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The secret history of Dada's Romanian roots; how Tristan Tzara, Marcel, Jules, and Georges Janco, and Arthur Segal influenced the most famous and outrageous modernist movement. Dada-perhaps the most famous and outrageous of modernism's artistic movements-is said to have begun at the Cabaret Voltaire, a literary evening staged at the restaurant Meierei in Zurich on February 5, 1916. The evening featured stamping, roaring, banging on the lids of pots and pans, and the recitation of incomprehensible "poemes simultanes." Thus a global revolution in art and culture was born in a Swiss restaurant. Or was it? In Dada East, Tom Sandqvist shows that Dada did not spring full-grown from a Zurich literary salon but grew out of an already vibrant artistic tradition in Eastern Europe-particularly Romania-that was transposed to Switzerland when a group of Romanian modernists settled in Zurich. Bucharest and other cities in Romania had been the scene of Dada-like poetry, prose, and spectacle in the years before World War I. One of the leading lights was Tristan Tzara, who began his career in avant-garde literature at fifteen when he cofounded the magazine Simbolul. Tzara-who himself coined the term "Dada," inspired by an obscure connection of his birthday to an Orthodox saint-was at the Cabaret Voltaire that night, along with fellow Romanians Marcel, Jules, and Georges Janco and Arthur Segal. It's not a coincidence, Sandqvist argues, that so many of the first dadaist group were Romanians. Sandqvist traces the artistic and personal transformations that took place in the "little Paris of the Balkans" before they took center stage elsewhere, finding sources as varied as symbolism, futurism, and folklore. He points to a connection between Romanian modernists and the Eastern European Yiddish tradition; Tzara, the Janco brothers, and Segal all grew up within Jewish culture and traditions. For years, the communist authorities in Romania disowned and disavowed Romania's avant-garde movements. Now, as archives and libraries are opening to Western scholars, Tom Sandqvist tells the secret history of Dada's Romanian roots.
The Militant Muse documents what it meant to be young, ambitious and female in the context of an avant-garde movement defined by celebrated men whose educational, philosophical and literary backgrounds were often quite different from those of their younger lovers and companions. Focusing on the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, Whitney Chadwick charts five intense, far-reaching female friendships among the Surrealists to show how Surrealism, female friendship and the experiences of war, loss and trauma shaped individual women's transitions from beloved muses to mature artists. Her vivid account includes the fascinating story of Claude Cahun and Suzanne Malherbe's subversive activities in occupied Jersey, as well as the experiences of Lee Miller and Valentine Penrose at the frontline. Chadwick draws on personal correspondence between women, including the extraordinary letters between Leonora Carrington and Leonor Fini during the months following the arrest and imprisonment of Carrington's lover Max Ernst at the beginning of World War Two, and the letter Frida Kahlo shared with her friend and lover Jacqueline Lamba years after it was written in the late 1930s during a difficult stay in Paris, marred by her intense dislike of Breton. Thoroughly engrossing, this history brings a new perspective to the political context of Surrealism, as well as fresh insights on the vital importance of female friendship to its artistic and intellectual flowering.
Perhaps no 20th-century artist utilized puns and linguistic ambiguity with greater effect - and greater controversy - than Marcel Duchamp. Through a careful "unpacking" of his major works, the author finds that Duchamp may well have the last laugh. She examines how he interpreted notions of mechanical reproduction in order to redefine the meaning and value of the art object, the artist, and artistic production. The book begins with Duchamp's supposed abandonment of painting and his subsequent return to material that mimics art without being readily classifiable as such. Her book questions his paradoxical renunciation of pictorial and artistic conventions while continuing to evoke and speculatively draw upon them. She offers analyses of his major works including "The Large Glass", "Fountain", and "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even". Duchamp, a poser and solver of problems, was occupied by issues of genre, gender and representation. His puns, double entendres, and word games become poetic machines, all part of his intellectual quest for the very limits of nature, culture and perception. Judovitz demonstrates how Duchamp's redefinition of artistic modes of production thro
Born in Buenos Aires in 1899, and reborn in Paris in 1928, Eileen Agar was an artist whose work throughout her long career synthesized elements of the two main art movements of the twentieth century: Cubism and Surrealism. This monograph, the first full account of Agar's complete works, including paintings, collages, photographs and objects, comes at a time when there is a major revival of interest in Surrealism in the UK and worldwide. Drawing on personal conversations with the artist as well as original research, Michel Remy examines the life and work of the artist through-out her long career, from her passage through Cubism and abstraction to Surrealism, as well as her dedicated participation in Surreal-ist activities in England and abroad. Each period is illustrated with many striking images, including rare photographs, and supported by penetrating interpretations. The powerful myth-making drive that underlies Agar's output is revealed, as well the tenderness, humour, poetry, love of nature and the world, subversion of the laws of reality, and celebration of femininity that suffuses each of her works.This is a timely, fresh and cogent account of a fascinating woman artist whose quality of work, independence of mind and freedom of imagination refute the assertion that women have not played a major role in the story of Surrealism. The book will appeal to anyone interested in art history and Surrealism.
Printmaker, landscape painter, and cofounder of Der Blaue Reiter ("The Blue Rider"), Franz Marc (1880-1916) left an exceptional legacy in German Expressionism. His work absorbed influences including Paul Gauguin, van Gogh, Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Robert Delaunay to galvanize a new vocabulary of form and color. Especially keen on depictions of animals, Marc's work began emphasizing cubist, semiabstracted shapes; frenetic, whirling compositions; and in his paintings, a new vocabulary of color. Marc located spiritual values in different shades. Blue was spirituality and masculinity. Yellow depicted femininity and joy. Red hues correlated to anger and violence. It was with his friend and peer Wassily Kandinsky that Marc founded Der Blaue Reiter, a loose band of artists connected by a shared interest in woodcuts and prints, the symbolic values of color, and spontaneous approaches to painting. The group was short-lived, dissolving with the onset of the First World War-which would also claim Marc's life in 1916-but it set an Expressionist standard that would flourish for decades. In this new edition in TASCHEN's popular Basic Art series, we meet this pivotal figure of German art and explore his short but hugely accomplished career, which at once defined an era and set an enduring point of Expressionist reference.
Photography is most often thought of as a way to document reality - to capture true-life experiences as they occur. But for the artists of the Dadaist and Surrealist movements, who placed the very question of reality and its perception at the center of their works, the camera's lens functioned as a creative extension of the imagination - a third eye attuned to unconscious meaning - and the photograph was an index of signs that could be modified, simultaneously recording the everyday and exposing new meanings beneath its surface. "Ghosts of the Black Chamber" presents numerous examples of this fantastic vision in an illustrated directory of experimental photography from 1918 to 1948. "Ghosts of the Black Chamber" presents over two hundred photographic images by revolutionary and iconic artists of the time. In addition to the photographs, which exemplify not only Dadaism and Surrealism, but also lesser-known movements such as Futurism and Vorticism, the book also includes profiles of the fifty well-known artists featured, including Dali, Bellmer, Breton, Ernst, Magritte, and Man Ray. This comprehensive and stunning collection is both a wonderful introduction to midcentury experimental art and a must-have for fans of the Surrealists and Dadaists.
Surrealist artist Max Ernst defined collage as the "alchemy of the visual image." Students of his work have often dismissed this comment as simply a metaphor for the transformative power of using found images in a new context. Taking a wholly different perspective on Ernst and alchemy, however, M. E. Warlick persuasively demonstrates that the artist had a profound and abiding interest in alchemical philosophy and often used alchemical symbolism in works created throughout his career.
A revival of interest in alchemy swept the artistic, psychoanalytic, historical, and scientific circles of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and Warlick sets Ernst's work squarely within this movement. Looking at both his art (many of the works she discusses are reproduced in the book) and his writings, she reveals how thoroughly alchemical philosophy and symbolism pervade his early Dadaist experiments, his foundational work in surrealism, and his many collages and paintings of women and landscapes, whose images exemplify the alchemical fusing of opposites. This pioneering research adds an essential key to understanding the multilayered complexity of Ernst's works, as it affirms his standing as one of Germany's most significant artists of the twentieth century.
'Decoding Magritte' proposes aphasia, the defective ability to produce and comprehend language, as the key to an in-depth understanding of Magritte's work. Drawing on previously unpublished material, as well as on linguistics and structuralist theory, Silvano Levy sheds new light on the artist's paintings, particularly those from the early, experimental period.
Surrealist Sculptures delineates a dialogue between the two dominant modes of sculpture that evolved in tandem within the surrealist movement - found-object assemblages and nature-inspired biomorphism. The book offers a continuous narrative of contributions by both European and American surrealist artists from the early 1920s through the late 1940s. Artists from France, Germany, Britain, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States established Surrealism as transnational from the outset. Key artists who incorporated found objects in their works include Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Salvador Dali, Hans Bellmer, and Joseph Cornell. The biomorphists encompass Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and Isamu Noguchi. In addition, Alberto Giacometti, Alexander Calder and David Smith, are highlighted for their game-changing innovations that influenced the evolution of modern sculpture. Nearly two hundred illustrations and a selection of historical texts accompany the insightful essay and chronology by Valerie J. Fletcher. Fans of Surrealism and those new to the genre will appreciate this book's in-depth approach to its innovative and influential three-dimensional masterpieces.
"Surrealism" is a survey of the twentieth century's longest lasting
and, arguably, most influential art movement. Championed and held
together by Andre Breton for over forty years, Surrealism was
France's major avant-garde artistic tendency from 1924 onwards,
rapidly spreading around the globe to become an international
phenomenon. During World War II Surrealism's exiled artists and
writers had a major impact on American art and were a primary
influence for the Abstract Expressionist generation. The official
surrealist movement continued to the end of Breton's life in 1966,
and its legacy is still pervasive today, in contemporary art as
well as in numerous quotations from surrealist imagery in cinema,
advertising and the media.
"Free Rein" is a gathering of seminal essays by Andre Breton, the foremost figure among the French surrealists. Written between 1936 and 1952, they include addresses, manifestoes, prefaces, exhibition pamphlets, and theoretical, polemical, and lyrical essays. Together they display the full span of Breton's preoccupations, his abiding faith in the early principles of surrealism, and the changing orientations, in light of crucial events of those years, of the surrealist movement within which he remained the leading force.
Having broken decisively with Marxism in the mid-1930s, Breton repeatedly addresses the horrors of the Stalinist regime (which denounced him during the Moscow trials of 1936). He argues for the autonomy of art and poetry and condemns the subservience to "revolutionary" aims exemplified by socialist realism. Other articles reflect on aesthetic issues, cinema, music, and education and provide detailed meditations on the literary, artistic, and philosophical topics for which he is best known. "Free Rein" will prove indispensable for students of Breton, surrealism, and modern French and European culture.
The unexpected encounter of a rubber glove, a green ball and the head from the classical statue of the Apollo Belvedere gives rise to one of the most compelling paintings in the history of modernist art: Giorgio de Chirico's "The Song of Love" (1914). De Chirico made his career in Paris in the years before World War I, combining his nostalgia for ancient Mediterranean culture with his fascination for the curios found in Parisian shop windows. Beloved by the Surrealists, this uncanny image exemplifies de Chirico's radical "metaphysical" painting, which creates a disturbing sense of unreality, outside logical space and time, through the novel depiction of ordinary things. Emily Braun's essay explores the sources behind the work's enigmatic motifs, its influence on avant-garde painters and poets, and its continuing ability to captivate viewers as de Chirico intended, even a century after it was made.
As a one of the foremost painters of the 20th century, Dali, like Picasso and Warhol, can boast of having overturned the art of the previous century and directed contemporary art toward its present incarnation. As irrational as he was surrealist, this genius diverted objects from their original meanings, plunging them into the acid of his constantly churning imagination. A megalomaniac and an artist who above all understood the force of marketing and publicity, Dali disorients the viewer in order to draw him into the artist's world. On his canvases, images and colours crash together to express and mock certain ideas, creating a subversive eroticism that taps into the subconscious of the avid voyeurs that we are. The author, Eric Shanes, explores the twists and turns of Dali's mad genius, commenting on the masterpieces of the painter so as to show the diversity and scope of his talent, leaving the reader blown away and bewitched by this Prince of Metamorphosis. This work opens up the sweet, mad universe of this megalomaniac genius and invites us to let ourselves be overcome ... Dali is, first and foremost, an absolute.
Surrealism was one of the most influential movements of the twentieth century and had a profound impact on all forms of culture. It was a philosophy and a way of life for some of the most brilliant artists of the century. This is the first book to examine in depth its impact in the wider fields of design and the decorative arts and its sometimes uneasy relationship with the commercial world. From the sensuality of Dali's Mae West Lips Sofa to Schiaparelli's extraordinary 'Tear' dress, Surrealism produced some of the most emotive objects ever created. In this ground-breaking book, works in all media from artists and designers such as Jean Cocteau, Pablo Picasso, Man Ray, Alexander Calder, Max Ernst and Joan Miro will be used to explore some of Surrealism's dominant themes. Containing over 350 stunning illustrations, including previously unpublished works in private collections and specially commissioned photographs, the range of objects spans painting, sculpture, works on paper, bookbindings, jewellery, ceramics, glass, textiles, furniture, fashion, film and photography.
Dada: The Collections of The Museum of Modern Art is the first publication devoted exclusively to MoMA's unrivalled collection of Dada works. Beginning with a core group acquired on the occasion of the landmark Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism exhibition of 1936, enriched in 1953 by a bequest selected by Marcel Duchamp, and steadily augmented over the years, the Museum's Dada collection presents the movement in its full international and interdisciplinary scope during its defining years, from 1916 through 1924. Catalyzed by the major Dada exhibition that appeared in Paris, Washington, D.C., and at The Museum of Modern Art in 2005-6, the book benefits from the latest scholarly thinking, not only as found in the exhibition's catalogues but also in the critical responses to them, as well as in an ambitious series of seminars organized around the show. Featuring generously illustrated essays that focus on a selection of the Museum's most important Dada works, this publication highlights works in many media, including books, journals, assemblages, collages, drawings, films, paintings, photographs, photomontages, prints, readymades and reliefs. It also includes a comprehensive catalogue of the Museum's Dada holdings, including those in the Museum's Archives and Library. Edited by Anne Umland and Adrian Sudhalter, members of the Museum's Department of Painting and Sculpture, this book inaugurates an ambitious new series of scholarly catalogues on the Museum's collection.
Perhaps the best-known artist of the international Surrealist movement, Salvador Dali (1904-1989) transformed his dreams and personal obsessions into some of the most original and arresting images of the 20th century. While the Surrealist works from his early years are widely known and admired, Dali's controversial late works--often inspired by science and religion--have been given a different reception. In this important book, experts provide a revisionist account of the last five decades of the artist's career.
"The Dali Renaissance" explores a wide range of topics from this period, including the artist's fascination with religion and popular culture, his "Nuclear Mysticism" lecture tour of the midwestern United States, and his influence on film, photography, design, and fashion. Based on an international symposium held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the volume also features an enlightening discussion between two of Dali's former companions, Ultra Violet and Amanda Lear, that provides a glimpse into his personal life and working methods.
Now available again, this fascinating look at Dal' explores the forces that shaped the life and works of one of the modern art world's most inscrutable and misunderstood figures. Concise yet comprehensive, this elegant volume follows Dal''s artistic development from the 1920s to his death in 1989. Accompanied by brilliant reproductions and the artist's own words, it offers detailed analyses of his most important paintings based on the theories of two men who deeply influenced his thinking: Sigmund Freud and his protege, Otto Rank. What emerges is a picture of an artist whose pursuit of self-knowledge provides fascinating and important insights into the inner workings of the creative imagination."
Many of the greatest avant-garde artists of the early twentieth century were Ukrainians or came from Ukraine. Whether living in Paris, St. Petersburg or Kyiv, they made major contributions to painting, sculpture, theatre, and film-making. Because their connection to Ukraine has seldom been explored, English-language readers are often unaware that figures such as Archipenko, Burliuk, Malevich, and Exter were inspired both by their country of origin and their links to compatriots. This book traces the avant-garde development from its pre-war years in Paris to the end of the 1920s in Kyiv. It includes chapters on the political dilemmas faced by this generation, the contribution of Jewish artists, and the work of several emblematic figures: Mykhailo Boichuk, David Burliuk, Kazimir Malevich, Vadym Meller, Ivan Kavaleridze, and Dziga Vertov.
The artist Francis Picabia--notorious dandy, bon vivant, painter, poet, filmmaker, and polemicist--has emerged as the Dadaist with postmodern appeal, and one of the most enigmatic forces behind the enigma that was Dada. In this first book in English to focus on Picabia's work in Paris during the Dada years, art historian and critic George Baker reimagines Dada through Picabia's eyes. Such reimagining involves a new account of the readymade--Marcel Duchamp's anti-art invention, which opened fine art to mass culture and the commodity. But in Picabia's hands, Baker argues, the Dada readymade aimed to reinvent art rather than destroy it. Picabia's readymade opened art not just to the commodity, but to the larger world from which the commodity stems: the fluid sea of capital and money that transforms all objects and experiences in its wake. The book thus tells the story of a set of newly transformed artistic practices, claiming them for art history--and naming them--for the first time: Dada Drawing, Dada Painting, Dada Photography, Dada Abstraction, Dada Cinema, Dada Montage. Along the way, Baker describes a series of nearly forgotten objects and events, from the almost lunatic range of the Paris Dada "manifestations" to Picabia's polemical writings; from a lost work by Picabia in the form of a hole (called, suggestively, The Young Girl) to his "painting" Cacodylic Eye, covered in autographs by luminaries ranging from Ezra Pound to Fatty Arbuckle. Baker ends with readymades in prose: a vast interweaving of citations and quotations that converge to create a heated conversation among Picabia, Andre Breton, Tristan Tzara, James Joyce, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, and others. Art history has never looked like this before. But then again, Dada has never looked like art history.George Baker is Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of California, Los Angeles, and an editor at October magazine and October Books. He is the editor of James Coleman (MIT Press) and a frequent contributor to Artforum."
Reprint of the 1935 edition of a study that balances the different manifestations of surrealism in order to see it whole, not just as an art movement backed up by ideas. Gascoyne (author, translator, and early champion of surrealism) also includes the movement's ancestors, such as Dada. Part history
Big art for little hands - this new "Salvador Dali Colouring Book" in Prestel's new "Colouring Book" range is a beautifully produced colouring-in book. With plenty of space to colour outside the lines, the book is also designed to give children an early interest in some of the great masters. Sections of Dali's masterpieces are there to inspire children's creativity, whatever their age.
"Surrealist Masculinities "offers a fresh exploration of how surrealist visual production was shaped by constructions of gender and sexuality, particularly masculinity, in the 1920s and early 1930s. Amy Lyford builds on feminist critical approaches to surrealism, which have viewed the female body in surrealism as symptomatic of male misogyny; yet she also departs from such work by arguing that representations of an anxious, ambivalent, or perverse masculinity were integral to the movement's critique of France's "return to order" in the years following World War I. This book analyzes surrealist work in relation to the history of surrealism and investigates how surrealist artists and writers appropriated contemporary medical science, advertising, and sexology in their quest to undermine the status quo.
This early autobiography, which takes Dalá through his late thirties, is as startling and unpredictable as his art. On its first publication, the reviewer of Books observed: "It is impossible not to admire this painter as writer . (Dalá) succeeds in doing exactly what he sets out to do ... communicates the snobbishness, self-adoration, comedy, seriousness, fanaticism, in short the concept of life and the total picture of himself he sets out to portray." Superbly illustrated with over eighty photographs of Dalá and his works, and scores of Dalá drawings and sketches.
The revolutionary Dada movement, though short-lived, produced a
vast amount of creative work in both art and literature during the
years that followed World War I. Rejecting all social and artistic
conventions, Dadaists went to the extremes of provocative behavior,
creating 0;anti-art1; pieces that ridiculed and questioned the very
nature of creative endeavor. To understand their movement7;s heady
mix of anarchy and nihilism2;combined with a lethal dash of
humor2;it7;s essential to engage with the artists7; most important
writings and manifestos. And that is is precisely where this reader
Hugo Ball--poet, philosopher, novelist, cabaret performer, journalist, mystic--was a man extremely sensitive to the currents of his time and carried in their wake. In February 1916 he founded the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. The sound poems and performance art by Ball and the other artists who gathered there were the beginnings of Dada. Ball's extraordinary diaries, one of the most significant products of the Dada movement, are here available in English in paperback for the first time, along with the original Dada manifesto and John Elderfield's critical introduction, revised and updated for the paperback edition, and a supplementary bibliography of Dada texts that have appeared since the 1974 hardcover edition of this book.
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