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This book covers the gamut of coastal hazards that range for short-term low-frequency events that have high-magnitude and far-reaching impacts on coastal zones the world over. Much of the world population now lives in low-lying coastal zones that are inherently vulnerable to natural hazards such as flooding from hurricane, tropical storm, and northeaster storm surges; shoreline (beach and dune) erosion; cliff and bluff failure; and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers used for drinking water supply. In addition to the usual range of hydrometeorological disasters in coastal zones, this book covers tsunamis impacts and warning systems as well as global perspectives of sea-level rise impacts and human perceptions of potential vulnerabilities resulting from rip currents that cause many drowning each year on beaches. Now important in modern scientific and engineering systems is the use of numerical models that help predict vulnerabilities and provide a basis for shore protection measures. Final considerations focus on the course of human action in the form of urbanization and industrialization of the coast, shore protection measures, and indicate how environmental degradation around coastal conurbations exacerbate the potential for unwanted impacts. Strategies for the environmental management in the coastal zone, from low-lying wetlands to high cliffs and rocky promontories, are highlighted as a means to live in harmony with Nature and not try to conquer it.
On Thursday, July 13, 1995, Chicagoans awoke to a blistering day on which the temperature would eventually climb to 106 degrees. It was the start of an unprecedented heat wave that would last a full week - and leave more than seven hundred people dead. Rather than view these deaths as the inevitable consequence of natural disaster, sociologist Eric Klinenberg decided to figure out why so many people - and, specifically, so many elderly, poor, and isolated people - died, and to identify the social and political failures that together made the heat wave so deadly. Published to coincide with the twentieth anniversary of the heat wave, this new edition of Klinenberg's groundbreaking book includes a new foreword by the author that reveals what we've learned in the years since its initial publication in 2002, and how in coming decades the effects of climate change will intensify the social and environmental pressures in urban areas around the world.
This book is a compilation of papers contributed by researchers and scientists from SAARC nations and deals with high-impact weather conditions, their prediction and potential consequences for populations in the SAARC region. There have been a number of recent advances in our understanding and prediction of cyclones, severe thunderstorms, squalls, heat and cold waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, based on the latest observational data and NWP modeling platform. The SAARC region is vulnerable to high-impact weather events because of geophysical features like high mountains, plateaus and vast oceans. As our climate continues to change over the coming years, the likelihood of extreme and potentially high-impact weather and climate events will be at its highest when natural and anthropogenic effects combine. All chapters were written by leading experts in their respective research and operational fields. The book reviews the latest research, future needs, forecasting skills and societal impacts of extreme weather events and offers high-quality reference material for weather forecasters, disaster managers and researchers.
Theorizing Crisis Communication presents a comprehensive review and critique of the broad range of theoretical frameworks designed to explain the role of communication in the development, management, and consequences of natural and man-made crises. * Brings together the variety of theoretical approaches emerging in the study of crisis communication into one volume for the first time. * Summarizes theories from such diverse perspectives as rhetoric, risk management, ethics, mass communication, social media, emergency response, crisis outcomes, and warning systems, while presenting clear examples of how the theory is applied in crisis communication research * Presents theoretical frameworks generated by research from many disciplines including sociology, psychology, applied anthropology, public health, public relations, political science, organizational studies, and criminal justice * An essential tool for a comprehensive understanding of the onset, management, response, resolution, and ultimate meaning of these devastating world events
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. In today's world, there are new opportunities for disaster communications through modern technology and social media. Social network applications such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram can connect friends, family, first responders, and those providing relief and assistance. However, social media and other modern communication tools have their limitations. They can be affected by disaster situations where there are power outages or interrupted cellular service. The research contained in this valuable compendium offers much-needed information for emergency responders, utility companies, relief organizations, and governments as they invest in infrastructure to support post-disaster communications. In order to make use of modern communication methods, as well as fully utilize more traditional communication networks, it is imperative that we understand how people actually communicate in the wake of a disaster situation and how various communication strategies can best be utilized. Communication during and immediately after a disaster situation is a vital component of response and recovery. Effective communication connects first responders, support systems, and family members with the communities and individuals immersed in the disaster. Reliable communication also plays a key role in a community's resilience. With research from internationally recognized experts, this volume provides an overview of communication challenges and best-practice analyses, looks at the internet and social media and mobile phones and other technology for disaster communication, and explores the challenges to effective communication. Presents a quality improvement project that gathered expert consensus on best practices used to improve disaster communication Analyzes the information dissemination mechanisms of different media to establish an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication Gauges the effectiveness of disaster risk communication Looks at the future of social media use during emergencies and afterwards Proposes a disaster resilient network that integrates various wireless networks into a cognitive wireless network in the event of disaster occurrences Effective Communication During Disasters: Making Use of Technology, Media, and Human Resources is an informative, multi-faceted resource on preparedness planning for effective communication before, during, and after a disaster occurs.
As our economic and natural systems continue on their collision course, Bruce Jennings asks whether we have the political capacity to avoid large-scale environmental disaster. Can liberal democracy, he wonders, respond in time to ecological challenges that require dramatic changes in the way we approach the natural world? Must a more effective governance be less democratic and more autocratic? Or can a new form of grassroots ecological democracy save us from ourselves and the false promises of material consumption run amok? Ecological Governance is an ethicist's reckoning with how our political culture, broadly construed, must change in response to climate change. Jennings argues that during the Anthropocene era a social contract of consumption has been forged. Under it people have given political and economic control to elites in exchange for the promise of economic growth. In a new political economy of the future, the terms of the consumptive contract cannot be met without severe ecological damage. We will need a new guiding vision and collective aim, a new social contract of ecological trusteeship and responsibility.
The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 - 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami - inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident management, emergency response, accident recovery and mitigations - and the underlying factors - organizational issues, etc., have been clarified and recommendations in the following areas have been made. - Nuclear safety fundamentals - Direct factors of the accident - Organizational aspects - Common items (R&D, International cooperation, human resources management) - Post-accident management/recovery from the accident.
The March 11 disaster in 2011, known as the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, caused extensive damage in various sectors. Through the recovery process, special lessons are being learned and applied in the affected region. This book attempts to draw lessons from different issues and sectors such as policy perspectives (both national and local), the role of international NGOs, fishing industries and other livelihoods, temporary housing, health, heritage, and lesson sharing. The book outlines the need and approach for sharing the lessons with wider communities in developing those lessons. Based on intensive field research, the book also provides some key lessons from community-based recovery in the affected regions of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. This book has 13 chapters in two parts. The first part of the book, with seven chapters, provides a set of lessons from diverse sectors. The second part, with six chapters, provides case studies from different areas of Tohoku. Six specific issues are addressed in part 1: the role of international agencies, livelihood (namely, fisheries) recovery, temporary housing, health, heritage, and lesson sharing. Part 2 has six case studies from different areas of the Tohoku region, including Fukushima. The primary target groups for this book are students and researchers in the fields of environment, disaster risk reduction, and recovery studies. The book provides them with a good idea of the current research trends in the field and furnishes basic knowledge about these vital topics. Another target group comprises practitioners and policy makers, who will be able to apply the knowledge collected here to policy and decision-making.
This book documents seven examples of Early Warning Systems for hydrometeorological and other hazards that have proven effective in reducing losses due to these hazards. The cases studied encompass a variety of climatic regimes and stages of economic development, raging across the industrialized countries of Germany, France, Japan and the United States, to Bangladesh, the island nation of Cuba and the mega-city of Shanghai. Demonstrated characteristics of these exemplary cases are synthesized into ten guiding principles for successful early warning systems that will, it is hoped, prove useful to countries seeking to develop or strengthen such systems within their own borders.
Two hundred sixty million years ago, life on Earth suffered wave after wave of cataclysmic extinctions, with the worst wiping out nearly every species on the planet. The Worst of Times delves into the mystery behind these extinctions and sheds light on the fateful role the primeval supercontinent, known as Pangea, might have played in causing these global catastrophes. Drawing on the latest discoveries as well as his own firsthand experiences conducting field expeditions to remote corners of the world, Paul Wignall reveals what scientists are only now beginning to understand about the most prolonged and calamitous period of environmental crisis in Earth's history. Wignall shows how these series of unprecedented extinction events swept across the planet, killing life on a scale more devastating than the dinosaur extinctions that would follow. The Worst of Times unravels one of the great enigmas of ancient Earth and shows how this ushered in a new age of vibrant and more resilient life on our planet.
The IPCC (2007) warned that the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM)
basin will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding, and that
the region s poverty would reduce its adaptation capacity. This
book investigates autonomous adaptation using a multi-method
technique comprising PRA and a questionnaire survey applied in the
case study area Islampur "Upazila" in Bangladesh.
"This book provides a good account of autonomous adaptation and
its impact on flood vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. Anyone
wishing to fully understand the impact of climate change should
read the book."
Rebuilding Community after Katrina chronicles the innovative and ambitious partnership between Cornell University's City and Regional Planning department and ACORN Housing, an affiliate of what was the nation's largest low-income community organization. These unlikely allies came together to begin to rebuild devastated neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. The editors and contributors to this volume allow participants' voices to show how this partnership integrated careful, technical analysis with aggressive community outreach and organizing. With essays by activists, organizers, community members, and academics on the ground, Rebuilding Community after Katrina presents insights on the challenges involved in changing the way politicians and analysts imagined the future of New Orleans' Ninth Ward. What emerges from this complex drama are lessons about community planning, organizational relationships, and team building across multi-cultural lines. The accounts presented in Rebuilding Community after Katrina raise important and sensitive questions about the appropriate roles of outsiders in community-based planning processes.
The classical field dealing with earthquakes is called "earthquake engineering" and considered to be a branch of structural engineering. In projects dealing with strategies for earthquake risk mitigation, urban planning approaches are often neglected. Today interventions are needed on a city, rather than a building, scale. This work deals with the impact of earthquakes, including also a broader view on multihazards in urban areas. Uniquely among other works in the field, particular importance is given to urban planning issues, in conservation of heritage and emergency management. Multicriteria decision making and broad participation of those affected by disasters are included.
Monumental in scale and epic in development, cities have become the most visible and significant symbol of human progress. The geography on and around which they are constructed, however, has come to be viewed merely in terms of its resources and is often laid to waste once its assets have been stripped. The City in Geography is an urban exploration through this phenomenon, from settlement to city through physical geography, which reveals an incremental progression of removing terrain, topography and geography from the built environment, ushering in and advancing global destruction and instability. This book explains how the fall of geography in relationship to human survival has come through the loss of contact between urban dwellers and physical terrain, and details the radical rethinking required to remedy the separations between the city, its inhabitants and the landscape upon which it was built.
This comparative study at hand has been the result of a two-year research project on floods in 2014 in the Western Balkans engaging eight research teams from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Croatia. Representing quite different disciplines, the authors of this volume have analysed diverse aspects of the crisis governance and its ramifications. This publication's goals are twofold. Firstly, it pins down the characteristics of the crisis responses during the floods of 2014 in three affected countries, preconditioned by the existing institutions, crisis leadership, the role of media and the social capital as well as the foreign financial aid. On the other hand, through the lenses of the crisis governance we conclude on the state capacities and the nature of political regime of the cases under study. The flood megacrisis did not constitute a "window of opportunity" for individual or institutional learning. On the contrary, it did unveil some authoritarian tendencies in Serbia and Bosnia, and thus stalled the hitherto ongoing democratization process.
Solar activity causes changes in the magnetic field on the surface of the Earth. If these changes are insignificant, they do not affect life on Earth. However, rapid variations of the geomagnetic field, the so-called magnetic storms, which have the character of shock waves, may adversely affect living organisms (including humans), and the technical systems that people use. The book presents a conceptual design that allows prediction of electrical power system emergency conditions caused by magnetic storms. Finally, the authors' present a comprehensive analysis of perturbations in the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere during moderate recurrent geomagnetic storms.
Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the "cracks" in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and studies that have only recently gotten underway are discussed by some of the world's foremost experts in each of these areas, who provide up-to-date and scientifically verifiable information. Although much of the work in these various areas have been conducted by space agencies, an expanding range of work is also being carried out by observatories, by universities and other research centers, and even by private foundations and professional organizations. The purpose of this work is thus several-fold: to include the latest information and most systematic research from around the world in a single reference work; to note where there are significant gaps in knowledge where new research, spacecraft, observatories, or other initiatives are needed to fill in critical missing information; and to give the best possible information about preventative actions that might be taken against cosmic threats and identify various alternative strategies that are now under way or planned to cope with these various threats.
The catastrophic events of March 11, 2011 - the earthquake, tsunami, and ensuing nuclear meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - have been called the triple disaster in Japan. Among the first artists to respond to these experiences were photographers. Some, including those with personal ties to the affected Tohoku region, attempted to document the devastation, drawing on a long history of depicting natural disasters in Japanese art. As the immediate effects of the earthquake and tsunami gave way to the slowly unfolding nuclear disaster, artists began to respond to the challenges of depicting an invisible threat that calls up the collective memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The resulting images assembled in this lavishly illustrated volume are by turns poignant, searing, disturbing and often strangely beautiful. With interpretive essays from leading American and Japanese scholars and statements from the artists themselves, this book presents the unfolding process of how photography can address destruction, social change, anxiety and memory, through images that express emotions beyond words.
This book is one out of six IAEG XIII Congress and AEG 61st Annual Meeting proceeding volumes, and deals with topics related to dams, tunnels, groundwater resources, and climate change. The theme of the IAEG/AEG Meeting, held in San Francisco from September 17-21, 2018, is Engineering Geology for a Sustainable World. The meeting proceedings analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world. The meeting topics and subject areas of the six volumes are: Slope Stability: Case Histories, Landslide Mapping, Emerging Technologies; Geotechnical and Environmental Site Characterization; Mining, Aggregates, Karst; Dams, Tunnels, Groundwater Resources, Climate Change; Geologic Hazards: Earthquakes, Land Subsidence, Coastal Hazards, and Emergency Response; and Advances in Engineering Geology: Education, Soil and Rock Properties, Modeling.
In 1931, China suffered a catastrophic flood that claimed millions of lives. This was neither a natural nor human-made disaster. Rather, it was created by an interaction between the environment and society. Regular inundation had long been an integral feature of the ecology and culture of the middle Yangzi, yet by the modern era floods had become humanitarian catastrophes. Courtney describes how the ecological and economic effects of the 1931 flood pulse caused widespread famine and epidemics. He takes readers into the inundated streets of Wuhan, describing the terrifying and disorientating sensory environment. He explains why locals believed that an angry Dragon King was causing the flood, and explores how Japanese invasion and war with the Communists inhibited both official relief efforts and refugee coping strategies. This innovative study offers the first in-depth analysis of the 1931 flood, and charts the evolution of one of China's most persistent environmental problems.
This book discusses the identification of, solutions to, and management of threats to high population coastal cities and their seaports from global warming, climate change and endemic hazards. These include prevention of sea water intrusion of freshwater coastal aquifers, emplacement of barriers that mitigate the threats from sea level rise, and inundation of urban centers plus those from storm surges that cause flooding and salination of inshore terrain. The book assesses mitigation of the effects of extreme weather events such as drought, and major flooding from heavy rainfall on coastal urban centers, or on associated drainage basins. It also considers how coastal cities can counter vulnerabilities from other physical hazards (e.g., earthquakes - building codes) and health hazards (e.g., pollution, public health response - preparedness) that may be related to a city's geological/geographical location and service as a port of entry for goods and travelers (regional and international). The book also cites the high costs of safeguarding citizen and municipal assets, but notes possible sources of potential funding especially from less developed and developing nations. The book is written to give strong background information to students majoring in environmental sciences or those in other majors with interests in the effects of global warming/climate change, and will be of interest to social scientists, think tank personnel, government planners, and lay persons in environmentally oriented organizations.
Questo secondo volume prosegue la breve trattazione sulle catastrofi naturali. E la volta delle catastrofi dell acqua e dell aria, spesso sui giornali quando un uragano o un inondazione colpiscono il nostro pianeta. E anche delle minacce cosmiche, rare ma in grado di annientare la nostra civilta.
Vedremo quegli straordinari eventi di cui conosciamo l esistenza dallo studio degli strati geologici e dei fossili, ma la cui causa e ancora avvolta nel mistero. Si tratta delle estinzioni di massa, episodi in cui la biosfera e cambiata in maniera improvvisa e drammatica a causa di una catastrofe globale.
Tra un aneddoto e una digressione sulle basi scientifiche dei fenomeni e passando attraverso qualche caso di studio, si incuriosisce il lettore su un tema importante e coinvolgente.
Le catastrofi sono classificate in base agli elementi della tradizione filosofica ellenica e la loro ragione fisica e alla base dell'intera trattazione. Il libro e diviso in due volumi, indipendenti ma correlati allo stesso tempo. Nel primo, dopo una breve introduzione alle catastrofi naturali, si affrontano le catastrofi della terra e quelle del fuoco: terremoti, frane, eruzioni vulcaniche. Vengono fornite alcune informazioni sull'interno della Terra, necessarie per comprendere l'origine delle catastrofi. L'autore si cimenta in un vero e proprio esperimento letterario, combinando problematiche diverse all'interno della stessa opera. Cosi, per esempio, dopo uno studio sulle cause delle frane, si analizza la visione medioevale delle catastrofi, per poi ritornare agli argomenti principali del libro, il tutto arricchito da numerosi esempi e racconti che rendono la trattazione vivace e coinvolgente."
Each year more than 130 million people are affected by natural hazards such as floods, earthquakes, droughts, and cyclones. Nearly all of these disaster victims live in the poorer countries of the world, where each year more and more people become vulnerable to hazards because of changes in their social, economic, cultural, and political environment. In recent years, researchers and development agencies have begun to investigate why certain groups of people are more vulnerable to disasters than others. However, relatively little work has been done on vulnerability in South Asia where more than half the world's disaster victims live. Understanding Vulnerability breaks new ground by exploring these issues from a South Asian standpoint, presented in the form of case studies and essays by experts from India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Ela Bhatt writes about poor women in the towns and countryside of the Indian State of Gujarat who face a wide range of hazards, both natural and man-made. Ngamindra Dahal studies Nepali villagers who live under the permanent threat of mountain floods and landslides. R. B. Senaka Arachchi looks at a village society in Sri Lanka's Dry Zone which endures drought as a persistent hazard to its agricultural way of life. The final essay, by Mihir Bhatt, is a thought-provoking discussion of ways of understanding vulnerability by learning from vulnerable people: it is a spur to operational agencies and field workers to improve their ways of working. The lessons in Understanding Vulnerability will be of value to development and disaster planners and managers not only in South Asia but in many other regions where vulnerable people are confronted by hazards.
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