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This book presents natural hazards and risk--one of the fastest-growing and most relevant fields of pure and applied research within geosciences and environmental engineering-from a multi-disciplinary perspective. It examines principles, concepts, and paradigms derived from diverse research studies, and explains operational terms, materials, tools, techniques, and methods used in practice. Collecting the expertise of more than 60 scientists and expert practitioners from across Russia, this authoritative volume is ideal for the diverse range of researchers and professionals concerned with the interaction of natural hazards and the built environment. Maximizes reader understanding of natural hazards research and risk analysis in Russia; Explains relevance and application of primary tools and practices in risk study; Clarifies similarities and differences in fundamental concepts and principles across the discipline; Directs geologists, engineers, architects, planners, teachers, students, and others to authoritative sources.
Risk and vulnerability measurement is the first necessary step for any serious contemplation of disaster reduction strategies as well as climate change policies. Measuring vulnerability risk is an emerging technique which can systematically assess and analyse vulnerability and risk due to future possible climatic hazards. It can reveal many adverse effects which are led by climate induced disasters on society. Therefore, it helps state as well as society for preparing and adopting adequate and successful measures for reducing the risk factors. In other words, measuring vulnerability and risk can show direction for preventing losses. It leads towards preparedness to reduce recovery time rather than dependence on relief and reconstruction and can help decision-makers in prioritising their intervention for proactive disaster mitigation strategies and climate change policies. This book has assessed the pattern of climate induced disaster in Gujarat. It argues that disasters and development are mutually related. Disasters can create a setback in a process of development. At the same time, the type of development can increase or reduce the risk due to disaster. Therefore, the risk due to climate induced disasters also depends on vulnerability pattern on the state. This book has explored a regional model for assessing the pattern of vulnerability within the state by identifying the determinants of vulnerability existing in the state. It has finally provided the ways and means of integrating risk reduction strategies into development planning and climate change policies.
Congressional interest in Gulf Coast assistance has increased in recent years because of the significant amount of assistance provided to the region. Congress has also been interested in how the money has been spent, what resources have been provided to the region, and whether the money has reached the people and entities intended to receive the funds. This book provides information on federal financial assistance provided to the Gulf States after major disasters were declared in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in response to the widespread destruction that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008. This book also describes the various components of the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF), including what authorities have shaped it over the years; how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. Information is also provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
In January 1969, the blowout on an offshore oil platform off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, and the resulting oil spill proved to be a transformative event in pollution control and the nascent environmental activism movement. It accelerated the advancement of federal government policies and would change the way the federal government managed environmental pollution. Over the next three years, Congress worked to pass laws such as the National Environmental Policy Act and the Clean Water Act, and revolutionized the way that the United States dealt with environmental pollution. At the same time, scientists developed methods to detect chemical pollution that had been discharged into rivers and streams by industrial facilities. Slick Policy presents an original and in-depth history of the 1969 Santa Barbara spill. Teresa Sabol Spezio provides a background of water pollution control, government oversight of federally-funded projects, and chemical detection methods in place prior to the spill. She then shows how scientists and politicians used public outrage over the spill to implement wide-ranging changes to federal environmental and science policy, and demonstrates the advancements to offshore oil drilling, pollution technology, and water protection law that resulted from these actions.
The term 'natural disaster' is often used to refer to natural events such as earthquakes, hurricanes or floods. However, the phrase 'natural disaster' suggests an uncritical acceptance of a deeply engrained ideological and cultural myth.
At Risk questions this myth and argues that extreme natural events are not disasters until a vulnerable group of people is exposed. It also focuses on what makes people vulnerable. Often this means analyzing the links between poverty and vulnerability. But it is also important to take account of different social groups that suffer more in extreme events, including women, children, the frail and elderly, ethnic minorities, illegal immigrants, refugees and people with disabilities.
Vulnerability has also been increased by global environmental change and economic globalization - it is an irony of the 'risk society' that efforts to provide 'security' often create new risks. Fifty years of deforestation in Honduras and Nicaragua opened up the land for the export of beef, coffee, bananas, and cotton. It enriched the few, but endangered the many when hurricane Mitch struck these areas in 1998. Rainfall sent denuded hillsides sliding down on villages and towns.
This new edition of At Risk confronts a further ten years of ever more expensive and deadly disasters since it was first published and discusses disaster not as an aberration, but as a signal failure of mainstream 'development'. Two analytical models are provided as tools for understanding vulnerability. One links remote and distant 'root causes' to 'unsafe conditions' in a 'progression of vulnerability'. The other uses the concepts of 'access' and 'livelihood' to understand why some households are more vulnerable than others.
The book then concludes with strategies to create a safer world..
This book explores the Sundarbans eco-region from a trans-boundary perspective, examining the cross-country interaction that helps planners to develop more efficient coastal zone planning for the delta. The dynamic ecosystem of the Sundarbans is considered the largest coastal delta in the world. It is located in the Bay of Bengal and spans across Bangladesh and West Bengal (India). Featuring chapters by experts from a range of fields, it addresses (i) risk factor analyses, and the geohydrological, climatic, natural, socio-economic, and anthropological factors related to the Sundarbans; (ii) strategies for sustainability in natural resource management in trans-boundary Sundarbans, cutting across political boundaries; (iii) improved agriculture, fisheries, and forestry practices and their impacts on the socio-economy for livelihood security; and (iv) a future road map for improvements. This book will be of value to those working in academia, as well as to experts and professionals in coastal zone planning and management.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries, ISCRAM-med 2015, held in Tunis, Tunisia, in October 2015. The objectives of the ISCRAM-med conference are to provide an outstanding opportunity and an international forum for local and international researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to address and discuss new trends and challenges with respect to information systems for crisis response and disaster management. The 14 full papers and 4 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 41 submissions. They are organized in topical sections on social computing, modeling and simulation, information and knowledge management, engineering of emergency management systems, and decision support systems and collaboration.
This book presents water insecurity issues in urban areas while developing a water security index and explores the innovative approaches to water development and management with examples from Asian cities. The urban water crisis is a global phenomenon, but it is more obvious in the megacities of the developing world. Urban drought, although not a familiar term, will pose a significant threat to humankind in the near future, especially in the context of increasing population in cities. Many cities are already unable to provide safe, clean water for their citizens. Some of the world's largest cities depend heavily on groundwater for their water supply. It is unlikely that dependence on aquifers, which take many years to recharge, will be sustainable. As urban populations grow, water use will need to shift from agriculture to municipal and industrial uses, making decisions about allocating between different sectors difficult. Inefficient water-use practices by households and industries, fragmented management of water between sectors and institutions, climate-induced water shortages, environmental degradation of water sources, and inadequate use of alternate sources are also issues of major concern. Despite recent advances in the literature, there exists a considerable gap in attempting an integrated water-resource management approach. Covering all aspects of urban drought and water insecurity, this book is a valuable resource for students, researchers, academics, policy makers, and development practitioners.
Tsunami science has evolved significantly since the occurrence of two of the most destructive natural disasters in recent times: The 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami and the 11 March 2011 Tohoku (Great East Japan) tsunami. As a result, scientists from around the world have come together to engage in tsunami research. Significant progress has been achieved in all aspects of tsunami hydrodynamics, detection, generation, and probability of occurrence. The papers presented in this second of three topical volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the current state of tsunami science, including the further examination of the 2011 Tohoku event and its aftershocks, tsunami hydrodynamic and numerical modeling, hazard assessments and warning. In addition to underwater earthquakes, some other tsunamigenic phenomena are also discussed. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami science, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation. The volume is of interest to scientists and practitioners involved in all aspects of tsunamis from source processes to coastal impacts. Postgraduate students in geophysics, oceanography and coastal engineering - as well as students in the broader geosciences, civil and environmental engineering - will also find the book to be a valuable resource, as it combines recent case studies with advances in tsunami science and natural hazards mitigation.
Prescriptions for rural development abound, but 'what is frequently lacking is not so much ideas or techniques as the will and the commitment' to improve conditions. The author describes how, in the complex case of Ethiopia, man can be held responsible for famine -and suggests how he can act to prevent it. This book sets out to demonstrate that the subsistence production system, with the disincentives of oppression and exploitation which keeps peasants and their families permanently at barely subsistence level without any means of averting or coping with the consequences of crop failure, is the system that creates famine in time of peace. A subsistence production system impoverishes peasants and pastoralists as well as the physical environment. It is this fact that occasionally disturbs the delicate balance between the activities and expectations of the peasants and the pastoralists, on one hand, and the process of the physical environment, on the other. When this delicate balance is disturbed famine does not occur automatically, but instead takes several months to mature into a mass killer. The author urges positive and rational action - for example, the accumulation of data, programmes of research and development, and reform, especially of taxation, can create the conditions necessary for improvement. 'The world of under development is a world of faith as opposed to critical reason...The pain of thinking can replace the pain of famine.'
As urbanisation progresses, urban environments have been confronted with many challenges, such as air pollution and stormwater disaster. The latter has been especially damaging in recent years, as vulnerable places suffer from inundating onslaughts of surface run-off following hurricanes and heavy rainfall. This book analyses the implementation of stormwater management practices. It presents the systematic theory behind these methods, and provides multiple case studies showing how drainage development can create a sustainable urban environment. SELLING POINTS: * Analyses methods of stormwater management * Suggests how these methods might be effectively applied 400 colour
This book is devoted to theoretical and conceptual aspects of disaster management, risk assessment, hazard minimisation and vulnerability analysis. Plans for coping with specific types of disasters such as tsunami, cyclone, hurricane etc., are discussed in detail.
Flood control in urban areas can be feasibly and cost-effectively enhanced by implementing flood proofing approaches to risk reduction in the context of environmental and land-use planning and management. Indeed, flood proofing makes it possible to improve, integrate and in some cases even replace traditional measures for flood control, reducing the vulnerability and increasing the resilience of buildings and infrastructures. This book begins by reviewing the physics of stability and instability of both human beings and buildings under flood conditions, together with criteria and models (both conventional and innovative) for assessing flood strains. In turn, it presents a range of flood proofing concepts and techniques, together with a complete and updated classification of related methods and devices. This provides a user-friendly tool to help identify appropriate solutions to real-world problems for each specific risk scenario. In particular, the book focuses on temporary flood proofing techniques, given their ability to deliver effective performance at low costs. Lastly, it features an overview of norms, guidelines and laboratory recommendations that are currently being adopted in various countries with regard to flood proofing devices and testing procedures. The purpose of this book is essentially to encourage authorities, stakeholders, technicians and end users to successfully develop flood proofing solutions that can reduce flood risk in a pragmatic manner. In addition, the authors hope to inspire researchers, manufacturers and designers (engineers, architects, urban planners and urban managers) to pursue further advances in this key sector of public and private safety in urban areas.
Headwaters are fragile environments threatened by anthropogenic actions. The regeneration of headwaters calls for a practical approach through integrated environmental management. This book discusses various issues concerning headwater regions of the world under wide-ranging themes: climate change impacts, vegetal cover, sub-surface hydrology, catchment and streamflow hydrology, pollution, water quality and limnology, remote sensing and GIS, environmental impact assessment and mitigation, socio-economic impacts, public participation, education and management, and integrated watershed management.
This book aims to bring about an awareness in sustainable regeneration of headwater regions and particularly highlighting the problems of environmental management in highlands and headwaters. These regions consist of great reserves of natural resources which need to be exploited and managed sustainably.
A global catastrophic risk is one with the potential to wreak death
and destruction on a global scale. In human history, wars and
plagues have done so on more than one occasion, and misguided
ideologies and totalitarian regimes have darkened an entire era or
a region. Advances in technology are adding dangers of a new kind.
It could happen again.
A richly nuanced cultural history of the Great Mississippi flood The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in U.S. history, drowning crops and displacing more than half a million people across seven states. It was also the first environmental disaster to be experienced virtually on a mass scale. The Flood Year 1927 draws from newspapers, radio broadcasts, political cartoons, vaudeville, blues songs, poetry, and fiction to show how this event provoked an intense and lasting cultural response. Americans at first seemed united in what Herbert Hoover called a "great relief machine," but deep rifts soon arose. Southerners, pointing to faulty federal levee design, decried the attack of Yankee water. The condition of African American evacuees prompted comparisons to slavery from pundits like W.E.B. Du Bois and Ida B. Wells. And environmentalists like Gifford Pinchot called the flood "the most colossal blunder in civilized history." Susan Scott Parrish examines how these and other key figures-from entertainers Will Rogers, Miller & Lyles, and Bessie Smith to authors Sterling Brown, William Faulkner, and Richard Wright-shaped public awareness and collective memory of the event. The crises of this period that usually dominate historical accounts are war and financial collapse, but The Flood Year 1927 allows us to assess how mediated environmental disasters became central to modern consciousness.
The book contributes to understanding the pattern of strain release and the level of seismic hazard imposed by large-great earthquakes in the frontal fold-thrust belts of Kumaun and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand. The motivation for active fault studies and their characterization have been emphasized. The book presents the compilation of knowledge garnered in multidisciplinary or proxy studies involved in the understanding of seismic hazard in general and Kumaun-Garhwal Himalaya regions in particular with lucid new maps draped on modern Cartosat or SRTM DEM data. It also discusses satellite image calibration, active faults identifications, and map productions with flowchart. The book discusses window-wise active fault elements with attributes together with the tectonic geomorphic map. It also includes active fault scarp with topographic profile along with field photographs. Finally, it reviews all existing seismotectonic models of the Himalaya, its earthquake hazard, and its vulnerability, specifically for Kumaun and Garhwal regions.
Succeed in your course with NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS, 5e. The authors provide easy-to-understand coverage of the geological processes that underlie disasters, explore the impact these processes have on humans and vice versa, and analyze strategies for mitigating these hazards' physical and financial harm. From timely information on recent natural disasters in the United States and around the world to insights on earthquakes associated with fracking, this fascinating book provides the up-to-date information you need to analyze potential hazards and take the steps necessary to survive a natural disaster.
This book focuses on exploring the linkages between natural disasters and sustainable development at the global, regional, and national levels. Disasters and development are closely related, yet the disciplinary silos prevail and there is little communication and cooperation between the disaster management, environment, and development communities. One catastrophic event, such as an earthquake, tsunami, or cyclone, can destroy infrastructure, people's lives and livelihoods, and set back development. Similarly, slow onset disasters-often associated with global climate change-pose threats to development, livelihoods, food security, and long-term sustainable development. This book is uniquely aimed at bridging the gaps between the environmental, development, and disaster management communities. It traces the evolution of concepts and practice and highlights the linkages between natural disasters and sustainable development in key sectors, including food security, health, and water. The book includes case studies from the field highlighting the complex issues that challenge sustainable development and disaster risk management in practice. It draws policy conclusions for the global community based on state-of-the art knowledge from research and practice. The primary target groups for the book are researchers, including graduate students, in the fields of environment and sustainable development, geography, disaster risk reduction, and climate change studies. The second target group comprises practitioners and policymakers working in national and international organizations, the private sector, and civil society.
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Third World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in June 2014. The complete collection of papers from the Forumis published in three full-color volumes and one mono-color volume. "
This book is a resource for understanding why Lightning continues to be a major health hazard, especially in the developing world, and equips researchers, governments, and public health advocates with the knowledge and techniques needed to reduce lightning casualties worldwide.
This interactive book presents comprehensive information on the fundamentals of landslide types and dynamics, while also providing a set of PPT, PDF, and text tools for education and capacity development. As the core activity of the Sendai Partnerships, the International Consortium of Landslides has created this two-volume work, which will be regularly updated and improved over the coming years, based on responses from users and lessons learned during its application.
The diverse cultures of the Caribbean have been shaped as much by hurricanes as they have by diplomacy, commerce, or the legacy of colonial rule. In this panoramic work of social history, Stuart Schwartz examines how Caribbean societies have responded to the dangers of hurricanes, and how these destructive storms have influenced the region's history, from the rise of plantations, to slavery and its abolition, to migrations, racial conflict, and war.
Taking readers from the voyages of Columbus to the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, Schwartz looks at the ethical, political, and economic challenges that hurricanes posed to the Caribbean's indigenous populations and the different European peoples who ventured to the New World to exploit its riches. He describes how the United States provided the model for responding to environmental threats when it emerged as a major power and began to exert its influence over the Caribbean in the nineteenth century, and how the region's governments came to assume greater responsibilities for prevention and relief, efforts that by the end of the twentieth century were being questioned by free-market neoliberals. Schwartz sheds light on catastrophes like Katrina by framing them within a long and contentious history of human interaction with the natural world.
Spanning more than five centuries and drawing on extensive archival research in Europe and the Americas, "Sea of Storms" emphasizes the continuing role of race, social inequality, and economic ideology in the shaping of our responses to natural disaster.
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