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This is the first volume to comprehensively take stock of what we know about the geophysical and human aspects of natural hazards, with an eye to developing an approach for managing these events. Unlike traditional texts on the topic, which utilize a hazard-by-hazard approach, the book emphasizes the physical characteristics that hazards share, such as magnitude, duration, and frequency. Chapters integrate perspectives from the physical and social sciences to identify and describe general principles that can enhance our understanding of the physical, social, technical, and economic forces inherent to extreme geophysical events. Examining the human dimension of natural hazards, the authors consider individual and community perceptions of these events and explore the effects of different attitudes on behavior and response. The work also addresses the larger picture of hazards policy, shedding light on political and economic factors and providing richly detailed examples of planning-based responses to hazards management.
In recent years, 'environmental collapse' has become an important way of framing and imagining environmental change and destruction, referencing issues such as climate change, species extinction and deteriorating ecosystems. Given its pervasiveness across disciplines and spheres, this edited volume articulates environmental collapse as a discursive phenomenon worthy of sustained critical attention. Building upon contemporary conversations in the fields of archaeology and the natural sciences, this volume coalesces, explores and critically evaluates the diverse array of literatures and imaginaries that constitute environmental collapse. The volume is divided into three sections- Doc- Collapse, Pop Collapse and Craft Collapse -that independently explore distinct modes of representing, and implicit attitudes toward, environmental collapse from the lenses of diverse fields of study including climate science and policy, cinema and photo journalism. Bringing together a broad range of topics and authors, this volume will be of great interest to scholars of environmental communication and environmental humanities.
This book gathers the most recent scientific research on the geological, geotechnical and geophysical aspects of slope failure in sensitive clays. Gathering contributions by international experts, it focuses on understanding the complete and practical spectrum of challenges presented by landslides in such complex materials. Based on sound and validated research results, the book also presents several recommendations that could be implemented in the guidelines or code-of-practice. These recommendations cover topics including the characterization and behavior of sensitive clays; the pre-failure, failure and post-failure stages of sensitive clays; mapping and identification methods; climate change; hazard assessment; and risk management. Sensitive clays are known for their potential for causing large landslides, which pose a serious risk to human lives, infrastructure, and surrounding ecosystems within their reach. This has been demonstrated by the recent catastrophic landslides in e.g. Sorum (2016), Skjeggestad (2015), Statland (2014), Byneset (2012), St-Jude (2010), Lyngen (2010) and Kattmarka (2009). The 2015 collapse of the Skjeggestad Bridge in Norway - which was due to a landslide in sensitive clay - alone costs millions of dollars in repairs. Recently, efforts are being made to increase society's ability to cope with such landslide hazards. Geoscientists are now expected to provide input to the agencies responsible for landslide-risk preparedness. In other words, geoscientists' role is not only to act as technologists to establish new theories, but also to go the extra mile to implement them in practice, so as to find meaningful solutions to geotechnical problems.
This book provides a detailed introduction to natural disasters and the ways in which they have had and continue to have, profound effects on human society. Natural Disasters: A Reference Handbook surveys the impact of these events on human civilization. The opening chapter provides a general history and background of the major types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, and forest fires. The information presented in this introduction allows the reader to better understand current issues, problems, and solutions related to natural disasters discussed in subsequent chapters. The book covers the role of natural disasters in human life from earliest recorded history (and, to some extent, even earlier) to the present day. It provides an extensive variety of resources that encourage readers to learn more about the topics discussed. The book is intended for readers in the late middle school to high school age range, as well as adults who may have a special interest in the subject. Provides readers with a sound background in the science and technology of major natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires Traces the development of human understanding of the causes and nature of such events Discusses the ways in which natural events such as changing weather patterns may interact with human decisions and actions that lead to complex forms of disaster Provides background on the specific contributions of individuals and organizations within the field that have yielded our mature understanding of the nature and impact of natural disaster Suggests a host of practical resources to use in an extended study of the topic
For most disasters across the nation, the affected local, state, or tribal governments have sufficient capabilities to respond to the incident. However, for disasters with consequences that require unique capabilities or that overwhelm the existing capabilities of a respective state or tribal government, Congress has authorised and appropriated a suite of deployable federal assets to support domestic disaster response operations. This book reviews several key concepts about these federal assets, and highlights possible issues Congress may consider when evaluating their authorisation and appropriation. This book also provides information that can aid policymakers as they navigate through the many levels of responsibility, and numerous policy pressure points, by having an understanding of the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. The book also reviews the legislative framework that exists for providing federal assistance, as well as the implementing polices the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state, tribal, and local governments during time of disasters.
What is the state's responsibility to its people in the aftermath of a natural hazard based disaster? The book sets out to address this seemingly simple question, after large scale floods devastated Pakistan in 2010 and then again in 2011. Along the way it delves into rich detail about people's everday encounters with the state in Pakistan, uncovers postcolonial discourses on rights of citizenship and dispels mainstream understanding of Islamist groups as presenting an alternative development paradigm to the state. Based on detailed ethnographic fieldwork, In the Wake of the Disaster forces the reader to look beyond narratives of Pakistan as the perennial 'failing state' falling victim to an imminent 'Islamist takeover'. The book shifts the conversation from hysteria and sensationalism surrounding Pakistan to the everyday. In doing so it transforms our understanding of contemporary disasters.
This book is a pioneering regional work and provides a balanced approach of theory and practice in disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Pakistan. The book analytically discusses the status of DRR and draws examples and lessons from national and community-level programs and projects and events in the country. The book covers different types of disasters facing Pakistan, including geo-physical and hydro-meteorological hazards. This work incorporates and draws some of the key lessons learned from the pre-disaster and disaster phases to the post-disaster phase, providing an effective framework in the form of those lessons. The rich content is based on a selection of available documents, a consultative workshop with academicians from different universities undertaking DRR higher education programs, and the editors' own knowledge and experience in the field. Special emphasis is given to analyzing field experiences from academic perspectives, and pinpointing key issues and the policy relevance of DRR. Disaster Risk Reduction Approaches in Pakistan is organized into three sections with a total of 20 chapters. Section one provides the outline and basics of DRR strategies applied at the national level with supporting examples from a global review. Section two specifically highlights the wide ranges of hazards experienced in Pakistan and presents examples, policy options, institutional set-ups, risk reduction strategies, and key lessons learned. The third section of the book is given to approaches and issues of DRR practices with examples of disaster responses.
???????????? Katrina, a natural hurricane, struck New Orleans on August 29th 2005. ???????????? Nobody envisaged the damage and destruction it would wreak on the southern US city, and it became on a much greater scale a manmade disaster of civil engineering and social discrimination. ???????????? Because of government failure, millions viewed political ineptitude, social inequity and an unpaved America where the streets were lined with anything but gold. ???????????? The images in this book show the abandoned and hardest-hit district of the Lower Ninth Ward, now over two years later, and still counting. ???????????? Vacant and dilapidated, the city is a shadow of its former self. However, in these seemingly lifeless shadows, and through the broken windows of empty houses, one can eerily see the ghostly reflections of life and death in the form of PER SONAL OBJECT S. ???????????? These intensely personal items have been abandoned and left, and in most cases, will never be reclaimed. ???????????? This small format book touches on the ephemeral, and surprisingly often beautiful, remnants of belongings that once made up the memories and precious moments of peoples' lives.
Crises and disasters that directly impact tourism can have extensive reputational implications for the organisations and destinations involved. It is critical that DMOs and CEOs communicate the right message in such circumstances to reassure the public that they have their best interests at heart. Often this is not done well. Every crisis and disaster is different, and knowledge is required to understand how different crises and disasters, whether they be at a destination or an organisational level, affect members of the public. Such insight will provide managers with a clearer understanding of the most effective messaging and communication strategies post event. 'Reputation and Image Recovery for the Tourism Industry' uses real life cases studies to contextualise the relevant theories on tourism, marketing and communication, and unpacks examples of best practice to illustrate how carefully managed response strategies can ensure the organisation's future survival. Packed with international case studies, and with contributions from experts, this edited book is divided into three sections that cover: * Natural Disasters: including cyclones/hurricanes; flooding; earthquakes, volcanos and tsunamis; bush/forest fires and other severe natural events. * Man Made Crises and Organisational Crises: including specific case studies that focus on how destinations restore their reputation following a random act of crime or terror; managing the threat of terrorism- a destination image perspective; managing destination image in the midst of political turmoil and reputation recovery for destinations with long term image issues. * Organisational Crises in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: including reputation recovery for various tourism organisations including airlines, hotels and theme parks; managing the media in times of organisational crises; best practice public relations strategies for tourism organisations and the role of social media in organisational reputation recovery. Essential reading for students, researchers and industry managers, and the 'go to' text for those wishing to learn about specific strategies and best practice techniques proven to assist with the reputational management of destinations and organisations affected by crises and disasters.
The study of volcano-ice interactions, or 'glaciovolcanism', is a field experiencing exponential growth. This comprehensive volume presents a discussion of the distinctive processes and characteristics of glaciovolcanic eruptions, their products, and landforms, with reference to both terrestrial and Mars occurrences. Supported by abundant diagrams and photos from the authors' extensive collections, this book outlines where eruptions have occurred and will occur in the future on Earth, the resulting hazards that are unique to volcano-ice interactions, and how the deposits are used to unravel planetary palaeoclimatic histories. It has a practical focus on lithofacies, glaciovolcanic edifice morphometry and construction, and applications to palaeoenvironmental studies. Providing the first global summary of past and current work, this book also identifies those areas in need of further research, making this an ideal reference for academic researchers and postgraduate students, in the fields of volcanology, glaciology, planetary science and palaeoenvironmental studies.
This book focuses on land and disaster governance in Asian countries. The Asian region has become increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters, including floods, cyclones, storms, earthquakes, drought, typhoons and tsunamis. Further, as a result of unsustainable changes being made in patterns of land use, catchment and coastal zones, increasing population density, migration patterns, and the spread of consumer culture across countries, the impact of natural disasters has increased manifold. The book addresses two major concerns in this field. Firstly, it discusses topics intended to raise awareness among all stakeholders of the critical aspects of disaster management in the context of Asia. Secondly, it calls upon policymakers, researchers, academics, practitioners, private enterprises and civil society organizations, as well as all those who have been, are and will be affected by natural disasters to search for innovative and novel approaches to reducing risk and managing disasters.
This book is one out of 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes, and deals with Landslide processes, including: field data and monitoring techniques, prediction and forecasting of landslide occurrence, regional landslide inventories and dating studies, modeling of slope instabilities and secondary hazards (e.g. impulse waves and landslide-induced tsunamis, landslide dam failures and breaching), hazard and risk assessment, earthquake and rainfall induced landslides, instabilities of volcanic edifices, remedial works and mitigation measures, development of innovative stabilization techniques and applicability to specific engineering geological conditions, use of geophysical techniques for landslide characterization and investigation of triggering mechanisms. Focuses is given to innovative techniques, well documented case studies in different environments, critical components of engineering geological and geotechnical investigations, hydrological and hydrogeological investigations, remote sensing and geophysical techniques, modeling of triggering, collapse, run out and landslide reactivation, geotechnical design and construction procedures in landslide zones, interaction of landslides with structures and infrastructures and possibility of domino effects. The Engineering Geology for Society and Territory volumes of the IAEG XII Congress held in Torino from September 15-19, 2014, analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world and build on the four main themes of the congress: environment, processes, issues, and approaches. The congress topics and subject areas of the 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes are: Climate Change and Engineering Geology. Landslide Processes. River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources. Marine and Coastal Processes. Urban Geology, Sustainable Planning and Landscape Exploitation. Applied Geology for Major Engineering Projects. Education, Professional Ethics and Public Recognition of Engineering Geology. Preservation of Cultural Heritage.
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Disaster Risk Reduction Education (DRRE) have overlapping areas of concern focusing on strengthening the link to local communities. In reality, there is significant synergy in ESD and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Both concepts urge looking at the communities, both focus on behavior changes and both call for linking knowledge to action. The Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) ends in 2014 and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) ends in 2015. Therefore, at this junction, it is important to review the progress made over the past 10 years and to suggest future synergy options. This book is the first attempt to review these two emerging fields and to provide input to the future direction of education.
The book has 11 chapters, drawing lessons mainly from Japan and discussing their implications for the world. The first four chapters provide an overview of the ESD DRR linkage, ESD and its evolution, DRRE and Climate Change Education. These are followed by case studies from ESD practices in Japan, in schools, universities and communities.
The primary target groups for this book are students and researchers in the fields of environment, disaster risk reduction and climate change studies. The book provides them with a good idea of the current research trends in the field and furnishes basic knowledge about these vital topics. Another target group comprises practitioners and policy makers, who will be able to apply the knowledge collected here to establishing policy and making decisions."
This monograph presents the state of art of the geologic knowledge about the Spanish coast obtained through scientific research in the last 30 years.From a general point of view, coasts are the most quickly changing systems of the Earth. This is critical, since many human resources, such as the main part of economic and social activities, are located in the coastal areas. Especially in the case of Spain these coasts include cities, wide industrial areas (including harbor complexes), important ecologic systems, and our main economic resource: tourism. Understanding the dynamic functioning of each element of this coast is vital for correct future coastal management, so as to solve problems derived from bad plans developed in the last decades of the twentieth century. This is a valuable text for advanced graduate students and coastal researchers, which connects the specific dynamic functioning of the main Spanish coastal environments and their relationships with human activities.
This book documents the outcomes of a study designed to explore ways of increasing resilience in a complex city system against disasters by focusing on the transportation system in London. A survey was undertaken comprising interviews with upper level decision makers as well as questionnaires to personnel in the field and the general public. The results of this survey are presented, together with a brief description of the past and current situation in the city with respect to transportation, flood risk and other vulnerabilities. The sources of problems in responding adequately to disasters are analyzed and important lessons drawn. In particular, it is explained how failures derive from insistence upon the application of written plans in preference over redefinition of strategies and priorities and how flexible systems represent a better approach to crisis situations. The book will be of interest to all who are concerned with disaster planning and management and the societal response to disasters.
Is resilience simply a fad, or is it a new way of thinking about human-environment relations, and the governance of these relations, that has real staying power? Is resilience a dangerous, depoliticizing concept that neuters incipient political activity, or the key to more empowering, emancipatory, and participatory forms of environmental management? Resilience offers an advanced introduction to these debates. It provides students with a detailed review of how the concept emerged from a small corner of ecology to critically challenge conventional environmental management practices, and radicalize how we can think about and manage social and ecological change. But Resilience also situates this new style of thought and management within a particular historical and geographical context. It traces the roots of resilience to the cybernetically-influenced behavioral science of Herbert Simon, the neoliberal political economic theory of new institutional economics, the pragmatist philosophy of John Dewey, and the modernist design aesthetic of the Bauhaus school. These diverse roots are what distinguish resilience approaches from other ways of studying human-environment relations. Resilience thinking recalibrates the study of social and environmental change around a will to design, a drive or desire to synthesize diverse forms of knowledge and develop collaborative, cross-boundary solutions to complex problems. In contrast to the modes of analysis and critique found in geography and cognate disciplines, resilience approaches strive to pragmatically transform human-environment relations in ways that will produce more sustainable futures for complex social and ecological systems. In providing a road map to debates over resilience that brings together research from geography, anthropology, sociology, international relations, and philosophy, this book gives readers the conceptual and theoretical tools necessary to engage with political and ethical questions about how we can and should live together in an increasingly interconnected and unpredictable world.
A searing investigation of the factors that devastated Puerto Rico in the wake of Hurricane Maria, from acclaimed investigative reporter Michael Deibert. When Hurricane Maria roared across Puerto Rico in September 2017, it devastated the island. It was an unprecedented natural disaster, a Category 5 major hurricane, and ultimately responsible for the deaths of more than 3,000 people. It also ripped away the facade that had dominated discussions of the island's relationship with the United States for over a century. This is the first book to comprehensively expose what happened during Hurricane Maria, why Puerto Rico was so poorly prepared, and why a US territory, an island of American citizens, was largely ignored by the federal government in the wake of a catastrophic natural disaster. Using a blend of history and on-the-ground reportage, Michael Deibert pulls back the veil of the island known for its powdery beaches, rainforests, and apricot-and-lavender sunsets to reveal the trajectory for the decisions that set it on the path to the disaster that came during and in the wake of the storm, when its entire power grid and much of its water supply was knocked out. In doing so, he also reveals the stories of everyday heroism, compassion, and unexpected joy that have defined the island before and after Hurricane Maria.
The Era of Great Disasters examines modern disaster response in Japan, from the changing earthquake preparations and regulations, to immediate emergency procedures from the national, prefectural, and city levels, and finally the evolving efforts of rebuilding and preparing for the next great disaster in the hopes of minimizing their tragic effects. This book focuses on three major earthquakes from Japan's modern history. The first is the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake, which struck the capital region. The second is the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, affecting the area between Kobe and Osaka. The third is the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the magnitude 9.0 quake that struck off the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region, causing a devastating tsunami and nuclear accident. While the events of (and around) each of these earthquakes are unique, Professor Iokibe brings his deep expertise and personal experience to each disaster, unveiling not only the disasters themselves but the humanity underneath. In each case, he gives attention and gratitude to those who labored to save lives and restore the communities affected, from the individuals on the scene to government officials and military personnel and emergency responders, in the hope that we might learn from the past and move forward with greater wisdom, knowledge, and common purpose.
Storms, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami -- all New Zealanders will encounter at least one of these hazards in their lives. Informative, generously illustrated, and written by some of New Zealand's leading scientists, this massively revised and updated edition of Te Papa Press's bestselling title is now more relevant than ever. With all-new information on climate change and the social and emotional impact of disasters, this book is a fascinating encounter and valuable resource on one of the most raw, volatile landscapes in the world.
If you live on planet Earth, you're probably scared about the future. Terrorism, complicated international relations, global warming, and a raft of other issues make it hard not to be. But how close are we to the end? And what can we expect when we finally reach it? In this hilarious, enlightening and often terrifying book, Pearl gives us a glimpse of the potential end of the world scenarios that could happen sooner than we think - from nuclear war to the end of antibiotics, discovering distant life to the realisation that all cemeteries are full. Weaving together his own research, alongside interviews with scientists and political thinkers, and visiting 'preppers', Pearl investigates how close we really are to the end of the world - and what we can expect when it finally happens. . .
A comprehensive introduction to coastal storms and their associated impacts Coastal Storms offers students and professionals in the field a comprehensive overview and groundbreaking text that is specifically devoted to the analysis of coastal storms. Based on the most recent knowledge and contributions from leading researchers, the text examines coastal storms processes and characteristics, the main hazards (such as overwash, inundation and flooding, erosion, structures overtopping), and how to monitor and model storms. The authors include information on the most advanced innovations in forecasting, prediction, and early warning, which serves as a foundation for accurate risk evaluation and developing adequate coastal indicators and management options. In addition, structural overtopping and damage are explained, taking into account the involved hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes. The monitoring methods of coastal storms are analyzed based on recent results from research projects in Europe and the United States. Methods for vulnerability and risk evaluation are detailed, storm impact indicators are suggested for different hazards and coastal management procedures analyzed. This important resource includes: * Comprehensive coverage of storms and associated impacts, including meteorological coastal storm definitions and related potential consequences * A state-of-the-art reference for advanced students, professionals and researchers in the field * Chapters on monitoring methods of coastal storms, their prediction, early warning systems, and modeling of consequences * Explorations of methods for vulnerability and risk evaluation and suggestions for storm impact indicators for different hazards and coastal management procedures Coastal Storms is a compilation of scientific and policy-related knowledge related to climate-related extreme events. The authors are internationally recognized experts and their work reflects the most recent science and policy advances in the field.
This thesis represents one of the few studies so far that systematically analyses environmental conditions within debris flow source areas to determine their relative importance for debris flow development. Environmental site conditions, such as slope gradient and debris availability, influence the spatial and temporal distribution of debris flows in high-alpine areas. However, current understanding of these preconditioning controls is mostly qualitative and inadequate for debris-flow hazard assessments and climate change impact studies. The author's research investigates the role of frost weathering and permafrost in the occurrence of debris flows in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Analyses are based on an extensive debris flow inventory, documenting debris flow occurrence and activity over the last 60 years in selected catchments. Debris flow activity is compared to frost-weathering intensity estimates from two models, allowing the practical comparison of two competing frost-weathering hypotheses currently discussed in literature. Information on permafrost occurrence is based on a new distributed permafrost estimate for the Southern Alps, derived from climatic conditions at active rock glacier sites. This pioneering thesis provides empirical evidence that frost weathering promotes debris-flow formation. It further highlights the potential and limitations of regional-scale studies for advancing our understanding of debris-flow preconditioning factors.
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