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This Open Access Book is the first to examine disasters from a multidisciplinary perspective. Justification of actions in the face of disasters requires recourse both to conceptual analysis and ethical traditions. Part 1 of the book contains chapters on how disasters are conceptualized in different academic disciplines relevant to disasters. Part 2 has chapters on how ethical issues that arise in relation to disasters can be addressed from a number of fundamental normative approaches in moral and political philosophy. This book sets the stage for more focused normative debates given that no one book can be completely comprehensive. Providing analysis of core concepts, and with real-world relevance, this book should be of interest to disaster scholars and researchers, those working in ethics and political philosophy, as well as policy makers, humanitarian actors and intergovernmental organizations..
This book provides insight into Anthropocene-related studies by IPRA's Ecology and Peace Commission. The first three chapters discuss the linkage between disasters and conflict risk reduction, responses to socio-environmental disasters in high-intensity conflict scenarios and the fragile state of disaster response with a special focus on aid-state-society relations in post-conflict settings. The two following chapters analyse climate-smart agriculture and a sustainable food system for a sustainable-engendered peace and the ethnology of select indigenous cultural resources for climate change adaptation focusing on the responses of the Abagusii in Kenya. A specific case study focuses on social representations and the family as a social institution in transition in Mexico, while the last chapter deals with sustainable peace through sustainability transition as transformative science concluding with a peace ecology perspective for the Anthropocene.
This book explains the tragic tale of the Satluj floodplain since its inception. As a landscape this floodplain entity evolves and sets a niche to distinctive natural and cultural aspects. The historical reconstruction of the landscape transformation depicts the excessive human encroachment and development activities which leads to more than fifty percent of landscape transformation. Data set layers were generated in a geospatial environment, with the use of multiscale and multitemporal satellite imageries, empirical field verification, and ancillary data input. An integrated landscape model was hence formed in order to identify the causal links between natural and cultural aspects. The author shows a landscape transformation matrix and change detection maps to explain the spatial trends and patterns of land use and land cover change. Pixel wise land use and land cover gain-loss algorithm were identified and measured for a selected time period. Changing spatial pattern of land cover to land use ratio are explained with underlying local to regional level causes. The author thoroughly explains the satellite image interpretation and related methodology. This book provides the detailed transition journey of landscape conversion from resource rich natural entity to a human dominated `hazardscape'. It also explains how the expansion of population and related activities in the close vicinity of an active floodplain accentuates the problem of flood risks and how it affects the human and livestock life and creates economic loss. The author maps and explains the vector and magnitude of increased human pressure on the landscape and its adverse ecological implications, and describes issues with reference to the hazard status of the Punjab Satluj floodplain, including increased flood risk, increased pressure on agricultural land and depletion of resources, loss of biodiversity, qualitative and quantitative loss to surface and sub-surface water, and soil degradation (soil erosion, waterlogging and soil loss). Recommendations are provided with a detailed provision of potential applications with the underlying agenda of further conversion of this ecologically highly vulnerable flood prone `hazardscape' to a Green Habitat. This book consist of two major themes: land use/land cover change and floodplain. The author answers all the geographical questions (what, where, when, why and how) related with both themes and provides an outlook to potential future prospects. The book is targeted at stakeholders, students, researchers and policy makers to optimize their interest and to guide them towards a positive charge in sustainable resource management through suitable and best possible sustainable utilization of landscape.
Especially in an era of rapid global environmental change, questions and issues about and around natural hazards and disasters are dizzying in their complexity-and urgency. Answering the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of this fast-moving area, and its vast and multidisciplinary corpus of scholarly literature, Disaster Risk is a new title from the acclaimed Routledge series, Critical Concepts in the Environment. Edited by a trio of expert researchers, this new collection of major works embraces a wide variety of methodological traditions to bring together in four volumes the foundational and the very best cutting-edge scholarship. The collection enables users to access-and to make sense of-the most important research and practice. It provides a synoptic view of all the key issues, current debates, and controversies. Disaster Risk is fully indexed and includes comprehensive introductions, newly written by the editors, which place the collected materials in their historical and intellectual context. It is an essential reference collection and is destined to be valued by scholars and students-as well as policy-makers and practitioners-as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource. Disaster Risk is edited by three leading scholars in the field: Ben Wisner, formerly Director of International Studies at California State University at Long Beach, with a long career before that in research and teaching. He is presently engaged in full-time research and writing and has recently completed a four-year project for the United Nations University on defining and managing urban social vulnerability to disasters in six megacities (Johannesburg, Tokyo, Manila, Mumbai, Mexico City, and Los Angeles). The other co-editors of this Routledge Major Works collection are J. C. Gaillard of the University of Auckland, New Zealand; and Ilan Kelman, based at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo, Norway.
Disasters kill, maim, and generate increasingly large economic losses. But they do not wreak their damage equally across populations, and every disaster has social dimensions at its very core. This important book sheds light on the social conditions and on the global, national, and local processes that produce disasters. Topics covered include the social roots of disaster vulnerability, exposure to natural hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis as a form of environmental injustice, and emerging threats. Written by a leading expert in the field, this book provides the necessary frameworks for understanding hazards and disasters, exploring the contributions of very different social science fields to disaster research and showing how these ideas have evolved over time. Bringing the social aspects of recent devastating disasters to the forefront, Tierney discusses the challenges of conducting research in the aftermath of disasters and critiques the concept of disaster resilience, which has come to be seen as a key to disaster risk reduction. Peppered with case studies, research examples, and insights from very different disciplines, this rich introduction is an invaluable resource to students and scholars interested in the social nature of disasters and their relation to broader social forces.
The United States has encountered increasing levels of terrorist activity and a number of significant natural disasters in this millennium, a pattern which has also occurred globally. There has been a degree of uncertainty over their impact on the national economy. A unique contribution towards mitigation is offered in this book, which develops a national economic impact model to estimate the effects of simulated terrorist attacks and real world natural disasters on individual US States and economic sectors. The model, NIEMO (The National Interstate Economic Model), examines interindustry relationships and interregional trade, and presents a multiregional input-output analysis of the economic impact resulting from these events. Students and researchers in regional science, planning, economics and geography will find this book offers an informative perspective. Practitioners, policy makers and general readers interested in public policy issues will appreciate the insights.
Science and Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia: Potentials and Challenges provides both a local and global perspective on how to implement the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Topics demonstrate the advancement of scientific research as it applies to early warning systems, including identifying risk and the strengthening of infrastructure for different types of hazards. Through different major disasters, it has become evident that there must be a balance between hard and soft technology and physical, process and social solutions. This book demonstrates how this has been successfully implemented in Asia, and how these applications can apply on a global basis.
An earthquake is a natural disaster that causes damage world-wide. Not only earthquakes of high magnitude, but also those of small magnitude that strike unprepared regions can cause economic and social consequences, and many casualties. Unlike other natural disasters, the exact time of an earthquake cannot be estimated; scientists can only predict the timeline and magnitude based on the history of earthquakes in a region. Even though current technology cannot predict the precise time, location or magnitude, public awareness about the estimations allows both individuals and government to be ready for their devastating effects. This book begins by discussing how public awareness about the effects of earthquakes and how to prepare for a possible earthquake which can potentially save lives. The book then continues with topics that include seismic PRA; seismic safety assessments of existing buildings; psychiatric reactions of individuals to earthquakes; possible relation between an intense earthquake and the voltage signal generated by atmospheric ionic currents and/or sudden change of the electric field in the air; and others.
This book uses narrative responses to the 2010 Haiti earthquake as a starting point for an analysis of notions of disaster, vulnerability, reconstruction and recovery. The turn to a wide range of literary works enables a composite comparative analysis, which encompasses the social, political and individual dimensions of the earthquake. This book focuses on a vision of an open-ended future, otherwise than as a threat or fear. Mika turns to concepts of hinged chronologies, slow healing and remnant dwelling. Weaving theory with attentive close-readings, the book offers an open-ended framework for conceptualising post-disaster recovery and healing. These processes happen at different times and must entail the elimination of compound vulnerabilities that created the disaster in the first place. Challenging characterisations of the region as a continuous catastrophe this book works towards a bold vision of Haiti's and the Caribbean's futures. The study shows how narratives can extend some of the key concepts within discipline-bound approaches to disasters, while making an important contribution to the interface between disaster studies, postcolonial ecocriticism and Haitian Studies.
This book discusses the interconnected, complex and emerging risks in today's societies and deliberates on the various aspects of disaster risk reduction strategies especially through community resilience and responses. It consists of selected papers presented at the World Congress on Disaster Management, which focused on community resilience and responses towards disaster risk reduction based on South Asian experiences, and closely examines the coordinated research activities involving all stakeholders, especially the communities at risk. Further, it narrates the experiences of disaster risk-reduction in different communities that have policy implications for mitigation of future disaster risks in the societies affected by these types of disasters. Written from the social science perspective to disasters rather than an engineering approach, the book helps development and governance institutions to prioritize disasters as a problem of development rather than being parallel to it.
When the volcano Tambora erupted in Indonesia in 1815, as many as 100,000 people perished as a result of the blast and an ensuing famine caused by the destruction of rice fields on Sumbawa and neighboring islands. Gases and dust particles ejected into the atmosphere changed weather patterns around the world, resulting in the infamous ''year without a summer'' in North America, food riots in Europe, and a widespread cholera epidemic. And the gloomy weather inspired Mary Shelley to write the gothic novel "Frankenstein."
This book tells the story of nine such epic volcanic events, explaining the related geology for the general reader and exploring the myriad ways in which the earth's volcanism has affected human history. Zeilinga de Boer and Sanders describe in depth how volcanic activity has had long-lasting effects on societies, cultures, and the environment. After introducing the origins and mechanisms of volcanism, the authors draw on ancient as well as modern accounts--from folklore to poetry and from philosophy to literature. Beginning with the Bronze Age eruption that caused the demise of Minoan Crete, the book tells the human and geological stories of eruptions of such volcanoes as Vesuvius, Krakatau, Mount Pelee, and Tristan da Cunha. Along the way, it shows how volcanism shaped religion in Hawaii, permeated Icelandic mythology and literature, caused widespread population migrations, and spurred scientific discovery.
From the prodigious eruption of Thera more than 3,600 years ago to the relative burp of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the results of volcanism attest to the enduring connections between geology and human destiny."
This book provides a unique and comprehensive assessment of the changes that have been taking place in the Himalayas. It describes in detail all the aspects of change, both natural and cultural, along with their implications, and suggests policy measures to help mitigate them. The book is divided into two major sections - on natural changes and cultural changes - and 11 chapters: an introduction, six addressing changes that concern natural aspects, and four exploring cultural changes and presenting the book's conclusions. The content is based on a study conducted using a participatory observation/empirical method. Time series data from secondary sources is also included, helping to analyze the various changes. The findings are presented in the form of color graphs, models, maps, photographs, and tables. The book offers a valuable resource for policymakers, and will prove equally useful for all other stakeholders, e.g. researchers, students and development agents.
This book discusses existing and future global problems of physical, chemical, biological and societal origins faced by increasingly populated cities and mega-cities, and options to mitigate or eliminate them. In nine chapters, the book focuses on rehabilitation and redevelopment projects aimed at converting shantytowns/slums into well serviced neighborhoods via secure housing, clean piped water, adequate access to sanitation, and other amenities for good living conditions. Examples of rehabilitation (restore capacity, structures, efficiency) and redevelopment (redesign, rebuild, attract investment) are addressed in detail, as are the sources of major financing to support such projects and proposals. The final chapters also discuss problems faced by countries with contracting populations, and their viable solutions. The book will be of interest to academics, city planners, land-use planners, NGOs, and designers /architects specializing in urban development and redevelopment.
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