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The National Response Framework is a guide to how the Nation responds to all types of disasters and emergencies. It is built on scalable, flexible, and adaptable concepts identified in the National Incident Management System to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation. This Framework describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters. The National Response Framework describes the principles, roles and responsibilities, and co-ordinating structures for delivering the core capabilities required to respond to an incident and further describes how response efforts integrate with those of the other mission areas. The structures, roles, and responsibilities described in this Framework can be partially or fully implemented in the context of a threat or hazard, in anticipation of a significant event, or in response to an incident. Selective implementation of National Response Framework structures and procedures allows for a scaled response, delivery of the specific resources and capabilities, and a level of coordination appropriate to each incident. This book discusses the National Response Framework, as well as the National Disaster Recovery Framework in full detail.
Hurricane Sandy struck the East Coast with incredible power and fury, wreaking havoc in communities across the region. Entire neighbourhoods were flooded. Families lost their homes. Businesses were destroyed. Infrastructure was torn apart. After all the damage was done, it was clear that the region faced a long, hard road back. That is why President Obama pledged to work with local partners every step of the way to help affected communities rebuild and recover. On August 19, 2013, the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force released its Rebuilding Strategy for the Sandy impacted region. The Rebuilding Strategy included a long-term plan for rebuilding that guides Sandy supplemental spending to drive regional co-ordination and make communities more resilient to future disasters. The Rebuilding Strategy also aligns federal, state and local policies to achieve goals that are important to the long-term rebuilding of the region in the most economically efficient, ecologically robust and innovative ways possible. This book discusses the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy in detail.
On August 31, 1886, a massive earthquake centered near Charleston, South Carolina, sent shock waves as far north as Maine, down into Florida, and west to the Mississippi River. When the dust settled, residents of the old port city were devastated by the death and destruction.
"Upheaval in Charleston" is a gripping account of natural disaster and turbulent social change in a city known as the cradle of secession. Weaving together the emotionally charged stories of Confederate veterans and former slaves, Susan Millar Williams and Stephen G. Hoffius portray a South where whites and blacks struggled to determine how they would coexist a generation after the end of the Civil War.
This is also the story of Francis Warrington Dawson, a British expatriate drawn to the South by the romance of the Confederacy. As editor of Charleston's "News and Courier," Dawson walked a lonely and dangerous path, risking his life and reputation to find common ground between the races. Hailed as a hero in the aftermath of the earthquake, Dawson was denounced by white supremacists and murdered less than three years after the disaster. His killer was acquitted after a sensational trial that unmasked a Charleston underworld of decadence and corruption.
Combining careful research with suspenseful storytelling, "Upheaval in Charleston" offers a vivid portrait of a volatile time and an anguished place.
The Elkhorn River originates in north-central Nebraska and empties into the Platte River just west of Omaha. One of the first written records of the Elkhorn describes a flood. A flood hindered travel up the river by the valley's first non-Indian settlers. Decade after decade, floods have swept away mill dams, destroyed crops, drowned stock, soaked inventories, filled basements, undercut roads, washed out railroads and bridges, turned unfortunate riverside homesaEURO"even a dance hallaEURO"into unwieldy watercraft, and killed people. Everyone in the Elkhorn Valley agreed the Flood of 1944 was the worst in history. Until the deadly Flood of 2010 took the title. From a perspective unusual on the Great PlainsaEURO"the problem of too much wateraEURO" Flood on the Tracks offers an intimate portrait of life in the Elkhorn River Basin of northeast Nebraska. In a region often defined by aridity, rivers and their basins have provided sustenance, shelter, fertile soil, and overland highways. In many ways Plains rivers organize human lives. When they overflow, which they can be counted on to do, they disorganize them. Using Plains Indian winter counts, postcards, photographs, newspaper accounts, government records, and more, Flood on the Tracks chronicles the river's natural and human history from the Plains Indians into the twenty-first century. The Elkhorn's floods show us how the nature of disaster has changed and how Plainsfolk liveaEURO"and dieaEURO"with a river.
"Building Back Better" (BBB) has been a popular slogan in disaster recovery efforts around the world, including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the 2009 Samoan Tsunami, the 2010 Haiti Earthquake and the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. BBB has recently been identified as one of four priorities of action for disaster risk reduction globally in the next 15 years by the United Nations Sendai Framework. However, there has consistently been a mismatch and confusion in the interpretation of the phrase and what BBB encapsulates which has made proper implementation difficult and unsuccessful at times. This book explains the concept of "Building Back Better" as an innovative holistic approach to rebuilding a community following a disaster event in order to develop resilience. It begins by exploring the background, development and definitions of BBB. The theory behind establishing BBB as a holistic concept is explained and the internationally recognised BBB Framework developed by the authors is introduced and described. Each of the components of the Framework are explained in detail with findings from international research and case studies from the US, Haiti, Indonesia, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu, Gaza, China, Australia, UK and New Zealand, providing practical recommendations for implementation in recovery projects. There is a focus on the translation of BBB theory into practice to assist implementers to use the BBB Framework and BBB Indicators introduced in this book as an effective tool to plan and implement disaster recovery projects. This publication can be used as a handbook by government, non-governmental and private industry practitioners to prepare for and implement post disaster recovery projects that benefit and strengthen local communities and as a core text on international Disaster and Energy Management courses.
This book discusses in detail the science and morphology of powerful hurricane detection systems. It broadly addresses new approaches to monitoring hazards using freely available images from the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentinel-1 SAR satellite and benchmarks a new interdisciplinary field at the interface between oceanography, meteorology and remote sensing. Following the launch of the first European Space Agency (ESA) operational synthetic aperture radar satellite, Sentinel-1, in 2014, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has been freely available on the Internet hub in real-time. This advance allows weather forecasters to view hurricanes in fine detail for the first time. As a result, the number of synthetic aperture radar research scientists working in this field is set to grow exponentially in the next decade; the book is a valuable resource for this large and budding audience.
In the winter of 1811-12, a series of large earthquakes in the New Madrid seismic zone-often incorrectly described as the biggest ever to hit the United States-shook the Midwest. Today the federal government ranks the hazard in the Midwest as high as California's and is pressuring communities to undertake expensive preparations for disaster.
Coinciding with the two-hundredth anniversary of the New Madrid earthquakes, "Disaster Deferred" revisits these earthquakes, the legends that have grown around them, and the predictions of doom that have followed in their wake. Seth Stein clearly explains the techniques seismologists use to study Midwestern quakes and estimate their danger. Detailing how limited scientific knowledge, bureaucratic instincts, and the media's love of a good story have exaggerated these hazards, Stein calmly debunks the hype surrounding such predictions and encourages the formulation of more sensible, less costly policy. Powered by insider knowledge and an engaging style, "Disaster Deferred" shows how new geological ideas and data, including those from the Global Positioning System, are painting a very different-and much less frightening-picture of the future.
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This book provides a comparative analysis of policy instruments designed to respond to climate change, drought and floods in connection with agricultural producers and their communities in four case study areas: Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada; Coquimbo, Chile; and Mendoza, Argentina. Assessed from the standpoint of effectiveness and adaptive governance, instruments for improving the livelihood capitals of agricultural producers are identified and recommendations to improve the suite of policy instruments are put forward.
Based on more than 12 years of systematic investigation on earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures, this book covers the major research outcomes including a number of novel computational models, high performance computing methods and realistic visualization techniques for tall buildings and urban areas, with particular emphasize on collapse prevention and mitigation in extreme earthquakes, earthquake loss evaluation and seismic resilience. Typical engineering applications to several tallest buildings in the world (e.g., the 632 m tall Shanghai Tower and the 528 m tall Z15 Tower) and selected large cities in China (the Beijing Central Business District, Xi'an City, Taiyuan City and Tangshan City) are also introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed computational models and techniques. The high-fidelity computational model developed in this book has proven to be the only feasible option to date for earthquake-induced collapse simulation of supertall buildings that are higher than 500 m. More importantly, the proposed collapse simulation technique has already been successfully used in the design of some real-world supertall buildings, with significant savings of tens of thousands of tons of concrete and steel, whilst achieving a better seismic performance and safety. The proposed novel solution for earthquake disaster simulation of urban areas using nonlinear multiple degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model and time-history analysis delivers several unique advantages: (1) true representation of the characteristic features of individual buildings and ground motions; (2) realistic visualization of earthquake scenarios, particularly dynamic shaking of buildings during earthquakes; (3) detailed prediction of seismic response and losses on each story of every building at any time period. The proposed earthquake disaster simulation technique has been successfully implemented in the seismic performance assessments and earthquake loss predictions of several central cities in China. The outcomes of the simulation as well as the feedback from the end users are encouraging, particularly for the government officials and/or administration department personnel with limited professional knowledge of earthquake engineering. The book offers readers a systematic solution to earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures. The application outcomes demonstrate a promising future of the proposed advanced techniques. The book provides a long-awaited guide for academics and graduate students involving in earthquake engineering research and teaching activities. It can also be used by structural engineers for seismic design of supertall buildings.
This book provides bibliographic resources on the response, restoration and research initiatives of oil spills, most notably, the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico and its impacts on the marine ecosystem and coastal environment.
The 1984 explosion of the Union Carbide chemical plant in Bhopal,
India was undisputedly one of the world's worst industrial
disasters. Some have argued that the litigation following the
Bhopal disaster provided an "innovative model" for dealing with the
global distribution of technological risk; others consider the
disaster a turning point in environmental legislation; still others
argue that Bhopal is what globalization looks like on the ground.
When there is a catastrophe in the United States, state and local governments lead response activities, invoking state and local legal authorities to support them. When state and local response capabilities are overwhelmed, the President, acting through the Secretary of Homeland Security, can provide assistance to stricken communities, individuals, governments, and not-for-profit groups to assist in response and recovery. Aid is provided under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) upon a presidential declaration. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) also has both standing and emergency authorities in the Public Health Service Act, by which he or she can provide assistance in response to public health and medical emergencies. This book examines, with respect to public health and medical incidents, the authorities and coordinating mechanisms of the President and the Secretary of HHS in providing routine assistance, and assistance pursuant to the Stafford Act and/or the Public Health Service Act; mechanisms to assure a coordinated federal response to these incidents, and overlaps or gaps in agency responsibilities; and existing mechanisms, potential gaps, and proposals to fund the costs of a response to public health and medical incidents.
In 2011, there were fourteen natural calamities that each destroyed over a billion dollars worth of property in the United States alone. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy ravaged the East Coast and major earthquakes struck in Italy, the Philippines, Iran, and Afghanistan. In the first half of 2013, the awful drumbeat continued a monster supertornado struck Moore, Oklahoma; a powerful earthquake shook Sichuan, China; a cyclone ravaged Queensland, Australia; massive floods inundated Jakarta, Indonesia; and the largest wildfire ever engulfed a large part of Colorado.
Despite these events, we still behave as if natural disasters are outliers. Why else would we continue to build new communities near active volcanoes, on tectonically active faults, on flood plains, and in areas routinely lashed by vicious storms?
A famous historian once observed that civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. In the pages of this unique book, leading geologist Susan W. Kieffer provides a primer on most types of natural disasters: earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, landslides, hurricanes, cyclones, and tornadoes. By taking us behind the scenes of the underlying geology that causes them, she shows why natural disasters are more common than we realize, and that their impact on us will increase as our growing population crowds us into ever more vulnerable areas.
Kieffer describes how natural disasters result from changes in state in a geologic system, much as when water turns to steam. By understanding what causes these changes of state, we can begin to understand the dynamics of natural disasters.
In the book s concluding chapter, Kieffer outlines how we might better prepare for, and in some cases prevent, future disasters. She also calls for the creation of an organization, something akin to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention but focused on pending natural disasters."
This is the authoritative book on sea level rise and its coastal consequences. On Shismaref Island in Alaska, homes are being washed into the sea. In the South Pacific, small island nations face annihilation by encroaching waters. In coastal Louisiana, an area the size of a football field disappears every day. For these communities, sea level rise isn't a distant, abstract fear: it's happening now and it's threatening their way of life. In "The Rising Sea", Orrin H. Pilkey and Rob Young warn that many other coastal areas may be close behind. Prominent scientists predict that the oceans may rise by as much as seven feet in the next hundred years. That means coastal cities will be forced to construct dikes and seawalls or to move buildings, roads, pipelines, and railways to avert inundation and destruction. The question is no longer whether climate change is causing the oceans to swell, but by how much and how quickly. Pilkey and Young deftly guide readers through the science, explaining the facts and debunking the claims of industry-sponsored 'sceptics'. They also explore the consequences for fish, wildlife - and people. While rising seas are now inevitable, we are far from helpless. By making hard choices - including uprooting citizens, changing where and how we build, and developing a coordinated national response - we can save property, and ultimately lives. With unassailable research and practical insights, "The Rising Sea" is a critical first step in understanding the threat and keeping our heads above water.
In recent years, 'environmental collapse' has become an important way of framing and imagining environmental change and destruction, referencing issues such as climate change, species extinction and deteriorating ecosystems. Given its pervasiveness across disciplines and spheres, this edited volume articulates environmental collapse as a discursive phenomenon worthy of sustained critical attention. Building upon contemporary conversations in the fields of archaeology and the natural sciences, this volume coalesces, explores and critically evaluates the diverse array of literatures and imaginaries that constitute environmental collapse. The volume is divided into three sections- Doc- Collapse, Pop Collapse and Craft Collapse -that independently explore distinct modes of representing, and implicit attitudes toward, environmental collapse from the lenses of diverse fields of study including climate science and policy, cinema and photo journalism. Bringing together a broad range of topics and authors, this volume will be of great interest to scholars of environmental communication and environmental humanities.
The expected time of impact, also known as the mean first passage time (MFPT) to reach failure, is a critical metric in the management of natural disasters. The complexity of the dynamics governing natural disasters lead to stochastic behaviour. This book shows that state transitions of many such systems translate into random walks on their respective state spaces, biased and shaped by environmental inhomogeneity. Thus the probabilistic treatment of those random walks gives valuable insights of expected behaviour. A comprehensive case study of predicting cyclone induced flood is followed by a discussion of generic methods that predict MFPT addressing directional bias. This is followed by discussing MFPT prediction methods in systems showing network inhomogeneity. All presented methods are illustrated using real datasets of natural disasters. The book ends with a short discussion of possible future research areas introducing the problem of predicting MFPT for bush-fire propagation.
This book gathers the most recent scientific research on the geological, geotechnical and geophysical aspects of slope failure in sensitive clays. Gathering contributions by international experts, it focuses on understanding the complete and practical spectrum of challenges presented by landslides in such complex materials. Based on sound and validated research results, the book also presents several recommendations that could be implemented in the guidelines or code-of-practice. These recommendations cover topics including the characterization and behavior of sensitive clays; the pre-failure, failure and post-failure stages of sensitive clays; mapping and identification methods; climate change; hazard assessment; and risk management. Sensitive clays are known for their potential for causing large landslides, which pose a serious risk to human lives, infrastructure, and surrounding ecosystems within their reach. This has been demonstrated by the recent catastrophic landslides in e.g. Sorum (2016), Skjeggestad (2015), Statland (2014), Byneset (2012), St-Jude (2010), Lyngen (2010) and Kattmarka (2009). The 2015 collapse of the Skjeggestad Bridge in Norway - which was due to a landslide in sensitive clay - alone costs millions of dollars in repairs. Recently, efforts are being made to increase society's ability to cope with such landslide hazards. Geoscientists are now expected to provide input to the agencies responsible for landslide-risk preparedness. In other words, geoscientists' role is not only to act as technologists to establish new theories, but also to go the extra mile to implement them in practice, so as to find meaningful solutions to geotechnical problems.
This book provides a detailed introduction to natural disasters and the ways in which they have had and continue to have, profound effects on human society. Natural Disasters: A Reference Handbook surveys the impact of these events on human civilization. The opening chapter provides a general history and background of the major types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, and forest fires. The information presented in this introduction allows the reader to better understand current issues, problems, and solutions related to natural disasters discussed in subsequent chapters. The book covers the role of natural disasters in human life from earliest recorded history (and, to some extent, even earlier) to the present day. It provides an extensive variety of resources that encourage readers to learn more about the topics discussed. The book is intended for readers in the late middle school to high school age range, as well as adults who may have a special interest in the subject. Provides readers with a sound background in the science and technology of major natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires Traces the development of human understanding of the causes and nature of such events Discusses the ways in which natural events such as changing weather patterns may interact with human decisions and actions that lead to complex forms of disaster Provides background on the specific contributions of individuals and organizations within the field that have yielded our mature understanding of the nature and impact of natural disaster Suggests a host of practical resources to use in an extended study of the topic
For most disasters across the nation, the affected local, state, or tribal governments have sufficient capabilities to respond to the incident. However, for disasters with consequences that require unique capabilities or that overwhelm the existing capabilities of a respective state or tribal government, Congress has authorised and appropriated a suite of deployable federal assets to support domestic disaster response operations. This book reviews several key concepts about these federal assets, and highlights possible issues Congress may consider when evaluating their authorisation and appropriation. This book also provides information that can aid policymakers as they navigate through the many levels of responsibility, and numerous policy pressure points, by having an understanding of the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. The book also reviews the legislative framework that exists for providing federal assistance, as well as the implementing polices the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state, tribal, and local governments during time of disasters.
What is the state's responsibility to its people in the aftermath of a natural hazard based disaster? The book sets out to address this seemingly simple question, after large scale floods devastated Pakistan in 2010 and then again in 2011. Along the way it delves into rich detail about people's everday encounters with the state in Pakistan, uncovers postcolonial discourses on rights of citizenship and dispels mainstream understanding of Islamist groups as presenting an alternative development paradigm to the state. Based on detailed ethnographic fieldwork, In the Wake of the Disaster forces the reader to look beyond narratives of Pakistan as the perennial 'failing state' falling victim to an imminent 'Islamist takeover'. The book shifts the conversation from hysteria and sensationalism surrounding Pakistan to the everyday. In doing so it transforms our understanding of contemporary disasters.
???????????? Katrina, a natural hurricane, struck New Orleans on August 29th 2005. ???????????? Nobody envisaged the damage and destruction it would wreak on the southern US city, and it became on a much greater scale a manmade disaster of civil engineering and social discrimination. ???????????? Because of government failure, millions viewed political ineptitude, social inequity and an unpaved America where the streets were lined with anything but gold. ???????????? The images in this book show the abandoned and hardest-hit district of the Lower Ninth Ward, now over two years later, and still counting. ???????????? Vacant and dilapidated, the city is a shadow of its former self. However, in these seemingly lifeless shadows, and through the broken windows of empty houses, one can eerily see the ghostly reflections of life and death in the form of PER SONAL OBJECT S. ???????????? These intensely personal items have been abandoned and left, and in most cases, will never be reclaimed. ???????????? This small format book touches on the ephemeral, and surprisingly often beautiful, remnants of belongings that once made up the memories and precious moments of peoples' lives.
This book is a pioneering regional work and provides a balanced approach of theory and practice in disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Pakistan. The book analytically discusses the status of DRR and draws examples and lessons from national and community-level programs and projects and events in the country. The book covers different types of disasters facing Pakistan, including geo-physical and hydro-meteorological hazards. This work incorporates and draws some of the key lessons learned from the pre-disaster and disaster phases to the post-disaster phase, providing an effective framework in the form of those lessons. The rich content is based on a selection of available documents, a consultative workshop with academicians from different universities undertaking DRR higher education programs, and the editors' own knowledge and experience in the field. Special emphasis is given to analyzing field experiences from academic perspectives, and pinpointing key issues and the policy relevance of DRR. Disaster Risk Reduction Approaches in Pakistan is organized into three sections with a total of 20 chapters. Section one provides the outline and basics of DRR strategies applied at the national level with supporting examples from a global review. Section two specifically highlights the wide ranges of hazards experienced in Pakistan and presents examples, policy options, institutional set-ups, risk reduction strategies, and key lessons learned. The third section of the book is given to approaches and issues of DRR practices with examples of disaster responses.
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