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An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
Written by an experienced Engineering teacher and examiner, this resource is designed to be accessible, flexible, practical and student-friendly. The comprehensive coverage of the specification requirements will support students through the course. / Introduces students to many basic engineering skills and principles and allows them to grasp a good understanding of the subject area. / Shows students how to communicate effectively as an engineer via 3D drawing techniques and technical drawings as well as being able to use and identify many tools, machines and pieces of equipment that are commonplace in the engineering world. / Includes small tasks and mini-projects designed to embed students' knowledge and allows them to `have a go' at applying the theory.
The plain, old-fashioned, human-driven car built the American economy and helped shape our democratic creed. Driver's ed made teenagers into citizens; auto repair made boys into men. For nearly a century, car culture has triumphed. But have we finally reached the end of the road? Fewer young people are learning to drive. Ride hailing is replacing car buying, and with electrification, a long and noble tradition of amateur car repair will soon come to an end. When a robot takes over the driver's seat, what's to become of us? Are We There Yet? carries us from horseless buggies to superhighways, and like any good road trip, it's an adventure so fun you won't even notice how much you've learned along the way.
Providing comprehensive coverage, this is the first book to systematically introduce different flow control techniques. With a dedicated chapter for each technique, all of the most important, typical and up-to-date methods are discussed, including the vortex generator, biological techniques, the jet and synthetic jet, the plasma actuator, and closed-loop control. Understand their key characteristics and control mechanisms, and learn about their applications in different fields such as aviation and aerospace, mechanical engineering, and building construction. The necessary background on flow control is provided, including the history of the discipline, and the definition, classification and development of each technique, making this essential reading for graduate students, researchers and engineers working in the field.
SHORTLISTED FOR THE ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE BOOK PRIZE 2018 Bestselling author Simon Winchester writes a magnificent history of the pioneering engineers who developed precision machinery to allow us to see as far as the moon and as close as the Higgs boson. Precision is the key to everything. It is an integral, unchallenged and essential component of our modern social, mercantile, scientific, mechanical and intellectual landscapes. The items we value in our daily lives - a camera, phone, computer, bicycle, car, a dishwasher perhaps - all sport components that fit together with precision and operate with near perfection. We also assume that the more precise a device the better it is. And yet whilst we live lives peppered and larded with precision, we are not, when we come to think about it, entirely sure what precision is, or what it means. How and when did it begin to build the modern world? Simon Winchester seeks to answer these questions through stories of precision's pioneers. Exactly takes us back to the origins of the Industrial Age, to Britain where he introduces the scientific minds that helped usher in modern production: John `Iron-Mad' Wilkinson, Henry Maudslay, Joseph Bramah, Jesse Ramsden, and Joseph Whitworth. Thomas Jefferson exported their discoveries to the United States as manufacturing developed in the early twentieth century, with Britain's Henry Royce developing the Rolls Royce and Henry Ford mass producing cars, Hattori's Seiko and Leica lenses, to today's cutting-edge developments from Europe, Asia and North America. As he introduces the minds and methods that have changed the modern world, Winchester explores fundamental questions. Why is precision important? What are the different tools we use to measure it? Who has invented and perfected it? Has the pursuit of the ultra-precise in so many facets of human life blinded us to other things of equal value, such as an appreciation for the age-old traditions of craftsmanship, art, and high culture? Are we missing something that reflects the world as it is, rather than the world as we think we would wish it to be? And can the precise and the natural co-exist in society?
Forewords by Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden," " and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, Texas
Nanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials.
Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.
The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
From FSGO x Logic: anonymous interviews with tech workers at all levels, providing a bird's-eye view of the industry In Voices from the Valley, the celebrated writers and Logic cofounders Moira Weigel and Ben Tarnoff take an unprecedented dive into the tech industry, conducting unfiltered, in-depth, anonymous interviews with tech workers at all levels, including a data scientist, a start-up founder, a cook who serves their lunch, and a PR wizard. In the process, Weigel and Tarnoff open the conversation about the tech industry at large, a conversation that has previously been dominated by the voices of CEOs. Deeply illuminating, revealing, and at times lurid, Voices from the Valley is a vital and comprehensive view of an industry that governs our lives. FSG Originals x Logic dissects the way technology functions in everyday lives. The titans of Silicon Valley, for all their utopian imaginings, never really had our best interests at heart: recent threats to democracy, truth, privacy, and safety, as a result of tech's reckless pursuit of progress, have shown as much. We present an alternate story, one that delights in capturing technology in all its contradictions and innovation, across borders and socioeconomic divisions, from history through the future, beyond platitudes and PR hype, and past doom and gloom. Our collaboration features four brief but provocative forays into the tech industry's many worlds, and aspires to incite fresh conversations about technology focused on nuanced and accessible explorations of the emerging tools that reorganize and redefine life today.
This landmark in the development of the state space approach was written by two pioneers in the field. It chiefly concerns the technique's application to systems described by differential equations. Problems of stability and controllability receive particular attention, and connections between this approach and classical techniques are highlighted. 1963 edition.
This book describes principles, industry practices and evolutionary methodologies for advanced safety studies, which are helpful in effectively managing volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environments within the framework of quantitative risk assessment and management and associated with the safety and resilience of structures and infrastructures with tolerance against various types of extreme conditions and accidents such as fires, explosions, collisions and grounding. It presents advanced computational models for characterizing structural actions and their effects in extreme and accidental conditions, which are highly nonlinear and non-Gaussian in association with multiple physical processes, multiple scales, and multiple criteria. Probabilistic scenario selection practices and applications are presented. Engineering practices for structural crashworthiness analysis in extreme conditions and accidents are described. Multidisciplinary approaches involving advanced computational models and large-scale physical model testing are emphasized. The book will be useful to students at a post-graduate level as well as researchers and practicing engineers.
One of the most exhilarating true adventures in history, the race into space was marked by courage, duplicity, political paranoia, astonishing technological feats, and unbelievable triumphs in the face of overwhelming adversity. It is the story of an unparalleled rivalry between superpowers and of the two remarkable men at the center of the conflict. On the American side was Wernher von Braun, the camera-friendly former Nazi scientist, who was granted hero status and almost unlimited resources by a government panicked at the thought of the Cold War enemy taking the lead. The Soviet program was headed by Sergei Korolev, a former political prisoner whose identity was a closely guarded state secret. Korolev was expected to--and did--work miracles on a shoestring budget, his cooperation assured through intimidation and threats of possible disgrace or death. These rivals were opposite in every way, save for one: each was obsessed with the idea of launching a man to the Moon.
Deborah Cadbury's extraordinary history combines action and suspense with a moving portrayal of the space race's human dimension. Using source materials never before available, she tells a riveting story of the espionage, ambition, ingenuity, and passion behind humankind's mind-bending voyage beyond the bounds of Earth.
An essential guide for succeeding in today's competitive environment, this book provides beginning scientists and experienced researchers with practical advice on writing about their work and getting published. This brand new, updated edition also includes a new chapter on editing one's own work, a section on publicizing and archiving one's paper, and updates on authorship, including information on new authorship criteria and on the author identification number ORCID. The book guides readers through the processes involved in writing for and publishing in scientific journals, from choosing a suitable journal, to writing each part of the paper, to submitting the paper and responding to peer review, through checking the proofs. It covers ethical issues in scientific publishing, explains rights and permissions, and discusses writing grant proposals, giving presentations and writing for general audiences.
This text on optics for graduate students explains how to determine
material properties and parameters for inaccessible substrates and
unknown films as well as how to measure extremely thin films. Its
14 case studies illustrate concepts and reinforce applications of
ellipsometry -- particularly in relation to the semiconductor
industry and to studies involving corrosion and oxide growth.
This graduate-level text is intended for any student of physics who requires grounding in the quantum theory of nonrelativistic scattering. The time-dependent approach is emphasized, including the use of time-dependent formalism to define all basic concepts and time-independent theory as a tool for computation. 1983 edition.
'Endlessly insightful and full of surprises - exactly what you would expect from Tim Harford' BILL BRYSON 'Every Tim Harford book is cause for celebration' MALCOLM GLADWELL In Fifty Things that Made the Modern Economy, the revolutionary, acclaimed book, radio series and podcast, bestselling economist Tim Harford introduced us to a selection of fifty radical inventions that changed the world. Now, in this new book, Harford once again brings us an array of remarkable, memorable, curious and often unexpected 'things' - inventions that teach us lessons by turns intimate and sweeping about the complex world economy we live in today. From the brick, blockchain and the bicycle to fire, the factory and fundraising, and from solar PV and the pencil to the postage stamp, this brilliant and enlightening collection resonates, fascinates and stimulates. It is a wonderful blend of insight and inspiration from one of Britain's finest non-fiction storytellers.
This comprehensive handbook has become the definitive reference work in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology, and this 4th edition incorporates a number of recent new developments. It integrates nanofabrication, nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanomechanics, nanotribology, materials science, and reliability engineering knowledge in just one volume. Furthermore, it discusses various nanostructures; micro/nanofabrication; micro/nanodevices and biomicro/nanodevices, as well as scanning probe microscopy; nanotribology and nanomechanics; molecularly thick films; industrial applications and nanodevice reliability; societal, environmental, health and safety issues; and nanotechnology education. In this new edition, written by an international team of over 140 distinguished experts and put together by an experienced editor with a comprehensive understanding of the field, almost all the chapters are either new or substantially revised and expanded, with new topics of interest added. It is an essential resource for anyone working in the rapidly evolving field of key technology, including mechanical and electrical engineers, materials scientists, physicists, and chemists.
"You can print from an iPhone(R). It's the dumbest thing." - Bo Fahs, writer and host of Tele-Friends From the moment we began to digitise our world, we created machines that worked tirelessly to pull all that information zooming around back to the physical world. Enter: the home printer. Perhaps as payback for forming a nonsensical dichotomy, these printers couldn't just work. Not without a fight, at least. No. They insisted on screeching at plane-like decibels, plopping out pages at an excruciatingly slow pace, streaking only the most important documents and running out of ink when you know you JUST refilled the cartridge. From the first consumer inkjet to more modern monstrosities, Sh*tty Printers breaks down the worst offenders of our home offices. Featuring popular and exasperating home staples such as: - The HP Thinkjet 2225A - The Lexmark Z22 - The long forgotten Canon BJC-85 - and many more Each printer is beautifully photographed and ruthlessly torn to shreds as their individual strengths, weaknesses and charisma are scored on sliding scales born from relatable frustration.
Designed for those involved in the analysis and design of random systems, this graduate-level text analyzes a class of discrete mathematical models of engineering systems. It clearly identifies key issues and offers an instructive review of relevant theoretical concepts, with particular attention to a spectral approach. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Representation of Stochastic Processes. 3. Stochastic Finite Element Method: Response Representation. 4. Stochastic Finite Elements: Response Statistics. 5. Numerical Examples. 6. Summary and Concluding Remarks. Bibliography. Index. Unabridged republication of the edition published by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991. 93 Figures. 7 Tables.
Concise, highly readable introduction to theoretical and computational aerodynamics. Integrates both classical and modern developments, focusing on applying methods to actual wing design. Designed for a junior- or senior-level course and as a resource for practicing engineers. Contents: 1. Wings. 2. Review of Basic Fluid Dynamics. 3. Incompressible Irrotational Flow About Symmetric Airfoils at Zero Lift. 4. Lifting Airfoils in Incompresssible Irrotational Flow. 5. Wings of Finite Span. 6. The Navier-Stokes Equations. 7. The Boundary Layer. 8. Panel Methods. 9. Finite Difference Methods. 10. Finite-Difference Solution of the Boundary Layer Equations. 11. Compressible Potential Flow Past Airfoils. Appendixes. Index. Unabridged republication of the edition originally published by John Wiley & Sons, New York 1984. 221 Figures.
The Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, dazzled with its new rainbow-colored electric lights. It showcased an array of wonders, like daredevils attempting to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel, or the "Animal King" putting the smallest woman in the world and also terrifying animals on display. But the thrill-seeking spectators little suspected that an assassin walked the fairgrounds, waiting for President William McKinley to arrive. In Margaret Creighton's hands, the result is "a persuasive case that the fair was a microcosm of some momentous facets of the United States, good and bad, at the onset of the American Century" (Howard Schneider, Wall Street Journal).
The vision of a central waterway connecting tidewater Virginia
with the Ohio River to rival the Erie Canal persisted for decades
during the 19th century. The idea was at first fostered by the
commonwealth of Virginia and then reincarnated as the Central Water
Line, which was endorsed by the federal government. It was a grand
vision, and though never implemented, the Great Kanawha Navigation
nevertheless became a highly successful regionally controlled
waterway that developed the rich resources of the Kanawha Valley.
Emory Kemp has compiled a comprehensive history of navigation on
the Great Kanawha River, detailing the industrial archaeology of
this waterway from the early 19th century, and offering a detailed
case study of a major 19th- and early 20th-century civil
engineering project that would significantly advance the nation's
In the bestselling tradition of The Soul of a New Machine, Dealers of Lightning is a fascinating journey of intellectual creation. In the 1970s and '80s, Xerox Corporation brought together a brain-trust of engineering geniuses, a group of computer eccentrics dubbed PARC. This brilliant group created several monumental innovations that triggered a technological revolution, including the first personal computer, the laser printer, and the graphical interface (one of the main precursors of the Internet), only to see these breakthroughs rejected by the corporation. Yet, instead of giving up, these determined inventors turned their ideas into empires that radically altered contemporary life and changed the world.
Based on extensive interviews with the scientists, engineers, administrators, and executives who lived the story, this riveting chronicle details PARC's humble beginnings through its triumph as a hothouse for ideas, and shows why Xerox was never able to grasp, and ultimately exploit, the cutting-edge innovations PARC delivered. Dealers of Lightning offers an unprecedented look at the ideas, the inventions, and the individuals that propelled Xerox PARC to the frontier of technohistoiy--and the corporate machinations that almost prevented it from achieving greatness.
Starting with the useful concept of an elementary integral defined (axiomatically) on a family of elementary functions, this treatment examines the general theory of the integral, Lebesque integral in n space, the Riemann-Stieltjes integral, and more. "The exposition is fresh and sophisticated, and will engage the interest of accomplished mathematicians." - Sci-Tech Book News. 1966 edition.
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