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The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 - 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami - inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident management, emergency response, accident recovery and mitigations - and the underlying factors - organizational issues, etc., have been clarified and recommendations in the following areas have been made. - Nuclear safety fundamentals - Direct factors of the accident - Organizational aspects - Common items (R&D, International cooperation, human resources management) - Post-accident management/recovery from the accident.
The March 11 disaster in 2011, known as the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, caused extensive damage in various sectors. Through the recovery process, special lessons are being learned and applied in the affected region. This book attempts to draw lessons from different issues and sectors such as policy perspectives (both national and local), the role of international NGOs, fishing industries and other livelihoods, temporary housing, health, heritage, and lesson sharing. The book outlines the need and approach for sharing the lessons with wider communities in developing those lessons. Based on intensive field research, the book also provides some key lessons from community-based recovery in the affected regions of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. This book has 13 chapters in two parts. The first part of the book, with seven chapters, provides a set of lessons from diverse sectors. The second part, with six chapters, provides case studies from different areas of Tohoku. Six specific issues are addressed in part 1: the role of international agencies, livelihood (namely, fisheries) recovery, temporary housing, health, heritage, and lesson sharing. Part 2 has six case studies from different areas of the Tohoku region, including Fukushima. The primary target groups for this book are students and researchers in the fields of environment, disaster risk reduction, and recovery studies. The book provides them with a good idea of the current research trends in the field and furnishes basic knowledge about these vital topics. Another target group comprises practitioners and policy makers, who will be able to apply the knowledge collected here to policy and decision-making.
This book documents seven examples of Early Warning Systems for hydrometeorological and other hazards that have proven effective in reducing losses due to these hazards. The cases studied encompass a variety of climatic regimes and stages of economic development, raging across the industrialized countries of Germany, France, Japan and the United States, to Bangladesh, the island nation of Cuba and the mega-city of Shanghai. Demonstrated characteristics of these exemplary cases are synthesized into ten guiding principles for successful early warning systems that will, it is hoped, prove useful to countries seeking to develop or strengthen such systems within their own borders.
Two hundred sixty million years ago, life on Earth suffered wave after wave of cataclysmic extinctions, with the worst wiping out nearly every species on the planet. The Worst of Times delves into the mystery behind these extinctions and sheds light on the fateful role the primeval supercontinent, known as Pangea, might have played in causing these global catastrophes. Drawing on the latest discoveries as well as his own firsthand experiences conducting field expeditions to remote corners of the world, Paul Wignall reveals what scientists are only now beginning to understand about the most prolonged and calamitous period of environmental crisis in Earth's history. Wignall shows how these series of unprecedented extinction events swept across the planet, killing life on a scale more devastating than the dinosaur extinctions that would follow. The Worst of Times unravels one of the great enigmas of ancient Earth and shows how this ushered in a new age of vibrant and more resilient life on our planet.
Earthquake and tsunami disasters have been increasing rapidly and globally in the last quarter-century. The purpose of this book is to provide essential knowledge and information on the mitigation of earthquakes and tsunamis for graduate students, young researchers, and geotechnical engineers. It begins by presenting recent cases of earthquakes that have occurred in the world, referring to tsunamis and soil liquefaction and how to cope with such disasters. The final chapter proposes strategies for disaster mitigation against in Japan earthquakes and tsunamis in the future.
Rebuilding Community after Katrina chronicles the innovative and ambitious partnership between Cornell University's City and Regional Planning department and ACORN Housing, an affiliate of what was the nation's largest low-income community organization. These unlikely allies came together to begin to rebuild devastated neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. The editors and contributors to this volume allow participants' voices to show how this partnership integrated careful, technical analysis with aggressive community outreach and organizing. With essays by activists, organizers, community members, and academics on the ground, Rebuilding Community after Katrina presents insights on the challenges involved in changing the way politicians and analysts imagined the future of New Orleans' Ninth Ward. What emerges from this complex drama are lessons about community planning, organizational relationships, and team building across multi-cultural lines. The accounts presented in Rebuilding Community after Katrina raise important and sensitive questions about the appropriate roles of outsiders in community-based planning processes.
This book presents the latest research developments in geoinformation science, which includes all the sub-disciplines of the field, such as: geomatic engineering, GIS, remote sensing, digital photogrammetry, digital cartography, etc.
Monumental in scale and epic in development, cities have become the most visible and significant symbol of human progress. The geography on and around which they are constructed, however, has come to be viewed merely in terms of its resources and is often laid to waste once its assets have been stripped. The City in Geography is an urban exploration through this phenomenon, from settlement to city through physical geography, which reveals an incremental progression of removing terrain, topography and geography from the built environment, ushering in and advancing global destruction and instability. This book explains how the fall of geography in relationship to human survival has come through the loss of contact between urban dwellers and physical terrain, and details the radical rethinking required to remedy the separations between the city, its inhabitants and the landscape upon which it was built.
Solar activity causes changes in the magnetic field on the surface of the Earth. If these changes are insignificant, they do not affect life on Earth. However, rapid variations of the geomagnetic field, the so-called magnetic storms, which have the character of shock waves, may adversely affect living organisms (including humans), and the technical systems that people use. The book presents a conceptual design that allows prediction of electrical power system emergency conditions caused by magnetic storms. Finally, the authors' present a comprehensive analysis of perturbations in the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere during moderate recurrent geomagnetic storms.
The catastrophic events of March 11, 2011 - the earthquake, tsunami, and ensuing nuclear meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - have been called the triple disaster in Japan. Among the first artists to respond to these experiences were photographers. Some, including those with personal ties to the affected Tohoku region, attempted to document the devastation, drawing on a long history of depicting natural disasters in Japanese art. As the immediate effects of the earthquake and tsunami gave way to the slowly unfolding nuclear disaster, artists began to respond to the challenges of depicting an invisible threat that calls up the collective memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The resulting images assembled in this lavishly illustrated volume are by turns poignant, searing, disturbing and often strangely beautiful. With interpretive essays from leading American and Japanese scholars and statements from the artists themselves, this book presents the unfolding process of how photography can address destruction, social change, anxiety and memory, through images that express emotions beyond words.
This book is one out of six IAEG XIII Congress and AEG 61st Annual Meeting proceeding volumes, and deals with topics related to dams, tunnels, groundwater resources, and climate change. The theme of the IAEG/AEG Meeting, held in San Francisco from September 17-21, 2018, is Engineering Geology for a Sustainable World. The meeting proceedings analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world. The meeting topics and subject areas of the six volumes are: Slope Stability: Case Histories, Landslide Mapping, Emerging Technologies; Geotechnical and Environmental Site Characterization; Mining, Aggregates, Karst; Dams, Tunnels, Groundwater Resources, Climate Change; Geologic Hazards: Earthquakes, Land Subsidence, Coastal Hazards, and Emergency Response; and Advances in Engineering Geology: Education, Soil and Rock Properties, Modeling.
In 1931, China suffered a catastrophic flood that claimed millions of lives. This was neither a natural nor human-made disaster. Rather, it was created by an interaction between the environment and society. Regular inundation had long been an integral feature of the ecology and culture of the middle Yangzi, yet by the modern era floods had become humanitarian catastrophes. Courtney describes how the ecological and economic effects of the 1931 flood pulse caused widespread famine and epidemics. He takes readers into the inundated streets of Wuhan, describing the terrifying and disorientating sensory environment. He explains why locals believed that an angry Dragon King was causing the flood, and explores how Japanese invasion and war with the Communists inhibited both official relief efforts and refugee coping strategies. This innovative study offers the first in-depth analysis of the 1931 flood, and charts the evolution of one of China's most persistent environmental problems.
This book examines the reasons behind the resonant amplification of seismic and ocean waves that have the capacity to destroy cities and ocean-going vessels. Using Charles Darwin's important geophysical research as a starting point, it provides insights into the interaction between earthquakes with volcanoes, seaquake, and tsunami formation. In particular, the author details the observations that Darwin made on a powerful earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1835, noting how the famous naturalist and geologist used the concept of earthquake-induced vertical shock to explain the event's devastating impact. The book then goes on to show how Darwin's concept relates to the catastrophic results of the shallow quakes that recently destroyed Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 2010) and severely damaged Christchurch (New Zealand, 2011). In addition, the author asks whether Darwin's ideas are endorsed by the discoveries of modern science and whether the results of destructive earthquakes can be modeled using strongly nonlinear wave equations. Coverage also proposes that similar equations can be used to simulate the dynamics of many objects on the surface of the Earth, and to model the origin of the Universe, dark matter, and dark energy as strongly nonlinear wave phenomena. The book will appeal to students as well as researchers and engineers in geophysics, seismology, nonlinear wave studies, cosmology, physical oceanography, and ocean and coastal engineering. It will also be of use to those who are interested in the phenomena of natural catastrophes as well as those who want to learn more about the life and work of Charles Darwin.
During the past years, Saudi Arabia has been affected by particularly severe torrential rains and floods. This book presents an in-depth and all-encompassing study on the floods that occurred in the Jeddah area in 2009 and 2011, including water-flow mechanisms, state-of-the-art techniques for flood assessment, flood control and appropriate management approaches. It highlights a number of methods and concepts that can be applied in similar areas in Saudi Arabia in order to reduce and mitigate the impact of torrential rains and floods.
Life today is rife with rapid-fire "high alert" responses, a proliferating trend that is especially pronounced in the United States (though most certainly felt elsewhere as well), where past catastrophes shape expanding perceptions of imminent danger. September 11, 2001 looms as an inescapable spectral presence, defining an important baseline for the ramping up of biosecurity measures. However, the contributors to this volume argue against biosecurity as the new status quo by focusing instead on the ugly underbelly. Through considering the vulnerability of individuals and groups and particularly looking at how vulnerability propagates in the shadow of biosecurity, BioInsecurity and Vulnerability challenges the acceptance of surveillance measures or security interventions as necessities of life in the new millennium.
One of "The" "New York Times"'s 10 Best Books of the Year, a
"Christian Science Monitor" Best Nonfiction Book, a "Newsday "Top
10 Books pick, a "People m"agazine Top 10 pick, a Good Reads Best
Book of the Year, and a "Kirkus "Best Nonfiction Book
Life on earth will come to an end. It's just a matter of when. In
this Very Short Introduction, Bill McGuire explores the many
potential catastrophes facing our planet and our species in the
future, and looks at both the probability of these events happening
and our chances of survival.
For most of us, the impression of the word "tsunami" is a combination of multiple elements of action movie, thriller, drama and science fiction, which can only be experienced through movies such as "The Poseidon Adventure", "The Impossible", "Bait 3D", and "Haewundae, 2012". However, we have now indeed witnessed a tsunami in 2011. People are now very concerned and some are afraid of the realisation of movie scenes in our real life. More research fields have started to give attention and thought to the tsunami itself and its impact on economics, disaster management and future challenges. This book discloses the close relationship between the tsunami and all aspects of our real life: communities, markets, economic systems, industrial operations, the natural environment, medical care, emergency response, and whole societies. This book is timely and in some ways timeless; the issues discussed within its pages are matters that are of interest to all people across the world and really across time. The chapters presented focus on the theoretical positions and cognition about engineering, and different segments of research fields: the innovative integration of geographic information system with point-of-care testing for emergency response and disaster management after tsunami (Chapter 1), the adaptive capacity building through public participation (Chapter 2), the modelling and simulation of mixing and sediment processes induced by tsunamis propagating upriver (Chapter 3), the perspective of risk quantification for commercial nuclear power plants (Chapter 4), and the future role of mathematical modelling for local energy shortage recovery after tsunamis (Chapter 5). These chapters demonstrate the complexities involved in attempting to understand the impact of tsunamis in different aspects. Furthermore, it will also help to improve disaster management systems for better preparedness and future challenges.
Puerto Rico lies approximately 1,000 miles southeast of Miami and 1,500 miles from Washington, DC. Despite being far outside the continental United States, the island has played a significant role in American politics and policy since the United States acquired Puerto Rico from Spain in 1898. On 20 September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico as a Category 4 storm with sustained wind speeds of over 155 miles per hour. At that time, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was already in recovery mode following the glancing blow struck by Hurricane Irma on 6 September 2017, which left 70% of electricity customers without power. Chapter 1 deals with the challenges to recovery in Puerto Rico and the role of the Financial Oversight and Management Board. Even before the 2017 hurricane season, Puerto Ricos electric power infrastructure was known to be in poor condition, due largely to underinvestment and the perceived poor maintenance practices of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA).Chapter 2 focuses on the recovery of Puerto Rico from the hurricanes, and the restoration of power. The two hurricanes that hit may have been historic, but they exposed a state of affairs in Puerto Rico that existed well before any of the hurricanes made landfall. Decades of mismanagement led to a paralyzing debt burden. Chapter 3 describes the factors that contributed to Puerto Ricos financial condition and levels of debt and federal actions that could address these factors. Chapter 4 examines the economic conditions in Puerto Rico as of the end of 2016, and (2) assesses the potential effects of applying the 2016 Overtime Rule to Puerto Rico. Chapter 5 provides policy and historical background about Puerto Ricos political status -- referring to the relationship between the federal government and a territorial one. Congress has not altered the islands status since 1952, when it approved a territorial constitution.
This is an updated edition of the book by the same author: "Plio-Quaternary volcanism in Italy - Petrology, geochemistry, geodynamics," published in 2005 by Springer. This edition has the same structure as the previous publication, with a general introduction; various chapters dedicated to different volcanic provinces in Italy; and a final chapter on the relationships between magmatism and geodynamics. It includes information that has become available in the last ten years, and new chapters have been added offering detailed discussions of the Oligo-Miocene orogenic volcanism on Sardinia and of some small outcrops of fragmented volcanic rocks occurring in several places of the Apennines. This new edition now covers the entire Tyrrhenian Sea magmatism of the last 40 Ma. Lastly, it includes two appendices: Appendix 1 reports on a comparison between the Tyrrhenian Sea volcanism and the partially coeval magmatism along the Alps and adjoining areas and has the objective of highlighting similarities and difference that can tell us much on geodynamics and magmatism between the converging plates of Europe and Africa. Appendix 2 is an update of the 2005 edition appendix and deals with classification of orogenic rocks with special emphasis on potassic alkaline volcanics.
"The Worst Hard Time is an epic story of blind hope and endurance
almost beyond belief; it is also, as Tim Egan has told it, a
riveting tale of bumptious charlatans, conmen, and tricksters,
environmental arrogance and hubris, political chicanery, and a
ruinous ignorance of nature's ways. Egan has reached across the
generations and brought us the people who played out the drama in
this devastated land, and uses their voices to tell the story as
well as it could ever be told." -- Marq de Villiers, author of
Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource
The Routledge Handbook of Human Rights and Disasters provides the first comprehensive review of the role played by international human rights law in the prevention and management of natural and technological disasters. Each chapter is written by a leading expert and offers a state-of-the-art overview of a significant topic within the field. In addition to focussing on the role of human rights obligations in disaster preparedness and response, the volume offers a broader perspective by examining how human rights law interacts with other legal regimes and by addressing the challenges facing humanitarian organizations. Preceded by a foreword by the International Law Commission's Special Rapporteur on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters, the volume is divided into four parts: Part I: Human rights law and disasters in the framework of public international law Part II: Role and application of human rights law in disaster settings Part III: (Categories of) rights of particular significance in a disaster context Part IV: Protection of vulnerable groups in disaster settings Providing up-to-date and authoritative contributions covering the key aspects of human rights protection in disaster settings, this volume will be of great interest to scholars and students of humanitarianism, international law, EU law, disaster management and international relations, as well as to practitioners in the field of disaster management.
On Shishmaref Island in Alaska, homes are being washed into the
sea. In the South Pacific, small island nations face annihilation
by encroaching waters. In coastal Louisiana, an area the size of a
football field disappears every day. For these communities, sea
level rise isn't a distant, abstract fear: it's happening now and
it's threatening their way of life.
"Frightening...Firestorm comes alive when Struzik discusses the work of offbeat scientists." --New York Times Book Review "Comprehensive and compelling." --Booklist "A powerful message." --Kirkus "Should be required reading." --Library Journal For two months in the spring of 2016, the world watched as wildfire ravaged the Canadian town of Fort McMurray. Firefighters named the fire "the Beast." It acted like a mythical animal, alive with destructive energy, and they hoped never to see anything like it again. Yet it's not a stretch to imagine we will all soon live in a world in which fires like the Beast are commonplace. A glance at international headlines shows a remarkable increase in higher temperatures, stronger winds, and drier lands- a trifecta for igniting wildfires like we've rarely seen before. This change is particularly noticeable in the northern forests of the United States and Canada. These forests require fire to maintain healthy ecosystems, but as the human population grows, and as changes in climate, animal and insect species, and disease cause further destabilization, wildfires have turned into a potentially uncontrollable threat to human lives and livelihoods. Our understanding of the role fire plays in healthy forests has come a long way in the past century. Despite this, we are not prepared to deal with an escalation of fire during periods of intense drought and shorter winters, earlier springs, potentially more lightning strikes and hotter summers. There is too much fuel on the ground, too many people and assets to protect, and no plan in place to deal with these challenges. In Firestorm, journalist Edward Struzik visits scorched earth from Alaska to Maine, and introduces the scientists, firefighters, and resource managers making the case for a radically different approach to managing wildfire in the 21st century. Wildfires can no longer be treated as avoidable events because the risk and dangers are becoming too great and costly. Struzik weaves a heart-pumping narrative of science, economics, politics, and human determination and points to the ways that we, and the wilder inhabitants of the forests around our cities and towns, might yet flourish in an age of growing megafires.
This monograph is a compilation of a number of research studies presented in fourteen chapters dealing with the impact and restoration of coastal environments that have been affected by earthquakes and tsunamis. The focus is mainly on rivers, estuaries, coastal lagoons, beaches, and related ecosystems. In addition to direct impact and response due to flooding and subsequent abrasion, this publication covers physical, chemical and biological responses in coastal morphology, water quality and ecosystems and includes also topics dealing with risk reduction and vulnerability. This compilation mainly covers examples from large magnitude earthquake and tsunami events in the Indian and Pacific Ocean that are complemented with other events in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Comprehensive descriptions of multi-scale impacts of tsunami and earthquake events, both spatially and temporally, will help the reader to understand the complicated interactions which occur in coastal zones in order to create a sustainable, resilient environment and achieve a society with smart post-event recovery planning. This book is aimed at researchers and students in coastal science and engineering as well as at policy makers, environmental planners and coastal managers.
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