Your cart is empty
This book provides research that shows tropical cyclones are more powerful than in the past with the most dramatic increases occurring over the North Atlantic and with the strongest hurricanes. Although such increases are correlated with warming oceans and are consistent with the thermodynamic theory of hurricane intensity, there remains doubt about the interpretation, integrity, and meaning of these results. Arising from the 5th International Summit on Hurricanes and Climate Change, this book contains new research on topics related to hurricanes and climate change. Bringing together international leading academics and researchers on various sides of the debate, the book discusses new research and expresses opinions about what is happening and what might happen in the future with regard to regional and global hurricane (tropical cyclone) activity.
Many coastal areas of the United States are at risk for tsunamis.
After the catastrophic 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean,
legislation was passed to expand U.S. tsunami warning capabilities.
Since then, the nation has made progress in several related areas
on both the federal and state levels. At the federal level, NOAA
has improved the ability to detect and forecast tsunamis by
expanding the sensor network. Other federal and state activities to
increase tsunami safety include: improvements to tsunami hazard and
evacuation maps for many coastal communities; vulnerability
assessments of some coastal populations in several states; and new
efforts to increase public awareness of the hazard and how to
The Era of Great Disasters examines modern disaster response in Japan, from the changing earthquake preparations and regulations, to immediate emergency procedures from the national, prefectural, and city levels, and finally the evolving efforts of rebuilding and preparing for the next great disaster in the hopes of minimizing their tragic effects. This book focuses on three major earthquakes from Japan's modern history. The first is the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake, which struck the capital region. The second is the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, affecting the area between Kobe and Osaka. The third is the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the magnitude 9.0 quake that struck off the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region, causing a devastating tsunami and nuclear accident. While the events of (and around) each of these earthquakes are unique, Professor Iokibe brings his deep expertise and personal experience to each disaster, unveiling not only the disasters themselves but the humanity underneath. In each case, he gives attention and gratitude to those who labored to save lives and restore the communities affected, from the individuals on the scene to government officials and military personnel and emergency responders, in the hope that we might learn from the past and move forward with greater wisdom, knowledge, and common purpose.
Hydrometeorological prediction involves the forecasting of the state and variation of hydrometeorological elements -- including precipitation, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, river discharge, groundwater, etc.-- at different space and time scales. Such forecasts form an important scientific basis for informing public of natural hazards such as cyclones, heat waves, frosts, droughts and floods. Traditionally, and at most currently operational centers, hydrometeorological forecasts are deterministic, "single-valued" outlooks: i.e., the weather and hydrological models provide a single best guess of the magnitude and timing of the impending events. These forecasts suffer the obvious drawback of lacking uncertainty information that would help decision-makers assess the risks of forecast use. Recently, hydrometeorological ensemble forecast approaches have begun to be developed and used by operational hydrometeorological services. In contrast to deterministic forecasts, ensemble forecasts are a multiple forecasts of the same events. The ensemble forecasts are generated by perturbing uncertain factors such as model forcings, initial conditions, and/or model physics. Ensemble techniques are attractive because they not only offer an estimate of the most probable future state of the hydrometeorological system, but also quantify the predictive uncertainty of a catastrophic hydrometeorological event occurring. The Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX), initiated in 2004, has signaled a new era of collaboration toward the development of hydrometeorological ensemble forecasts. By bringing meteorologists, hydrologists and hydrometeorological forecast users together, HEPEX aims to improve operational hydrometeorological forecast approaches to a standard that can be used with confidence by emergencies and water resources managers. HEPEX advocates a hydrometeorological ensemble prediction system (HEPS) framework that consists of several basic building blocks. These components include:(a) an approach (typically statistical) for addressing uncertainty in meteorological inputs and generating statistically consistent space/time meteorological inputs for hydrological applications; (b) a land data assimilation approach for leveraging observation to reduce uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions of the hydrological system; (c) approaches that address uncertainty in model parameters (also called 'calibration'); (d) a hydrologic model or other approach for converting meteorological inputs into hydrological outputs; and finally (e) approaches for characterizing hydrological model output uncertainty. Also integral to HEPS is a verification system that can be used to evaluate the performance of all of its components. HEPS frameworks are being increasingly adopted by operational hydrometeorological agencies around the world to support risk management related to flash flooding, river and coastal flooding, drought, and water management. Real benefits of ensemble forecasts have been demonstrated in water emergence management decision making, optimization of reservoir operation, and other applications.
This book focuses on the ecological impacts of the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunamis, a rare and extremely large disturbance event, on various coastal ecosystems in Japan's Tohoku area, including sub-tidal and tidal animal communities, sand dune plant communities and coastal forests. The studies presented here describe not only how species and populations in these ecosystems were disturbed by the earthquake and tsunamis, but also how the communities have responded to the event and what types of anthropogenic activities will hamper their recovery processes. In the ecological sciences, it is often argued that large disturbances are critical to shaping community structures and biodiversity in local and regional habitats. However, our understanding of these roles remains limited, simply because there have been few opportunities to examine and address the ecological impacts of large disturbance events. The scale of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake makes it one of the largest hazards in the past 1000 years. Thus, this book provides a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the ecological impacts of large and rare disturbances and the implications of these events in the conservation and management of coastal ecosystems. Following an outline of the Great East Japan Earthquake, the book's content is divided into two major parts. Part I reports on studies examining the ecological impacts of the tsunamis on sub-tidal and tidal animal communities, while Part II focuses on terrestrial plant communities in Japan's coastal Tohoku area. This book will benefit all scientists interested in the ecological impacts of large disturbances on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in general, and especially those who are interested in the ecological management of coastal ecosystems and Ecosystem based Disaster Risk Reduction (EcoDRR).
This volume provides an account of the 1989 Hurricane Hugo for historical purposes, evaluates the physical phenomena involved and the performance of structures and systems, and identifies and recommends cases where an in-depth study would improve our ability to analyze and forecast such failures.
This book presents a range of academic research and personal reflections on the Gorkha earthquake that struck Nepal in 2015. For the first time, perspectives from geography, disaster risk reduction, cultural heritage protection, archaeology, anthropology, social work, health and emergency response are discussed in a single volume. Contributions are included from practitioners and researchers from Nepal and Durham University in the UK, many of whom were in Nepal at the time of the earthquake. Evolving Narratives of Hazard and Risk explores the event of the earthquake, its consequences and its impacts, to provide a holistic and multi-perspective understanding of this special hazard and its significant ramifications for social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life in Nepal. The book highlights how these multiple perspectives are needed to inform each other in order to develop and shape new ways of thinking and interacting with environmental hazards. This collection of works will be of interest to students and academics of Environment Studies, Human Geography and Environmental Policy, and will be of particular relevance to those involved in risk research and managing risk and hazard events.
This book is a compilation of recent developments in the field of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaption (Eco-DRR/CCA) globally. It provides further evidence that ecosystem-based approaches make economic sense, and showcases how research has progressively filled knowledge gaps about translating this concept into practice. It presents a number of methods, and tools that illustrate how Eco-DRR/CCA has been applied for various ecosystems and hazard contexts around the world. It also discusses how innovative institutional arrangements and policies are shaping the field of Eco-DRR/CCA. The book is of relevance to scientists, practitioners, policy-makers and students in the field of ecosystem management for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
In March 2011 a magnitude 9 earthquake struck off the eastern coast of northern Japan, triggering a massive tsunami and damaging a nearby nuclear reactor. Nearly twenty thousand people were killed or went missing, and many areas have yet to rebuild. Megaquake: How Japan and the World Should Respond, written by the prolific and award-winning writer Tetsuo Takashima five years before this disaster, appears here for the first time in English. This edition of Megaquake has been updated with additional information, including a new chapter coauthored by Robert D. Eldridge, translator and one of the key American officials involved in the response to the 2011 earthquake. Both Takashima and Eldridge experienced the 1995 Kobe earthquake and combined their skills and insights to produce this English edition to offer the lessons Japan has learned over the centuries, having endured a disproportionate share of disasters. Takashima and Eldridge hope to educate the international community about how to prepare for and respond to the next big Japanese earthquake, which is expected to far exceed the 2011 quake in terms of lost lives, destruction of infrastructure, and worldwide economic impact.
The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 appropriated about $50 billion for recovery from Hurricane Sandy, part of which was intended for disaster resilience and hazard mitigation. This book reviews federal efforts to strengthen disaster resilience during Hurricane Sandy recovery. It addresses how federal recovery funds were used to enhance resilience; the extent to which states and localities were able to maximise federal funding to enhance resilience; and actions that could enhance resilience for future disasters.
The speed and enormity of sudden disasters has forced man to react rapidly when rescuing the people involved. Knowing the exact location of the disaster site and the type of disaster are pivotal to the success of the mission, as these determine the sort of aid required. This book will provide a broad range of critical and practical ideas and intensive information with the latest data regarding disaster management at local, regional, national, and international levels. The importance of warning systems, remote sensing, GPS (Global Positioning System) and GIS (Geographical Information System) cannot be overemphasized since, with highly trained people understanding and using this equipment, many thousands of lives can be saved in the future.
In 2017, four sequential disastershurricanes Harvey, Irma, Maria, and the California wildfires -- created an unprecedented demand for federal disaster response and recovery resources. According to FEMA, 2017 included three of the top five costliest hurricanes on record. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimated that the cumulative damages from weather and climate related disasters in the United States were over $300 billion in 2017 alone. As of June 2018, Congress had appropriated over $120 billion in supplemental funding for response and recovery related to the 2017 hurricanes and wildfires. Further, in October 2017, close to 14,000 federal employees were deployed in response to the disasters.
This is the first book combining research on the Global Environment, Catastrophic Risks and Economic Theory and Policy. Modern economic theory originated in the middle of the twentieth century when industrial expansion coupled with population growth led to a voracious use of natural resources and global environmental concerns. It is uncontested that, for the first time in recorded history, humans dominate the planet, changing the planet's atmosphere, its bodies of water, and the complex web of species that makes life on earth. This radical change in circumstances led to rethinking of the foundations of human organization and, in particular, the industrial economy and the economic theory behind it. This book brings together new approaches on multiple levels: environmental sustainability requires rethinking in terms of economic theory and policy as well as the considerations of catastrophic risk and extremal events. Leading experts address questions of economic governance, risk management, policy decision making and distribution across time and space.
This book aims to serve as an essential reference to facilitate civil engineers involved in the design of new conventional (ordinary) reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings regulatedby the current European EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) and EC2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004) codesof practice. The book provides unique step-by-step flowcharts which take the readerthrough all the required operations, calculations, and verification checks prescribed bythe EC8 provisions. These flowcharts are complemented by comprehensive discussionsand practical explanatory comments on critical aspects of the EC8 code-regulatedprocedure for the earthquake resistant design of R/C buildings. Further, detailedanalysis and design examples of typical multi-storey three-dimensional R/C buildingsare included to illustrate the required steps for achieving designs of real-life structures which comply with the current EC8 provisions. These examples can be readily used as verification tutorials to check the reliability of custom-made computer programs and of commercial Finite Element software developed/used for the design of earthquakeresistant R/C buildings complying with the EC8 (EN 1998-1:2004) code.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in consulting and designingengineering companies and to advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level civilengineering students attending courses and curricula in the earthquake resistant designof structures and/or undertaking pertinent design projects.
This book is the hearing that took place on September 14th 2005 before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on the recovery efforts (or lack thereof) from Hurricane Katrina. According to the Opening Statement by Chairman Collins, the hearing asks the hard questions about the adequacy of planning efforts for this long-predicted natural disaster. They explore the coordination among local, State and Federal emergency management officials before and after the hurricanes landfall. They then critically examine the legal structures and authorities that define who is in charge of assets that must be brought to bear in such a catastrophic event. As he states we would have expected a sharp, crisp response to this terrible tragedy. Instead, we witness a sluggish initial response. This book examines the next phrase that took place from recovering from the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the steps that were and were not taken.
On Christmas Eve 1955, a series of fierce storms pounded northern California resulting in flooding that officials called "the greatest disaster in California since the San Francisco earthquake in 1906. This is the story of one Coast Guard helicopter and a number of courageous Guardsmen who braved the swiftly rising waters to perform some of the most harrowing rescues ever recorded.
This book presents the global landslide risk preparedness implemented through the International Programme on Landslides (IPL). IPL was initiated by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in 2002, and developed to a joint international programme by the IPL Global Promotion Committee (UNESCO, WMO, FAO, UNISDR, UNU, ICSU and WFEO as well as ICL) through the 2006 Tokyo Action Plan. The materials consists of four parts: Outline of the International Programme on Landslides & IPL Global Promotion Committee; Achievements of major IPL projects in research and capacity building; World Centres of Excellence on Landslide Risk Reduction (WCoEs) and Landslide School Network; Key documents of IPL and ICL including Tokyo Action Plan, Application of ICL, IPL Projects, WCoEs and Landslide School Network
This book presents the first compilation of scientific research on the island of Nisyros, involving various geoscientific disciplines. Presenting a wealth of illustrations and maps, including a geological map of the volcano, it also provides valuable insights into the geothermal potential of Greece. The island of Nisyros is a Quaternary volcano located at the easternmost end of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc. The island is nearly circular, with an average diameter of 8 km, and covers an area of approximately 42 km2. It lies above a base of Mesozoic limestone and a thin crust, with the mantle-crust transition located at a depth of approximately 27 km. The volcanic edifice of Nisyros comprises a succession of calc-alkaline lavas and pyroclastic rocks, as well as a summit caldera with an average diameter of 4 km. Nisyros marks the most recent volcano in the large prehistoric volcanic field between Kos-Yali-Strongyli-Pyrgousa-Pachia-Nisyros, where the largest eruption ("Kos Plateau Tuff") in the history of the eastern Mediterranean devastated the Dodecanese islands 161,000 years ago. Although the last volcanic activity on Nisyros dates back at least 20,000 to 25,000 years, it encompasses an active hydrothermal system underneath the volcano with temperatures of roughly 100 DegreesC at the Lakki plain, the present-day caldera floor and 350 DegreesC at a depth of 1,550 m. A high level of seismic unrest, thermal waters and fumarolic gases bear testament to its continuous activity, which is due to a large volume of hot rocks and magma batches at greater depths, between 3,000 and 8,000 m. Violent hydrothermal eruptions accompanied by major earthquakes occurred in 1873 and 1888 and left behind large, "world-wide unique" explosion craters in the old caldera. Through diffuse soil degassing, the discharge of all hydrothermal craters in the Lakki plain releases 68 tons of hydrothermal-volcanic derived CO2 and 42 MW of thermal energy per day. This unique volcanic and hydrothermal environment is visited daily by hundreds of tourists.
"Frightening...Firestorm comes alive when Struzik discusses the work of offbeat scientists." --New York Times Book Review "Comprehensive and compelling." --Booklist "A powerful message." --Kirkus "Should be required reading." --Library Journal For two months in the spring of 2016, the world watched as wildfire ravaged the Canadian town of Fort McMurray. Firefighters named the fire "the Beast." It acted like a mythical animal, alive with destructive energy, and they hoped never to see anything like it again. Yet it's not a stretch to imagine we will all soon live in a world in which fires like the Beast are commonplace. A glance at international headlines shows a remarkable increase in higher temperatures, stronger winds, and drier lands- a trifecta for igniting wildfires like we've rarely seen before. This change is particularly noticeable in the northern forests of the United States and Canada. These forests require fire to maintain healthy ecosystems, but as the human population grows, and as changes in climate, animal and insect species, and disease cause further destabilization, wildfires have turned into a potentially uncontrollable threat to human lives and livelihoods. Our understanding of the role fire plays in healthy forests has come a long way in the past century. Despite this, we are not prepared to deal with an escalation of fire during periods of intense drought and shorter winters, earlier springs, potentially more lightning strikes and hotter summers. There is too much fuel on the ground, too many people and assets to protect, and no plan in place to deal with these challenges. In Firestorm, journalist Edward Struzik visits scorched earth from Alaska to Maine, and introduces the scientists, firefighters, and resource managers making the case for a radically different approach to managing wildfire in the 21st century. Wildfires can no longer be treated as avoidable events because the risk and dangers are becoming too great and costly. Struzik weaves a heart-pumping narrative of science, economics, politics, and human determination and points to the ways that we, and the wilder inhabitants of the forests around our cities and towns, might yet flourish in an age of growing megafires.
The Nile is arguably the most famous river in the world. For millennia, the search for its source defeated emperors and explorers. Yet the search for its source also contained a religious quest - a search for the origin of its divine and life-giving waters. Terje Oestigaard reveals how the beliefs associated with the river have played a key role in the cultural development and make-up of the societies and civilizations associated with it. Drawing upon his personal experience and fieldwork in Africa, including details of rites and ceremonies now fast disappearing, the author brings out in rich detail the religious and spiritual meanings attached to the life-giving waters by those whose lives are so bound to the river. Part religious quest, part exploration narrative, the author shows how this mighty river is a powerful source for a greater understanding of human nature, society and religion.
Book & CD. The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has created new demand for wastewater disposal wells that inject waste fluids into deep geologic strata. An increasing concern in the United States is that injection of these fluids may be responsible for increasing rates of seismic activity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulates injection of fluids related to oil and gas production as Class II injection wells for the protection of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Because seismic events from injection have the potential to cause endangerment of underground sources of drinking water, the UIC program director should be aware of that potential and be prepared with response options should seismic events become a concern. This purpose of this book is to discuss the relationship between deep-well injections and induced seismicity.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. The definitive guide to petroleum hydrocarbon fuel spill and leak causes, prevention, response, and cost recoveryOil Spills and Gas Leaks highlights the complex nature of petroleum hydrocarbon fuel extraction methods, the unintended consequences when disasters occur, spill behavior, and environmental impact mitigation. This practical resource discusses engineering techniques; long-term biological and environmental effects; dealing with insurance claims, litigation, and legislation in overlapping jurisdictions; and much more. Featuring global case studies and best practices, this timely volumeprovides an in-depth understanding of how oil spills and gas leaks occur and describes the most effective environmental assessment, remediation, and restoration options available to respond to these industrial accidents. COVERAGE INCLUDES: The role of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in society Geology and geochemistry of oil and gas deposits Oil and gas well drilling and production issues Behavior of oil spills in various environments Behavior of gas leaks in various environments Assessment of spills and leaks Toxicity issues and exposure pathways Subsurface investigations Sampling strategies and remedial approaches Sampling methods on land and offshore Prevention, oversight, and mitigation Remediation of oil spills Case histories and cost recovery Oil spills and wildlife Oil spills and safety issues Conclusions and recommendations
Carbonate mounds are an important feature along the European North-Atlantic margins. The presence of giant carbonate mounds in the Porcupine Seabight, on the Porcupine Bank, in the Rockall Trough and on the Rockall Bank, west of Ireland, have been known since the nineties and have been the target of several cruises during the last decade. However, the processes of mound build-up and mound nucleation are not yet completely understood. What keeps a mound growing over extended time periods? How does the biosphere interact with sedimentary fluxes to make a mound grow? On which level do palaeoclimatological and palaeoceanographic changes control mound growth? Which diagenetic processes play an important role in carbonate mound generation and how do they affect the mound?
The present study focuses on the nature and significance of the carbonate mound record, and the nature and internal structure of one specific carbonate mound, the Challenger Mound, is described in detail and compared with other mounds from the Irish margin and also with those from the Moroccan margin. The variety of mound characteristics are discussed, along with the associated oceanographic and geological settings and an appropriate classification for recent carbonate mound systems and cold-water coral reefs is presented. Video imagery through Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys, provide images of the surface of different carbonate mounds to highlight morphological characteristics of the mounds.
The role of recent carbonate mounds, such as Challenger Mound, in the global carbonate budget is discussed along with inferences on how recent carbonate mounds can be seen as analogues of ancient mud mound systems.
You may like...
Beth Lothers, Vicky Travis Paperback
Finding Chika - A Little Girl, an…
Mitch Albom Hardcover (1)
Sudden Sea - The Great Hurricane of 1938
R. A Scotti Paperback
Cosmic Threats - A Planetary Response
Neville Brown Paperback
Into the Raging Sea - Thirty-Three…
Rachel Slade Paperback (1)
Alastair Fothergill, Keith Scholey, … Hardcover (1)
The 1910 Wellington Disaster
Deborah Cuyle, Rodney Fletcher Paperback
Disaster Security - Using Intelligence…
Chad M. Briggs, Miriam Matejova Paperback R803 Discovery Miles 8 030
Fire on the Mountain - The True Story of…
John N. Maclean Paperback
The Uninhabitable Earth - A Story of the…
David Wallace-Wells Paperback (1)