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This book is about flooding, the risk it imposes on human well-being and related activities, and the main approaches used to deal with the impacts. The aim is to derive lessons for flood risk management. The book covers experiences from case studies in the five countries of Argentina, Australia, Botswana, Brazil and Taiwan. It indicates that in most areas around the world, floods disrupt human activities and also pose threats to human well-being whereas in other areas, particularly wetlands around the world, they are viewed as useful for the sustainability of ecosystems and human livelihoods. Due to climate variability and change, floods are expected to increase in frequency and intensity throughout the world. There is need to evaluate the current structural and non-structural approaches for dealing with flood risk and the impacts on human systems. Decision-making on the adoption of either structural or non-structural approaches to flood risk largely depends on information available and the means to achieve the intended objectives. Understanding the risk posed by flooding requires multidisciplinary assessments on the biophysical, socio-economic and cultural factors underlying the vulnerability of human systems. The book starts by identifying some methods which may be useful for flood assessments. Furthermore, it identifies the impacts of flooding and assesses the pros and cons of the related structural and non-structural responses. The challenges observed from the two main approaches are identified and suggestions are made for promoting flood risk management. Suggestions are made for strengthening support for non-structural approaches which are still inadequate in most developing countries, and require improvement in developed countries, given the increasingly complex nature of flood risk posed by extremes in climate variability.
In this history of extinction and existential risk, a Newsweek and Bloomberg popular science and investigative journalist examines our most dangerous mistakes -- and explores how we can protect and future-proof our civilization. End Times is a compelling work of skilled reportage that peels back the layers of complexity around the unthinkable -- and inevitable -- end of humankind. From asteroids and artificial intelligence to volcanic supereruption to nuclear war, veteran science reporter and TIME editor Bryan Walsh provides a stunning panoramic view of the most catastrophic threats to the human race. In End Times, Walsh examines threats that emerge from nature and those of our own making: asteroids, supervolcanoes, nuclear war, climate change, disease pandemics, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial intelligence. Walsh details the true probability of these world-ending catastrophes, the impact on our lives were they to happen, and the best strategies for saving ourselves, all pulled from his rigorous and deeply thoughtful reporting and research. Walsh goes into the room with the men and women whose job it is to imagine the unimaginable. He includes interviews with those on the front lines of prevention, actively working to head off existential threats in biotechnology labs and government hubs. Guided by Walsh's evocative, page-turning prose, we follow scientific stars like the asteroid hunters at NASA and the disease detectives on the trail of the next killer virus. Walsh explores the danger of apocalypse in all forms. In the end, it will be the depth of our knowledge, the height of our imagination, and our sheer will to survive that will decide the future.
This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the Fukushima accident. The topics are (1) Active faults and active tectonics important for seismic hazard assessment of nuclear facilities,(2) Seismic source modeling and simulation and modeling techniques indispensable for strong ground motion prediction, and (3) PRA with external hazard and risk communication. The Fukushima accident has showed us the limitations of the deterministic evaluation approach to external events (an earthquake and tsunami) in which there are many uncertainties. Furthermore, public anxiety regarding nuclear safety because of an unexpected threat caused by an earthquake or tsunami is growing. The current policy on the estimation of the design basis of ground motion as well as tsunami height still has not been improved following the Fukushima accident. In particular, the risk concept in a nuclear system regarding seismic motion and a tsunami beyond the design basis is indispensable. Therefore, research and development for PRA enhancing nuclear safety are being actively pursued not only in Japan but also worldwide. This book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of nuclear safety vis-a-vis natural disasters.
This thesis adopts the relative back-projection method to dramatically reduce "swimming" artifacts by identifying the rupture fronts in the time window of a reference station; this led to a faster and more accurate image of the rupture processes of earthquakes. Mitigating the damage caused by earthquakes is one of the primary goals of seismology, and includes saving more people's lives by devising seismological approaches to rapidly analyze an earthquake's rupture process. The back-projection method described in this thesis can make that a reality.
This book introduces a framework of tsunami modelling from generation to propagation, aimed at application to the new observation started in Japan after the devastating tsunami of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. About 150 seismic and tsunami sensors were deployed in a wide region off the Pacific coast of eastern Japan in order to catch tsunami generation inside the focal area, which makes a clear departure from conventional observations that detect tsunamis far from the source region. In order to exploit the full potential of this new observation system, it is not enough to model tsunami generation simply by static sea-bottom deformation caused by an earthquake. This book explains dynamic tsunami generation and sea-bottom deformation by kinematic earthquake faulting, in which seismic and acoustic waves are also included in addition to static sea-bottom deformation. It then systematically derives basic tsunami equations from the fundamental equations of motions. The author also illustrates the details of numerical schemes and their applications to tsunami records, making sound linkages among these topics to naturally understand how a tsunami is physically or mathematically described. This book will be a comprehensive guide for graduate students and young researchers to start their research activities smoothly.
Modern Technologies for Landslide Investigation and Prediction presents eleven contributed chapters from Chinese and Italian authors, as a follow-up of a bilateral workshop held in Shanghai on September 2013. Chapters are organized in three main parts: ground-based monitoring techniques (photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning, ground-based InSAR, infrared thermography, and GNSS networks), geophysical (passive seismic sensor networks) and geotechnical methods (SPH and SLIDE), and satellite remote-sensing techniques (InSAR and optical images). Authors of these contributes are internationally-recognized experts in their respective research fields. Marco Scaioni works in the college of Surveying and Geo-Informatics at Tongji University, Shanghai (P.R. China). His research fields are mainly Close-range Photogrammetry, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, and other ground-based sensors for metrological and deformation monitoring applications to structural engineering and geosciences. In the period 2012-2016 he is chairman of the Working Group V/3 in the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, focusing on 'Terrestrial 3D Imaging and Sensors'.
This book focuses on international research in flood-related areas and sustainable management. It consists of a compilation of innovative works, demonstrating best practices in flood management and recommend flood solutions. The selected papers cover the fundamentals and latest advances in the area, complete with illustrations, diagrams and tables. These proceedings serve as a source of information and state-of-the-art technology in managing floods to improve quality of life.
This book discusses in detail the science and morphology of powerful hurricane detection systems. It broadly addresses new approaches to monitoring hazards using freely available images from the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentinel-1 SAR satellite and benchmarks a new interdisciplinary field at the interface between oceanography, meteorology and remote sensing. Following the launch of the first European Space Agency (ESA) operational synthetic aperture radar satellite, Sentinel-1, in 2014, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has been freely available on the Internet hub in real-time. This advance allows weather forecasters to view hurricanes in fine detail for the first time. As a result, the number of synthetic aperture radar research scientists working in this field is set to grow exponentially in the next decade; the book is a valuable resource for this large and budding audience.
This Open Access Book is the first to examine disasters from a multidisciplinary perspective. Justification of actions in the face of disasters requires recourse both to conceptual analysis and ethical traditions. Part 1 of the book contains chapters on how disasters are conceptualized in different academic disciplines relevant to disasters. Part 2 has chapters on how ethical issues that arise in relation to disasters can be addressed from a number of fundamental normative approaches in moral and political philosophy. This book sets the stage for more focused normative debates given that no one book can be completely comprehensive. Providing analysis of core concepts, and with real-world relevance, this book should be of interest to disaster scholars and researchers, those working in ethics and political philosophy, as well as policy makers, humanitarian actors and intergovernmental organizations..
"In this latest insightful volume gathered and edited by Marilyn Luber, the authors have combined the lessons learned with personal accounts of how they proceeded. There is still much to be done to integrate mental health care effectively into disaster response world-wide, but this volume will help to point the way to best practices."
-Robert Gelbach, PhD
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a method of psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and proven effective for the treatment of trauma.
"Provides step-by-step scripts to enable beginning practitioners to quickly gain expertise and summary sheets for immediate on-site information retrieval"
This book presents EMDR early response intervention protocols for such traumatic events as earthquakes, mining accidents, tsunamis, and ongoing warfare. It also provides concise summary sheets to facilitate quick information retrieval in perilous circumstances.
"Vividly describes the experiences of therapists who employed EMDR following massive trauma events and the protocols they developed"
The book is authored by several of the first generation of therapists who successfully employed EMDR as a clinical treatment for acute stressfollowing massive trauma events. They vividly describe their experiences and the protocols and models they developed to respond to disaster. The book describes two of the most commonly used resources: the Butterfly Hug and the Four Elements Exercise for Stress Management.
"Includes new information on acute stress, secondary PTSD and vicarious traumatization with interventiions borne from events in Turkey, Asia, the Middle East, South and Central America, and the U.S."
Includes new information on acute stress, secondary PTSD and vicarious traumatization growing out of interventions subsequent to natural disasters, warfare and massacres in Turkey, Asia, the Middle East, South and Central America, and the United States, - Material on clinician self-care is seminal to all recent trauma responses. Interventions that can be put to use on site and post-trauma are presented for groups, including work with children, adolescents, and adults and with special populations.
"The book is also available as a CD-ROM "
Provides EMDR early intervention procedures for man-made and natural catastrophes Addresses EMDR and early interventions for groups of all ages and special populations Highlights international perspectives on how to organize a mental health response for recent traumatic events Includes early interventions scripts and summary sheets for individuals, groups and special populations and self-care scripts for clinicians Offers concise summary sheets for quick information retrieval Expandable and editable digital format for easy access and customized tailoring to therapist's needs Includes templates for repeat use
This edited book examines the contemporary regional security concerns in the Asia-Pacific recognizing the 'Butterfly effect', the concept that small causes can have large effects: 'the flap of a butterfly's wings can cause a typhoon halfway around the world'. For many Asia-Pacific states, domestic security challenges are at least as important as external security considerations. Recent events (both natural disasters and man-made disasters) have pointed to the inherent physical, economic, social and political vulnerabilities that exist in the region. Both black swan events and persistent threats to security characterize the challenges within the Asia-Pacific region. Transnational security challenges such as global climate change, environmental degradation, pandemics, energy security, supply chain security, resource scarcity, terrorism and organized crime are shaping the security landscape regionally and globally. The significance of emerging transnational security challenges in the Asia-Pacific Region impact globally and conversely, security developments in those other regions affect the Asia-Pacific region.
Why aren't we investing more in disaster resilience, despite the rising costs of disaster events? This book argues that decision-makers in governments, businesses, households, and development agencies tend to focus on avoiding losses from disasters, and perceive the return on investment as uncertain - only realised if a somewhat unlikely disaster event actually happens. This book develops a new business case for investment based on the multiple dividends of resilience. This looks beyond only avoided losses (the first dividend) to the wider benefits gained independently of whether or not the disaster event occurs. These include unleashing entrepreneurial activities and productive investments by lowering the looming threat of losses from disasters and enabling businesses, farmers and homeowners to take positive risks (the second dividend); and co-benefits of resilience measures beyond just disaster risk (the third dividend), such as flood embankments in Bangladesh that double as roads, or wetlands in Colombo that reduce urban heat extremes.
As urbanisation progresses, urban environments have been confronted with many challenges, such as air pollution and stormwater disaster. The latter has been especially damaging in recent years, as vulnerable places suffer from inundating onslaughts of surface run-off following hurricanes and heavy rainfall. This book analyses the implementation of stormwater management practices. It presents the systematic theory behind these methods, and provides multiple case studies showing how drainage development can create a sustainable urban environment. SELLING POINTS: * Analyses methods of stormwater management * Suggests how these methods might be effectively applied 400 colour
This book contains peer-reviewed papers from the Second World Landslide Forum, organised by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), that took place in September 2011. The entire material from the conference has been split into seven volumes, this one is the fifth: 1. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility and Hazard Zoning, 2. Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring, 3. Spatial Analysis and Modelling, 4. Global Environmental Change, 5. Complex Environment, 6. Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation, 7. Social and Economic Impact and Policies.
This book contains peer-reviewed papers from the Second World Landslide Forum, organised by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), that took place in September 2011. The entire material from the conference has been split into seven volumes, this one is the sixth: 1. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility and Hazard Zoning, 2. Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring, 3. Spatial Analysis and Modelling, 4. Global Environmental Change, 5. Complex Environment, 6. Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation, 7. Social and Economic Impact and Policies.
The book looks at the factors influencing the level of preparedness of communities exposed to flooding. It is based on original research carried out in twelve areas in southern Poland that suffered serious flood damage in the past thirty years. The underlying research was intended, on the one hand, to verify modern concepts explaining the behaviour of people who were exposed to natural hazards and, on the other, to explore the influence of the local natural, social, historical and economic contexts that could modify that behaviour. The book has three main threads: the social memory of floods and their image as it evolves in time; the influence of social and economic conditions (social vulnerability) on the preparedness to take on flood mitigation measures; and the role of risk communication in strengthening flood resilience. The main body of the work is based on 1) surveys carried out among the flood-affected population and members of local crisis services, 2) interviews with the flood-affected population and with members of administration and services (Police, Fire Dept.) with a history of rescue missions, and 3) an analysis of social media content and of local administration and government agency websites and land-use planning documents. The primary data collected by the authors was supplemented by statistics on the impact of floods occurring in the study areas. The data is presented in tables, graphs and maps for easier comprehension. The book is aimed at researchers and students, as well as at practitioners interested in risk perception, flood memories, social vulnerability & resilience studies, social capacity building, risk communication & education.
The expected time of impact, also known as the mean first passage time (MFPT) to reach failure, is a critical metric in the management of natural disasters. The complexity of the dynamics governing natural disasters lead to stochastic behaviour. This book shows that state transitions of many such systems translate into random walks on their respective state spaces, biased and shaped by environmental inhomogeneity. Thus the probabilistic treatment of those random walks gives valuable insights of expected behaviour. A comprehensive case study of predicting cyclone induced flood is followed by a discussion of generic methods that predict MFPT addressing directional bias. This is followed by discussing MFPT prediction methods in systems showing network inhomogeneity. All presented methods are illustrated using real datasets of natural disasters. The book ends with a short discussion of possible future research areas introducing the problem of predicting MFPT for bush-fire propagation.
This book is about how extreme and systemic risk can be analyzed in an integrated way. Risk analysis is understood to include measurement, assessment as well as management aspects. Integration is understood as being able to perform risk analysis for extreme and systemic events simultaneously. The presented approach is based on Sklar's theorem, which states that a multivariate distribution can be separated into two parts - one describing the marginal distributions and the other describing the dependency between the distributions using a so-called copula. It is suggested to reinterpret Sklar's theorem from a system or network perspective, treating copulas as a network property and individual, including extreme, risk as elements within the network. In that way, extreme and systemic risk can be analyzed independently as well as jointly across several scales. The book is intended for a large audience, and all techniques presented are guided with examples and applications with a special focus on natural disaster events. Furthermore, an extensive literature and discussion of it are given in each chapter for the interested reader.
The frequency and consequences of extreme flood events have increased rapidly worldwide in recent decades and climate change and economic growth are likely to exacerbate this trend. Flood protection measures alone cannot accommodate the future frequencies and impacts of flooding. Integrated flood risk management (IFRM) considers a portfolio of measures to reduce flood risk that comprise flood protection, but also land use planning and emergency management. The implementation of IFRM policies and projects is not straightforward and guidance is lacking. IFRM requires collaboration between multiple disciplines; by a group of stakeholders with various interests and means; to combine objectives and funding from different policy domains; to consider a range of possible options at all spatial scale levels and for various time horizons. Moreover the overarching societal system and its incumbent cultures, structures and practices are yet unfit for IFRM. This dissertation provides guidance for IFRM: governance arrangements for planning processes; for stimulating learning and collaboration; for adaptation of the physical (natural and man-made) and societal systems. It presents 4 appealing case studies from the Netherlands. This work brings new insights to the scientific domains of inter alia: flood risk management; adaptive co-management; and transition management, particularly through their mutual enrichment.
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This book explores an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of gender and development studies, disaster and land tenure policy. It is well known that women generally have weaker claims to land. But how does that translate to increased vulnerability during disaster? Using case studies from Asia, this book argues that land tenure is a key factor in mitigating the impact of disasters on women. The scale and frequency of disasters have been increasing in recent decades due to human impact on the landscape and climate. Unsustainable farming and land management systems have increased environmental risks and social vulnerabilities. However, around the world the costs of disasters are disproportionately borne by women, due largely to their reduced mobility and lack of control over assets. In post-disaster settings, women's vulnerabilities increase due to gendered rescue and rehabilitation practices. As such, a gendered approach to land rights is critical to disaster preparedness and recovery.
This work responds to the increasing global need of measuring and analyzing impacts, vulnerabilities and coping capacity of countries, regions and communities regarding climate change, extreme weather conditions, natural disasters and institutional constraints. The case of Mexico, analyzed in this work, provides lessons for further developing countries to assess natural disasters vulnerability, for making informed adaptation decisions and to optimize resources for reducing country and community vulnerability. This book's analyses contribute to the current debate of the long-term economic impact of natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.), as well as offer an integral methodology combining natural and social sciences for studies of country and community level vulnerability to climate change. The lessons derived from this analysis provide useful elements for the design and improvement of governmental policies concerning social and economic development as well. In addition, the desegregation of this analysis has the advantage of facilitating the design and evaluation of governmental projects at municipal, sub-national and national level, as well as provides conceptual-empirical elements for international cooperation in matters of disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, rural development and poverty reduction.
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