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Grazing animals need to be managed in order to accommodate desired
results in terms of animal, plant, land and economic responses.
Grazing Management, 2nd Edition integrates principles and
management techniques that apply to all grazing lands and to all
grazing animals. This comprehensive volume provides authoritative
review on a wide range of relevant topics: animal nutrition and
nutritional balance when fed on different sorts of grazing lands;
seasonal variation and limits placed on ecosystems by grazing; the
effects of grazing on grazing lands; the various sorts of grazing
behaviors; selecting plants and managing grazing lands, as well as
many other important topics bearing upon the methods, practises and
procedures for properly managing grazing lands and animals.
This second volume of "The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook" provides the
background and techniques for using this important organism in
plant research. From biogenesis of chloroplasts and mitochondria
and photosynthesis to respiration and nitrogen assimilation, this
volume introduces scientists to the functions of the organism. The
volume then moves on to starch biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism,
response to heavy metals, and hydrogen production.
Mycotoxins are toxins produced by aerobic, microscopic fungus under
special conditions of moisture and temperature. They colonize in a
variety of foods from harvest to the grocer. Mycotoxins have gained
world wide interest in recent years with the revelation of the
effect of these toxins on health. A current example is the presence
of ochratoxin A, a human carcinogen and nephrotoxin, in wines. The
increased concern about fruit safety has led to increased studies
throughout the world and enhanced awareness for stringent
regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food.
Knowledge of plant names can give insight into largely forgotten
beliefs. For example, the common red poppy is known as "Blind Man"
due to an old superstitious belief that if the poppy were put to
the eyes it would cause blindness. Many plant names derived from
superstition, folk lore, or primal beliefs. Other names are purely
descriptive and can serve to explain the meaning of the botanical
name. For example, Beauty-Berry is the name given to the American
shrub that belongs to the genus Callicarpa. Callicarpa is Greek for
beautiful fruit. Still other names come from literary sources
providing rich detail of the transmission of words through the
Plant biotechnology offers important opportunities for agriculture,
horticulture, and the pharmaceutical and food industry by
generating transgenic varieties with altered properties. This is
likely to change farming practice and reduce the potential negative
impact of plant production on the environment. This volume shows
the worldwide advances and potential benefits of plant genetic
engineering focusing on the third millennium.
More than two billion people worldwide have currently no access to
grid electricity or other efficient energy supply. This is one
third of humanity and the majority live in rural areas. The
productivity and health of these people are diminished by reliance
on traditional fuels and technologies, with women and children
suffering most. Energy is the key element to empower people and
ensure water, food and fodder supply as well as rural development.
Therefore access to energy should be treated as the fundamental
right to everybody. Renewable energy has the potential to bring
power, not only in the literal sense, to communities by
transforming their prospects.
This book provides an introduction to the analysis of chaos and chaos theory as it relates to agricultural science. With clear explanations of chaos theory and principles, the first part of the book offers some basic facts, the fundamental terminology, and the concepts of deterministic chaos.
The value of multi-disciplinary research lies in the exchange of
ideas and methods across the traditional boundaries between areas
of study. It could be argued that many of the advances in science
and engineering take place because the ideas, methods and the tools
of thought from one discipline become re-applied in another.
The increased knowledge about the structure of genomes in a number
of species, about the complexity of transcriptomes, and the rapid
growth in knowledge about mutant phenotypes have set off the large
scale use of transgenes to answer basic biological questions, and
to generate new crops and novel products. This volume includes
twelve chapters, which to variable degrees describe the use of
transgenic plants to explore possibilities and approaches for the
modification of plant metabolism, adaptation or development. The
interests of the authors range from tool development, to basic
biochemical know-how about the engineering of enzymes, to exploring
avenues for the modification of complex multigenic pathways, and
include several examples for the engineering of specific pathways
in different organs and developmental stages.
The series, Methods in Plant Biochemistry, provides an
authoritative reference on current techniques in the various fields
of plant biochemical research. Each volume in the series will,
under the expert guidance of a guest editor, deal with a particular
group of plant compounds. Each will describe the historical
background and current, most useful methods of analysis. The
volumes include detailed discussions of the protocols and
suitability of each technique. Case treatments, diagrams, chemical
structures, reference data, and properties will be featured along
with a full list of references to the specialist literature.
Recognizing the increased interest in forest management world wide, this book addresses the current knowledge gap by defining sustainable forest management, clarifying methods by which ecological knowledge can be applied and how traditional silvicultural methods can be improved.
This volume covers the most significant advances of the last ten years in understanding intermediary nitrogen metabolism in plants. The eight chapters comprise aspects of nitrate and nitrogen assimilation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, glutamine and glutamate enzymology, amino acid biosynthesis, ureides, and polyamine and sulfur metabolism. The volume emphasizes molecular and genetic advances as well as biochemistry and physiology. Intermediary Nitrogen Metabolism will be of interest to all plant biochemists and molecular geneticists who study nitrogen metabolism, enzymology, and amino acids.
Volume 3 reviews virtually everything that is known about cell
motility and behavior in Chlamydomonas. World experts in each area
focus on mitosis and cytokinesis; flagellar assembly and motility;
intraflagellar transport; dynein; the structure and function of
centrioles/basal bodies and their associated structures; ciliary
signaling; mating and gamete fusion; photobehaviors; and
Chlamydomonas as a model for understanding human diseases of the
cilium. The volume is richly illustrated and is supplemented by a
website containing both classic and previously unpublished videos
of cell motility in Chlamydomonas. A unique and especially valuable
feature is the inclusion of tables listing the known proteins (with
NCBI accession numbers) for each structure discussed, and the known
mutations that affect each structure and process. Because
Chlamydomonas has been the premier model for investigating the
function and behavior of cilia and flagella, the chapters summarize
the current state of knowledge in these areas as it applies to all
ciliated organisms. Thus, this volume will be an essential source
for all students and researchers interested in cell motility.
Methods in Plant Biochemistry is an authoritative reference on current techniques in the various fields of plant biochemical research. Under the expert guidance of guest editors, each volume provides comprehensive, practical information on the assay and analytical techniques appropriate for a particular family of plant compounds. The series emphasizes techniques and laboratory procedures. No plant biochemical laboratory can afford to be without this comprehensive and up-to-date reference.
This volume highlights aspects and approaches to questions on the development and findings of biotic indicator (systems), considering the complex problems of conversion into practice. Biotic indication in relation to sustainable land use and biodiversity is discussed from many angles.
Microirrigation has become the fastest growing segment of the
irrigation industry worldwide and has the potential to increase the
quality of food supply through improved water fertilizer
efficiency. This book is meant to update the text "Trickle
Irrigation, Design, Operation and Management." This text offers the
most current understanding of the management criteria needed to
obtain maximum water and fertilization efficiency.
This comprehensive book describes cork as a natural product, as an
industrial raw-materials, and as a wine bottle closure. From its
formation in the outer bark of the cork oak tree to the properties
that are of relevance to its use, cork is presented and explained
including its physical and mechanical properties.
Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and
principles to the design, development, and management of
sustainable agricultural systems. Agroecological economics, a
subsection of agricultural economics, evaluates the ecological
consequences of agricultural methods on the economic scale.
Agroecological economics considers green engineering as a means of
During the 4th ESA-Congress, held in the Netherlands, 7-11 July 1996, a new perspective for agronomy emerged. Various contributions demonstrate the need for a new role of agronomy and its tools. In recent decades, agriculture has evolved from an activity with mainly productivity aims, into an issue conciliating environmental, agricultural, and economic and social objectives. Placing agriculture in such a broadened perspective requires a different agronomy, with new tools and approaches at a range of aggregration levels. It calls for detailed knowledge concerning the functioning, productivity and ecological relationships of agricultural plants and crops. In addition, it calls for a constant update and synthesis of existing and newly generated knowledge, the design of new ideotypes and genotypes, new production technologies, cropping systems, farming systems and agro-ecological land use systems.
This proceedings book presents a set of case studies illustrating the various agronomic tools that can be used for specific agronomic questions. The case studies are grouped in sections illustrating relevant subquestions in developing an agriculture with broadened objectives. The book starts with an introductory paper on the role of agronomy in research and education in Europe. The second section deals with agricultural land use, food security and environment. This is followed by a set of papers describing experimental research and modeling approaches used to design new ideotypes of crops, including physiological properties in relation to growth factors such as radiation, CO2, temperature and water.
Sustained soil fertility directly links to nutrient cycling and soil organic matter. A selected set of papers addresses the improvements in resource use efficiency and as such their contribution towards economic, environmental and agricultural objectives. The final section addresses the design of integrated and ecological arable farming systems. It highlights the role of prototyping interaction with leading-edge farmers, as promising tools to design, implement and test new farming systems.
It is hoped that the activities of the European Society for Agronomy and the "Proceedings" of its 4th Congress will stimulate to serve the new perspectives of agronomy, i.e. to adopt ecological principles, to optimally manage the use of resources and to meet social and economic objectives.
Rather than simply cataloging the various interpretations of European regulations by Member States, this international team examines the economic priorities, the legal bases, the social norms and cultural patterns which come into play, presenting an analytical approach to the study of production rights in European agriculture.
The Biochemistry of Plants, Volume 14: Carbohydrates provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of plant biochemistry. This book deals with the function and structure of the plant cell wall by describing the physical and chemical properties of cell wall components. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of hexose phosphate metabolism in nonphotosynthetic tissues. This text then examines the findings in fructan structures, conformations, and linkages, the enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and degradation, and their cellular regulation, location, and metabolic role in plants. Other chapters consider the methods employing enzymes to determine starch structure. This book discusses as well the different biosynthetic modes of plant cell walls. The final chapter deals with the various environmental factors that influence expression of the ?-amylase gene, suggesting how molecular biology may help in understanding carbohydrate biochemistry and the enzymes involved in carbohydrate synthesis and metabolism. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists.
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