efficiency standards, which started out as an action to reduce demand for energy in individual countries, has now become a subject of regional and even worldwide dimension, particularly in the context of global climate change mitigation. Mandatory energy efficiency standards are in place for some appliances in China, Canada, Mexico, the Philippines and the United States. Standards for refrigerator/freezers will take effect in Australia and the European Union in 1999. Voluntary energy efficiency standards are in place for refrigerators in Brazil, India and Korea and for air conditioners in India, Japan and Korea. Table I showed potential global energy use reductions from codes and standards in buildings. If individual country data can be assembled, a more accurate approach to estimating potential reductions in energy use and carbon emissions would be to perform a bottom-up analysis for energy using equipment on an end-use basis in as many large developing countries as possible. The impact of standards would be assessed as more efficient appliances replaced existing stock models and new purchases that increased saturation rates were made at higher efficiencies than would otherwise be the case. This approach would show the slow but steady buildup of annual energy savings from efficiency standards or other programs to improve energy efficiency.
Striking a balance between basic and applied issues, this one-of-a-kind, single-source reference covers the design, operations, diagnostics, and testing of electrical insulation in high-voltage power networks. Furnishes a thorough knowledge of the fundamental properties of dielectrics essential for the optimum design of power systems Providing a comprehensive survey of advanced digital and electro-optic techniques used in both the field and research, Electrical Insulation in Power Systems examines the mechanisms of gas discharge and the air clearances necessary on transmission network and substation equipment explains SF6 circuit breakers, gas insulated switchgear (GIS), the mechanisms that control breakdown in SF6 gas, and performance of SF6-related equipment describes liquid, solid, and vacuum dielectrics as well as dielectric classification, electrical properties, conduction, and breakdown mechanisms addresses composite insulation as well as polymeric and oil-filled cables elucidates high-voltage testing techniques, internationally accepted classifications, test procedures, and standards and more Generously illustrated with over 200 drawings, tables, and photographs, Electrical Insulation in Power Systems is an indispensable, hands-on guide for electrical and electronics, high-voltage, insulation, electrical-power, transmission and distribution, chemical, and materials engineers; polymer chemists; dielectric physicists; materials scientists; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
This book covers the basics and the state of the art of energy-efficient motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. It describes recent developments in advanced motor technologies such as permanent magnet and reluctance motors. Energy-efficient motor technologies, though enabling a huge amount of electricity to be saved, still have not been widely adopted. The book presents barriers to the adoption of those technologies and features policies to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies, describing the experiences carried out so far in different parts of the world. The volume includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan and New Zealand.
Offers details on the utilization of electrical heating elements in consumer appliance design and industrial processes. The text includes basic theory, metallurgy and production advice for developing more reliable and cost-effective heaters. It provides tables comparing resistivity and surface resistance of different materials, and listing the resistance and weight per metre as well as surface per ohm of whole and half B&S wire and ribbon sizes for common standard resistance heating alloys. The book also contains calculation equations suitable for use in BASIC programs.
The role of energy in the modern world goes beyond mere technology and economics to influence welfare, environment, life quality and, broadly, civilisation. Since the industrial revolution, energy conversion technology has been at the forefront of innovation required to satisfy the needs of mankind. This technology more than others has always been very dependent on the performance of the materials used; especially over the last two decades during which efficiency and environmental concerns have become challenging objectives. In this context the European Commission has developed significant collaborative programmes in Europe within the COST framework, to enhance the state of the art in this technology. The Li ge Conferences pursue the mission to report on the achievements of these programmes in the light of progress made elsewhere. The first four conferences in this series were held in 1978, 1982, 1986 and 1990, and provided the opportunity to present and review the work of the European Materials Collaborative Programmes COST-50 (gas turbines), COST-505 (steam turbines) and COST- 501 (energy conversion from fossil fuels). The proceedings of these conferences were published by Applied Science Publishers (1978) and by D. ReideIlKluwer Publishing Company (1982, 1986 and 1990). While the first two Conferences have dealt essentially with high temperature alloys for gas turbines (COST 50), the third and fourth Conferences held in 1986 and 1990 were concerned with a broader range of topics, including the work of the third round of COST-50 (1972-1983), that of COST-50l, which was initiated in 1981 and COST 505 (1983-1990).
The causes and impacts of power disturbances on both sides of the user-utility interface are discussed, and the results of power quality surveys are reviewed. Desirable attributes of monitoring equipment are discussed along with approaches that can be taken by the electric utilities to improve the quality of the power delivered to customers. Users of sensitive devices, such as computers and health care equipment, are given information on power quality improvement equipment, such as uninterruptible power supplies. Includes a glossary.
The German R + D program "Solares Testzentrum Almeria" (SOTA) provides the scientific basis for the realization of advanced solar technologies including facility modifica-tions, component tests and new lines of development. One of the working packages, WP 300, addresses the "Scientific Support" by the performance of pre-paratory studies, exploratory laboratory activities and quali fied expertise. Universities, Research Institutes and Company R + D Entities in Germany are enabled to treat the following aspects: * Meteorological, system and cost investigations, * Development of important components as concentrator, receiver, storage, * Utilization of solar energy for process heat and chemical reactions. In 1990 the studies covered the developments of terminal concentrators, receivers, integrated receiver/reactors, and solar chemistry processes. The reports of the activities were finalized recently and collected in the present volume. The final reports were printed as received. The achieved results and the views ex-pressed within the reports were under the responsibility of the authors. As organizers of these solar thermal activities and as editors of the corresponding final reports, we would like to thank BMFT and KFA-BEO for the farsighted funding (grant no. 0328823A) and the research groups for their engagement and consultations. We would also like to thanl< Ms S. Preusser and Ms U. Rachow, who among many others contributed to the realization of this volume.
Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), arguably Britain's most eminent scientist after Newton, spent much of his life in work which led to the development of today's electrical units and standards. Despite his influence, there are few biographies of stature (largely due to the abstruse nature of much of his technical research). This treatment concentrates upon his work in three phases; discovery of the fundamental concepts and coding them into universal laws, leading the adoption of the metric system, and securing worldwide use of units and standards (now the IEC system).
This book aims at a theoretical and practical treatment of both conduction and induction heating. They share a common theory, one being the 'mirror image' of the other, and so one gets two for the price of one. The book comprises four parts: conduction theory, induction theory, heat flow and practice. Modern induction practice is treated in four big chapters - through heating, surface heating, special applications and metal melting. In addition, there is a smaller chapter on conduction heating. Although, at first sight, this might seem a lot of theory, the practical chapters make up half of the book and the theory itself is practically oriented. Throughout, the emphasis is on fundamentals and understanding, usually starting from first principles, with plenty of worked examples. Much of the theory is new, being either presented differently or solving new problems. Most of the Direct Resistance Heating is new. There are new approaches to tube heating, both for DRH and induction; these show clearly the relationship to the solid solution. There are also chapters on saturation and the effect of permeability. This is a book that should be invaluable to engineers and technicians, designers and users. It will be useful to students studying either the theory of the heating process or its practice. The mathematics is not difficult and SI units are used throughout.
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