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This book is one out of six IAEG XIII Congress and AEG 61st Annual Meeting proceeding volumes, and deals with topics related to dams, tunnels, groundwater resources, and climate change. The theme of the IAEG/AEG Meeting, held in San Francisco from September 17-21, 2018, is Engineering Geology for a Sustainable World. The meeting proceedings analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world. The meeting topics and subject areas of the six volumes are: Slope Stability: Case Histories, Landslide Mapping, Emerging Technologies; Geotechnical and Environmental Site Characterization; Mining, Aggregates, Karst; Dams, Tunnels, Groundwater Resources, Climate Change; Geologic Hazards: Earthquakes, Land Subsidence, Coastal Hazards, and Emergency Response; and Advances in Engineering Geology: Education, Soil and Rock Properties, Modeling.
This thesis adopts the relative back-projection method to dramatically reduce "swimming" artifacts by identifying the rupture fronts in the time window of a reference station; this led to a faster and more accurate image of the rupture processes of earthquakes. Mitigating the damage caused by earthquakes is one of the primary goals of seismology, and includes saving more people's lives by devising seismological approaches to rapidly analyze an earthquake's rupture process. The back-projection method described in this thesis can make that a reality.
A new edition of Peter Francis's highly respected text, reflecting new research findings and new eruptions. Preserving the immense clarity and engaging humour of the first edition including a new chapter on hazards and risk mitigation.
This book is devoted to theoretical and conceptual aspects of disaster management, risk assessment, hazard minimisation and vulnerability analysis. Plans for coping with specific types of disasters such as tsunami, cyclone, hurricane etc., are discussed in detail.
On May 5, 2007, two days into his twenty-seventh trip to the Boundary Waters, Stephen Posniak found a perfect spot on Ham Lake and set about making a campfire. Over the next two weeks, the fire he set would consume 75,000 acres of forest and 144 build
This book discusses techniques for predicting, preventing and controlling the hydrogeological instability of slopes consisting of cohesive soils. The proposed methodology is practical and innovative, and assumes a dynamic valence in defining the deformation process of underground failure as well as its activation through the assumption of a four-dimensional space-time continuum. This latter aspect is crucial for predicting a landslide in time to control it. At present, predicting, preventing and controlling hydrogeological instability in cohesive soils relies on mathematical modelling using specific software, the predictive reliability of which is rather deficient. Such modelling is based upon deterministic processes, which are entirely unsuitable for dealing with the complexity of vital processes occurring during the genesis of a landslide. In this work, the three-dimensional vision of a landslide as a set of distinct and independent phenomena is abandoned and the prediction and prevention of hydrogeological instability is pursued through the alternative of an indivisible totality of natural phenomena that includes the time factor. The book is of interest to graduates and researchers of applied geology, geotechnical, environmental and civil engineering, as well as professionals in the fields of hydrogeology and natural hazards.
This book illustrates the main factors of vulnerability and gives a clear picture about the possible interventions to reduce disaster risks both in schools and communities in Azerbaijan. A new methodology for child centered vulnerability assessments both on school and community levels has been developed. This methodology can be used to assess the level of vulnerability of schools and communities. The book is a newly prepared training manual which will help practitioners conduct trainings for government and community organizations. While the book is focused on a specific region, the suggested approach is generic and can be used elsewhere.
The National Response Framework is a guide to how the Nation responds to all types of disasters and emergencies. It is built on scalable, flexible, and adaptable concepts identified in the National Incident Management System to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation. This Framework describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters. The National Response Framework describes the principles, roles and responsibilities, and co-ordinating structures for delivering the core capabilities required to respond to an incident and further describes how response efforts integrate with those of the other mission areas. The structures, roles, and responsibilities described in this Framework can be partially or fully implemented in the context of a threat or hazard, in anticipation of a significant event, or in response to an incident. Selective implementation of National Response Framework structures and procedures allows for a scaled response, delivery of the specific resources and capabilities, and a level of coordination appropriate to each incident. This book discusses the National Response Framework, as well as the National Disaster Recovery Framework in full detail.
Hurricane Sandy struck the East Coast with incredible power and fury, wreaking havoc in communities across the region. Entire neighbourhoods were flooded. Families lost their homes. Businesses were destroyed. Infrastructure was torn apart. After all the damage was done, it was clear that the region faced a long, hard road back. That is why President Obama pledged to work with local partners every step of the way to help affected communities rebuild and recover. On August 19, 2013, the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force released its Rebuilding Strategy for the Sandy impacted region. The Rebuilding Strategy included a long-term plan for rebuilding that guides Sandy supplemental spending to drive regional co-ordination and make communities more resilient to future disasters. The Rebuilding Strategy also aligns federal, state and local policies to achieve goals that are important to the long-term rebuilding of the region in the most economically efficient, ecologically robust and innovative ways possible. This book discusses the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy in detail.
This book discusses various statistical models and their implications for developing landslide susceptibility and risk zonation maps. It also presents a range of statistical techniques, i.e. bivariate and multivariate statistical models and machine learning models, as well as multi-criteria evaluation, pseudo-quantitative and probabilistic approaches. As such, it provides methods and techniques for RS & GIS-based models in spatial distribution for all those engaged in the preparation and development of projects, research, training courses and postgraduate studies. Further, the book offers a valuable resource for students using RS & GIS techniques in their studies.
A PACIFIC NORTHWEST BOOKSELLERS ASSOCIATION BESTSELLER "A fascinating look" (Esquire) at the thrilling world of smokejumpers, the airborne firefighters who parachute into the most remote and rugged areas of the United States, confronting the growing threat of nature's blazes. Forest and wildland fires are growing larger, more numerous, and deadlier every year - record drought conditions, decades of forestry mismanagement, and the increasing encroachment of residential housing into the wilderness have combined to create a powder keg that threatens millions of acres and thousands of lives every year. One select group of men and women are part of America's front-line defense: smokejumpers. The smokejumper program operates through both the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. Though they are tremendously skilled and only highly experienced and able wildland firefighters are accepted into the training program, being a smokejumper remains an art that can only be learned on the job. Forest fires often behave in unpredictable ways: spreading almost instantaneously, shooting downhill behind a stiff tailwind, or even flowing like a liquid. In this extraordinarily rare memoir by an active-duty jumper, Jason Ramos takes readers into his exhilarating and dangerous world, explores smokejumping's remarkable history, and explains why their services are more essential than ever before.
In the winter of 1811-12, a series of large earthquakes in the New Madrid seismic zone-often incorrectly described as the biggest ever to hit the United States-shook the Midwest. Today the federal government ranks the hazard in the Midwest as high as California's and is pressuring communities to undertake expensive preparations for disaster.
Coinciding with the two-hundredth anniversary of the New Madrid earthquakes, "Disaster Deferred" revisits these earthquakes, the legends that have grown around them, and the predictions of doom that have followed in their wake. Seth Stein clearly explains the techniques seismologists use to study Midwestern quakes and estimate their danger. Detailing how limited scientific knowledge, bureaucratic instincts, and the media's love of a good story have exaggerated these hazards, Stein calmly debunks the hype surrounding such predictions and encourages the formulation of more sensible, less costly policy. Powered by insider knowledge and an engaging style, "Disaster Deferred" shows how new geological ideas and data, including those from the Global Positioning System, are painting a very different-and much less frightening-picture of the future.
This comparative study at hand has been the result of a two-year research project on floods in 2014 in the Western Balkans engaging eight research teams from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Croatia. Representing quite different disciplines, the authors of this volume have analysed diverse aspects of the crisis governance and its ramifications. This publication's goals are twofold. Firstly, it pins down the characteristics of the crisis responses during the floods of 2014 in three affected countries, preconditioned by the existing institutions, crisis leadership, the role of media and the social capital as well as the foreign financial aid. On the other hand, through the lenses of the crisis governance we conclude on the state capacities and the nature of political regime of the cases under study. The flood megacrisis did not constitute a "window of opportunity" for individual or institutional learning. On the contrary, it did unveil some authoritarian tendencies in Serbia and Bosnia, and thus stalled the hitherto ongoing democratization process.
This edited volume assesses capabilities of data mining algorithms for spatial modeling of natural hazards in different countries based on a collection of essays written by experts in the field. The book is organized on different hazards including landslides, flood, forest fire, land subsidence, earthquake, and gully erosion. Chapters were peer-reviewed by recognized scholars in the field of natural hazards research. Each chapter provides an overview on the topic, methods applied, and discusses examples used. The concepts and methods are explained at a level that allows undergraduates to understand and other readers learn through examples. This edited volume is shaped and structured to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of all covered topics. It serves as a reference for researchers from different fields including land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, GIS, geophysics, geology, natural resources, and geography. It also serves as a guide for researchers, students, organizations, and decision makers active in land use planning and hazard management.
This book discusses in detail the science and morphology of powerful hurricane detection systems. It broadly addresses new approaches to monitoring hazards using freely available images from the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentinel-1 SAR satellite and benchmarks a new interdisciplinary field at the interface between oceanography, meteorology and remote sensing. Following the launch of the first European Space Agency (ESA) operational synthetic aperture radar satellite, Sentinel-1, in 2014, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has been freely available on the Internet hub in real-time. This advance allows weather forecasters to view hurricanes in fine detail for the first time. As a result, the number of synthetic aperture radar research scientists working in this field is set to grow exponentially in the next decade; the book is a valuable resource for this large and budding audience.
The first book that J. Malcolm Garcia ever bought would impact his life in a way that the then twelve-year-old could have never imagined. The Day the Red Baron Died plunged Garcia into the intrigue and excitement of the World War I German flying ace's life and death. Garcia was enraptured and brimming with questions. His mother encouraged the curious boy to write to the book's author, Dale M. Titler. When the author replied, a friendship began that shaped Garcia's life. In Riding through Katrina with the Red Baron's Ghost, Garcia chronicles his relationship with Titler. It was that connection that brought Garcia to New Orleans only two weeks after Hurricane Katrina devastated the city and its citizens. Not having heard from his friend in years, Garcia made the split-second decision to go to New Orleans to try to find the man who meant so much to him. A harrowing account of New Orleans directly after Katrina?told in Garcia's award-winning journalistic style?Riding through Katrina with the Red Baron's Ghost tells a personal story of a thirty-year bond that defined a young man, as well as the universal story of the horror and devastation Katrina left in its wake.
The magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, claiming over 20,000 lives. It crippled the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, whose hydrogen-air explosions contaminated wide areas around Fukushima with radionuclides. The number of evacuees initially totaled 328,903, but has been reduced to 263,392 as of February 13, 2014. More than half of the evacuees (132,500) consist of Fukushima residents, and 67% of whom have experienced mental or physical disorders. Indeed, refugee life is so difficult that many Fukushima families have been affected by suicide, divorce, separation of family members, migration and settlement to other places, mental illness, etc. The difficulty is caused by the fear of low-dose radiation induced by the LNT model which claims that radiation cancer risk is linearly proportional to dose without any threshold. Careful scrutiny of the model, however, clearly indicates that the linearity is invalid; low dose radiation is not hazardous, but is even beneficial or hormetic because of the adaptive response to radiation. This book provides ample evidence to negate the LNT model. This book is primarily compiled to get rid of the spell of the LNT model and release Fukushima people from undue torture. The book would also be useful to the public in general who have CT scans and have concerns. In addition, the people who use radiation world-wide such as nuclear power plant workers, radiation researchers, radiologists, and X-ray operators would be relieved to learn from reading this book that the alleged risk of low-dose radiation is illusionary and that the low-dose radiation is even beneficial. Policy makers of nuclear energy and radiation who are working for governmental and/or regulatory agencies are also recommended to read this book. Severe guidelines from a safety standpoint sometimes entrap people into a fear-stricken situation rather than save them, as no one was killed by radiation directly, but more than 1,000 people have been killed by the fear of radiation secondarily in Fukushima. By the same token, this book is recommended to civil activists and journalists who emphasise dangers of low-dose radiation and raise fear of low-dose radiation. It is the time to shed new scientific light on the outdated LNT model.
For most disasters across the nation, the affected local, state, or tribal governments have sufficient capabilities to respond to the incident. However, for disasters with consequences that require unique capabilities or that overwhelm the existing capabilities of a respective state or tribal government, Congress has authorised and appropriated a suite of deployable federal assets to support domestic disaster response operations. This book reviews several key concepts about these federal assets, and highlights possible issues Congress may consider when evaluating their authorisation and appropriation. This book also provides information that can aid policymakers as they navigate through the many levels of responsibility, and numerous policy pressure points, by having an understanding of the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. The book also reviews the legislative framework that exists for providing federal assistance, as well as the implementing polices the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state, tribal, and local governments during time of disasters.
When there is a catastrophe in the United States, state and local governments lead response activities, invoking state and local legal authorities to support them. When state and local response capabilities are overwhelmed, the President, acting through the Secretary of Homeland Security, can provide assistance to stricken communities, individuals, governments, and not-for-profit groups to assist in response and recovery. Aid is provided under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) upon a presidential declaration. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) also has both standing and emergency authorities in the Public Health Service Act, by which he or she can provide assistance in response to public health and medical emergencies. This book examines, with respect to public health and medical incidents, the authorities and coordinating mechanisms of the President and the Secretary of HHS in providing routine assistance, and assistance pursuant to the Stafford Act and/or the Public Health Service Act; mechanisms to assure a coordinated federal response to these incidents, and overlaps or gaps in agency responsibilities; and existing mechanisms, potential gaps, and proposals to fund the costs of a response to public health and medical incidents.
Earthquakes have helped shape the history of many Latin American
nations. The effects of floods, droughts, hurricanes, and
earthquakes and tsunamis have destroyed peoples' lives and their
built environments, and changed land forms, such as mountains,
rivers, forests, and canyons.
Why aren't we investing more in disaster resilience, despite the rising costs of disaster events? This book argues that decision-makers in governments, businesses, households, and development agencies tend to focus on avoiding losses from disasters, and perceive the return on investment as uncertain - only realised if a somewhat unlikely disaster event actually happens. This book develops a new business case for investment based on the multiple dividends of resilience. This looks beyond only avoided losses (the first dividend) to the wider benefits gained independently of whether or not the disaster event occurs. These include unleashing entrepreneurial activities and productive investments by lowering the looming threat of losses from disasters and enabling businesses, farmers and homeowners to take positive risks (the second dividend); and co-benefits of resilience measures beyond just disaster risk (the third dividend), such as flood embankments in Bangladesh that double as roads, or wetlands in Colombo that reduce urban heat extremes.
This volume provides in-depth coverage of the latest in remote sensing of hydrological extremes: both floods and droughts. The book is divided into two distinct sections - floods and droughts - and offers a variety of techniques for monitoring each. With rapid advances in computer modelling and observing systems, floods and droughts are studied with greater precision today than ever before. Land surface models, especially over the entire Continental United States, can map the hydrological cycle at kilometre and sub-kilometre scales. In the case of smaller areas there is even higher spatial resolution and the only limiting factor is the resolution of input data. In-situ sensors are automated and the data is directly relayed to the world wide web for many hydrological variables such as precipitation, soil moisture, surface temperature and heat fluxes. In addition, satellite remote sensing has advanced to providing twice a day repeat observations at kilometre to ten-kilometre spatial scales. We are at a critical juncture in the study of hydrological extremes, and the GPM and SMAP missions as well as the MODIS and GRACE sensors give us more tools and data than were ever available before. A global variety of chapter authors provides wide-ranging perspectives and case studies that will make this book an indispensable resource for researchers, engineers, and even emergency management and insurance professionals who study and/or manage hydrological extremes.
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