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Hurricane Katrina slammed into the Gulf Coast in August 2005 with devastating consequences. Almost all analyses of the disaster have been dedicated to the way the hurricane affected New Orleans. This volume examines the impact of Katrina on southern Mississippi. While communities along Mississippi's Gulf Coast shared the impact, their socioeconomic and demographic compositions varied widely, leading to different types and rates of recovery. This volume furthers our understanding of the pace of recovery and its geographic extent, and explores the role of inequalities in the recovery process and those antecedent conditions that could give rise to a 'recovery divide'. It will be especially appealing to researchers and advanced students of natural disasters and policy makers dealing with disaster consequences and recovery.
This book analyzes how climate change adaptation can be implemented at the community, regional and national level. Featuring a variety of case studies, it illustrates strategies, initiatives and projects currently being implemented across the world. In addition to the challenges faced by communities, cities and regions seeking to cope with climate change phenomena like floods, droughts and other extreme events, the respective chapters cover topics such as the adaptive capacities of water management organizations, biodiversity conservation, and indigenous and climate change adaptation strategies. The book will appeal to a broad readership, from scholars to policymakers, interested in developing strategies for effectively addressing the impacts of climate change.
Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting and Analysis) project of the EU HORIZON 2020 programme. It discusses the forecasting operational tools developed within the project, and presents progress to SEP research contributed by HESPERIA both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. Using multi-frequency observational data and simulations HESPERIA investigated the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space, to the detection near 1 AU. The book also elaborates on the unique software that has been constructed for inverting observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with space-borne measurements at lower energies. Introductory and pedagogical material included in the book make it accessible to students at graduate level and will be useful as background material for Space Physics and Space Weather courses with emphasis on Solar Energetic Particle Event Forecasting and Analysis. This book is published with open access under a CC BY license.
This book documents seven examples of Early Warning Systems for hydrometeorological and other hazards that have proven effective in reducing losses due to these hazards. The cases studied encompass a variety of climatic regimes and stages of economic development, raging across the industrialized countries of Germany, France, Japan and the United States, to Bangladesh, the island nation of Cuba and the mega-city of Shanghai. Demonstrated characteristics of these exemplary cases are synthesized into ten guiding principles for successful early warning systems that will, it is hoped, prove useful to countries seeking to develop or strengthen such systems within their own borders.
Disaster management aims to reduce human suffering and economic losses caused by disasters. The book deals with monitoring, control, planning and training for disasters, their prevention, and emergency control and planning.
This book offers an insight into the global occurrence, geomorphology, evolution, weathering and erosion of coastal cliffs and bluffs. Stabilization and preservation of cliffs are treated in detail. Mitigation of cliff hazards and preservation of scenic features and sites of scientific importance requires effective coastal cliff management that can only be based on thorough knowledge of the physical processes at work. Cliffs have been cut in various geological formations, and have taken shape as a sequel to a world-wide sea level rise. Most cliffs have receded as the result of weathering and erosion, but some are now stable. Where they are actively receding, consuming useful agricultural or forested land or threatening coastal structures such as roads, buildings and seaside towns, it may be necessary to halt their retreat, or at least to modify it, by coastal cliff management.
Flash floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, mudslides, thunderstorms, and wildfires - these devastating events are happening around the world at an alarming rate. As CNN's meteorologist, Bonnie Schneider reports daily on these natural disasters, explaining when they're likely to strike, andtelling viewers how to respond when they do. In Extreme Weather, Schneider distills that information into a guide for readers. She interviews experts from a wide variety of agencies - from FEMA to NOAA - to provide a comprehensive understanding of the science behind weather patterns and the latest thinking on how to act in dangerous conditions. Ranging from topics that cover every season and every climate, Schneider introduces the reader to the best course of action during weather emergencies, including: *how to move around in heavy snow *how to handle extreme weather scenarios in your car, outside, or at home *how to predict potential dangers when planning a camping trip or vacation *what you need to have at home to prepare for floods, earthquakes, or severe storms*how to create a family evacuation plan for different emergencies *making sure your beloved pet is taken care of in time of disaster Extreme Weather provides details on what to have in emergency safety kits as well as how to make a family disaster plan.
A riveting collection of literary journalism by the bestselling author of The Perfect Storm, capped off brilliantly by a new Afterword and a timely essay about war-torn Afghanistan -- a superb eyewitness report about the Taliban's defeat in Kabul -- new to book form.
Sebastian Junger has made a specialty of bringing to life the drama of nature and human nature. Few writers have been to so many disparate and desperate corners of the globe. Fewer still have met the standard of great journalism more consistently. None has provided more starkly memorable evocations of extreme events. From the murderous mechanics of the diamond trade in Sierra Leone, to an inferno forest fire burning out of control in the steep canyons of Idaho, to the forensics of genocide in Kosovo, this collection of Junger's reporting will take readers to places they need to know about but wouldn't dream of going on their own. In his company we travel to these places, pass through frightening checkpoints, actual and psychological, and come face-to-face with the truth.
This thesis represents one of the few studies so far that systematically analyses environmental conditions within debris flow source areas to determine their relative importance for debris flow development. Environmental site conditions, such as slope gradient and debris availability, influence the spatial and temporal distribution of debris flows in high-alpine areas. However, current understanding of these preconditioning controls is mostly qualitative and inadequate for debris-flow hazard assessments and climate change impact studies. The author's research investigates the role of frost weathering and permafrost in the occurrence of debris flows in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Analyses are based on an extensive debris flow inventory, documenting debris flow occurrence and activity over the last 60 years in selected catchments. Debris flow activity is compared to frost-weathering intensity estimates from two models, allowing the practical comparison of two competing frost-weathering hypotheses currently discussed in literature. Information on permafrost occurrence is based on a new distributed permafrost estimate for the Southern Alps, derived from climatic conditions at active rock glacier sites. This pioneering thesis provides empirical evidence that frost weathering promotes debris-flow formation. It further highlights the potential and limitations of regional-scale studies for advancing our understanding of debris-flow preconditioning factors.
Solar activity causes changes in the magnetic field on the surface of the Earth. If these changes are insignificant, they do not affect life on Earth. However, rapid variations of the geomagnetic field, the so-called magnetic storms, which have the character of shock waves, may adversely affect living organisms (including humans), and the technical systems that people use. The book presents a conceptual design that allows prediction of electrical power system emergency conditions caused by magnetic storms. Finally, the authors' present a comprehensive analysis of perturbations in the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere during moderate recurrent geomagnetic storms.
Community Engagement in Post-Disaster Recovery reflects a wide array of practical experiences in working with disaster-affected communities internationally. It demonstrates that widely held assumptions about the benefits of community consultation and engagement in disaster recovery work need to be examined more critically because poorly conceived and hastily implemented community engagement strategies have sometimes exacerbated divisions within affected communities and/or resulted in ineffective use of aid funding. It is equally demonstrated that well-crafted, creative and thoughtful programming is possible. The wide collection of case studies of practical experience from around the world is presented to help establish ways of working with communities experiencing great challenges. The book offers practical suggestions on how to give more substance to the rhetoric of community consultation and engagement in these areas of work. It suggests the need to work with a dynamic understanding of community formation that is particularly relevant when people experience unforeseen challenges and traumatic experiences. This title interrogates the concept of community through an extensive review of the literature and explores the ways of working with communities in transition and particularly in their recovery phases through an array of case studies in a range of socioeconomic and political contexts. Focused on the concept of community in post-disaster recovery solutions-an aspect which has received little critical interrogation in the literature-this book will be a valuable resource to students and scholars in disaster management as well as humanitarian agencies.
Colossal trees snap like matchsticks. A gigantic orange fireball explodes in the funnel's black core. Horses are sucked up and spit out alive by 200-mile-per-hour winds. These were just a few of the scenes that unfolded on June 8, 1966, when a massive EF-5 tornado cut a 22-mile swath across eastern Kansas and straight through Topeka Kansas's capital city. When it was over, 16 people were dead, more than 500 were injured, and property damage had reached $100 million, making the tornado the most destructive in U.S. history up to that time.
That fateful day comes back to life in And Hell Followed With It: Life and Death in a Kansas Tornado. Author Bonar Menninger has interviewed dozens of survivors to construct a tightly woven narrative that conveys in gut-wrenching detail what it's like when nature careens out of control and ordinary people face extraordinary, life-threatening situations.
This book tells the story of the catastrophic impact of the giant 10 Km asteroid Chicxulub into the ancient Gulf of Mexico 65.5 million years ago. The book begins with a discussion of the nature of asteroids and the likelihood of future Earth-impacts. The story then turns to the discovery of a global sediment layer attributed to the fallout from the impact and a piecing together of the evidence that revealed a monster crater, buried under the Gulf. Reviewed is the myriad of geological and fossil evidence that suggested the disastrous sequence of events occurring when a "nuclear-like" explosion ripped through the sea, Earth, and atmosphere, thus forming the mega-crater and tsunami. The aftermath of the Chicxulub's event initiated decades and more of major global climate changes including a "Nuclear Winter" of freezing darkness and blistering greenhouse warming. A chapter is dedicated to the science of tsunamis and their model generation, including a portrayal of the globally rampaging Chicxulub waves. The asteroid's global devastation killed off some 70% of animal and plant life including the dinosaurs. The study of an ancient Cambrian fossil bed suggests how "roll of the dice" events can affect the future evolution of life on Earth. We see how Chicxulub's apparent destruction of the dinosaurs, followed by the their replacement with small mammals, altered forever the progress of human evolution. This book presents a fascinating glimpse through the lens of the natural sciences - the geology, climatology, and oceanography, of the effects of an enormous astronomical event.
The Yellowstone fires of 1988 consumed nearly 800,000 acres-36 percent of the park. In the years following, spectacular wildflowers rose from the ashes and trees rapidly reclaimed the landscape. In this twenty-five-year look back at the fires, author and photographer Jeff Henry recalls not only the summer of 1988, when he witnessed and photographed nearly every aspect of the fires, but also the years since as nature healed the charred landscape. A beautiful book that depicts nature as simultaneously malevolent and beneficent, The Year Yellowstone Burned demonstrates the resilience of one of our continent's most dynamic ecosystems.
This book presents a unified approach for modeling hydrologic processes distributed in space and time using geographic information systems (GIS). This Third Edition focuses on the principles of implementing a distributed model using geospatial data to simulate hydrologic processes in urban, rural and peri-urban watersheds. The author describes fully distributed representations of hydrologic processes, where physics is the basis for modeling, and geospatial data forms the cornerstone of parameter and process representation. A physics-based approach involves conservation laws that govern the movement of water, ranging from precipitation over a river basin to flow in a river. Global geospatial data have become readily available in GIS format, and a modeling approach that can utilize this data for hydrology offers numerous possibilities. GIS data formats, spatial interpolation and resolution have important effects on the hydrologic simulation of the major hydrologic components of a watershed, and the book provides examples illustrating how to represent a watershed with spatially distributed data along with the many pitfalls inherent in such an undertaking. Since the First and Second Editions, software development and applications have created a richer set of examples, and a deeper understanding of how to perform distributed hydrologic analysis and prediction. This Third Edition describes the development of geospatial data for use in Vflo (R) physics-based distributed modeling.
This book offers a broad perspective on important topics in earthquake geotechnical engineering and gives specialists and those that are involved with research and application a more comprehensive understanding about the various topics. Consisting of eighteen chapters written by authors from the most seismic active regions of the world, such as USA, Japan, Canada, Chile, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Taiwan, and Turkey, the book reflects different views concerning how to assess and minimize earthquake damage. The authors, a prominent group of specialists in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering, are the invited lecturers of the International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering from Case History to Practice in the honour of Professor Kenji Ishihara held in Istanbul, Turkey during 17-19 June 2013.
Can we predict cataclysmic disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or stock market crashes? The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 claimed more than 200,000 lives. Hurricane Katrina killed over 1,800 people and devastated the city of New Orleans. The recent global financial crisis has cost corporations and ordinary people around the world billions of dollars. "Megadisasters" is a book that asks why catastrophes such as these catch us by surprise, and reveals the history and groundbreaking science behind efforts to forecast major disasters and minimize their destruction.
Each chapter of this exciting and eye-opening book explores a particular type of cataclysmic event and the research surrounding it, including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, rapid climate change, collisions with asteroids or comets, pandemics, and financial crashes. Florin Diacu tells the harrowing true stories of people impacted by these terrible events, and of the scientists racing against time to predict when the next big disaster will strike. He describes the mathematical models that are so critical to understanding the laws of nature and foretelling potentially lethal phenomena, the history of modeling and its prospects for success in the future, and the enormous challenges to scientific prediction posed by the chaos phenomenon, which is the high instability that underlies many processes around us.
Yielding new insights into the perils that can touch every one of us, "Megadisasters" shows how the science of predicting disasters holds the promise of a safer and brighter tomorrow.
During the past years, Saudi Arabia has been affected by particularly severe torrential rains and floods. This book presents an in-depth and all-encompassing study on the floods that occurred in the Jeddah area in 2009 and 2011, including water-flow mechanisms, state-of-the-art techniques for flood assessment, flood control and appropriate management approaches. It highlights a number of methods and concepts that can be applied in similar areas in Saudi Arabia in order to reduce and mitigate the impact of torrential rains and floods.
Life today is rife with rapid-fire "high alert" responses, a proliferating trend that is especially pronounced in the United States (though most certainly felt elsewhere as well), where past catastrophes shape expanding perceptions of imminent danger. September 11, 2001 looms as an inescapable spectral presence, defining an important baseline for the ramping up of biosecurity measures. However, the contributors to this volume argue against biosecurity as the new status quo by focusing instead on the ugly underbelly. Through considering the vulnerability of individuals and groups and particularly looking at how vulnerability propagates in the shadow of biosecurity, BioInsecurity and Vulnerability challenges the acceptance of surveillance measures or security interventions as necessities of life in the new millennium.
This monograph is a compilation of a number of research studies presented in fourteen chapters dealing with the impact and restoration of coastal environments that have been affected by earthquakes and tsunamis. The focus is mainly on rivers, estuaries, coastal lagoons, beaches, and related ecosystems. In addition to direct impact and response due to flooding and subsequent abrasion, this publication covers physical, chemical and biological responses in coastal morphology, water quality and ecosystems and includes also topics dealing with risk reduction and vulnerability. This compilation mainly covers examples from large magnitude earthquake and tsunami events in the Indian and Pacific Ocean that are complemented with other events in Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Comprehensive descriptions of multi-scale impacts of tsunami and earthquake events, both spatially and temporally, will help the reader to understand the complicated interactions which occur in coastal zones in order to create a sustainable, resilient environment and achieve a society with smart post-event recovery planning. This book is aimed at researchers and students in coastal science and engineering as well as at policy makers, environmental planners and coastal managers.
This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called "Disaster Cycle." This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applications and developing new satellite technologies.
This monograph presents the state of art of the geologic knowledge about the Spanish coast obtained through scientific research in the last 30 years.From a general point of view, coasts are the most quickly changing systems of the Earth. This is critical, since many human resources, such as the main part of economic and social activities, are located in the coastal areas. Especially in the case of Spain these coasts include cities, wide industrial areas (including harbor complexes), important ecologic systems, and our main economic resource: tourism. Understanding the dynamic functioning of each element of this coast is vital for correct future coastal management, so as to solve problems derived from bad plans developed in the last decades of the twentieth century. This is a valuable text for advanced graduate students and coastal researchers, which connects the specific dynamic functioning of the main Spanish coastal environments and their relationships with human activities.
The book is expressly written for the young minds because they are our best hope for a safer tomorrow. The book is profusely illustrated, as it offers a joyride to the world of the whole range of hazards through simplified teaching-learning process, with less of teaching and more of learning. This is because most readers would love to learn without actually being taught. The book is designed to take advantage of distilled wisdom of centuries to inspire and enlighten the common man to turn them into prime movers of safer societies. Senior citizens, community leaders, self-trained disaster managers, social workers, media personnel, bureaucrats and those averse to the very thought of reading will also find the book useful as it is illustrative and inviting.
The IPCC (2007) warned that the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM)
basin will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding, and that
the region s poverty would reduce its adaptation capacity. This
book investigates autonomous adaptation using a multi-method
technique comprising PRA and a questionnaire survey applied in the
case study area Islampur "Upazila" in Bangladesh.
"This book provides a good account of autonomous adaptation and
its impact on flood vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. Anyone
wishing to fully understand the impact of climate change should
read the book."
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