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Topics on CO2 sequestration and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from process engineering and materials for clean energy are covered. Papers addressing sustainable technologies in extractive metallurgy, materials processing and manufacturing industries with reduced energy consumption and CO2 emission are also included, as well as industrial energy efficient technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, recycling and waste heat recovery. The book also carries contributions from all areas of non-nuclear and non-traditional energy sources, including renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, etc. The book also emphasizes novel mineral beneficiation, processing, and extraction techniques leading to waste minimization of critical rare-earth materials used in energy systems (e.g., magnets, display and lighting devices).
This book covers different aspects of energy sustainability in residential buildings and neighborhoods, starting from the construction and design aspects, and moving on to HVAC systems and lighting, and the applications, harvesting, use and storage of renewable energy. The volume focuses on smart and sustainable use of energy, discussing both the technological advancements and the economic, social and environmental impacts. Novel approaches to recycling of waste and materials in the context of residential buildings are also presented. This volume will be of interest to researchers and policy makers working in the fields of renewable energy, sustainable design and city planning.
Updated for the first time since 1996, the 2013 Petrochemicals Chart includes new technologies, an easy-to-use design, and expanded end-use application. The 2013 Petrochemicals Chart allows for quick and simple identification of the sequence of petrochemicals from oil, gas, and coal to base chemicals, derivatives, and end-uses.
Thermodynamic degradation science is a new and exciting discipline. This book merges the science of physics of failure with thermodynamics and shows how degradation modeling is improved and enhanced when using thermodynamic principles. The author also goes beyond the traditional physics of failure methods and highlights the importance of having new tools such as Mesoscopic noise degradation measurements for prognostics of complex systems, and a conjugate work approach to solving physics of failure problems with accelerated testing applications. Key features: Demonstrates how the thermodynamics energy approach uncovers key degradation models and their application to accelerated testing. Demonstrates how thermodynamic degradation models accounts for cumulative stress environments, effect statistical reliability distributions, and are key for reliability test planning. Provides coverage of the four types of Physics of Failure processes describing aging: Thermal Activation Processes, Forced Aging, Diffusion, and complex combinations of these. Coverage of numerous key topics including: aging laws; Cumulative Accelerated Stress Test (CAST) Plans; cumulative entropy fatigue damage; reliability statistics and environmental degradation and pollution. Thermodynamic Degradation Science: Physics of Failure, Accelerated Testing, Fatigue and Reliability Applications is essential reading for reliability, cumulative fatigue, and physics of failure engineers as well as students on courses which include thermodynamic engineering and/or physics of failure coverage.
The book follows a unified approach to present the basic principles of rocket propulsion in concise and lucid form. This textbook comprises of ten chapters ranging from brief introduction and elements of rocket propulsion, aerothermodynamics to solid, liquid and hybrid propellant rocket engines with chapter on electrical propulsion. Worked out examples are also provided at the end of chapter for understanding uncertainty analysis. This book is designed and developed as an introductory text on the fundamental aspects of rocket propulsion for both undergraduate and graduate students. It is also aimed towards practicing engineers in the field of space engineering. This comprehensive guide also provides adequate problems for audience to understand intricate aspects of rocket propulsion enabling them to design and develop rocket engines for peaceful purposes.
Climate scientists have determined that we must act now to prevent an irreversible and catastrophic climatic tipping point, beyond which neither our own nor many other species can be assumed likely to survive. On the way to that bleak ending, moreover, extreme socio-economic injustice and associated political breakdown-now well underway in nations already hard-hit by environmental crisis-can be expected to hasten as well. The time has thus come to plan carefully, thoroughly, and on a scale commensurate with the crisis we face. This book, written by one of the key architects of the Green New Deal and prefaced by Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez's former Chief of Staff, indicates how to structure Green New Deal finance in a manner that advances the cross-cutting goals of maximum financial and economic inclusion, maximally democratic decision-making, and an appropriate division of roles both among all levels of government and among public and private sector decision-makers. Integrating into one complete and coherent financial architecture such bold ideas as a 'People's Fed,' an interdepartmental National Investment Council, integrated state and regional public banks, a Democratic Digital Dollar and digital Taxpayer Savings and Transaction Accounts made part of the monetary policy transmission belt, and an economy-wide Price Stabilization Fund, this book is critical reading for policymakers and citizens looking for a fresh path forward towards a revived and sustainable, progressive and productive America.
This book is based on multidisciplinary research focusing on low-carbon healthy city planning, policy and assessment. This includes city-development strategy, energy, environment, healthy, land-use, transportation, infrastructure, information and other related subjects. This book begins with the current status and problems of low-carbon healthy city development in China. It then introduces the global experience of different regions and different policy trends, focusing on individual cases. Finally, the book opens a discussion of Chinese low-carbon healthy city development from planning and design, infrastructure and technology assessment-system perspectives. It presents a case study including the theory and methodology to support the unit city theory for low-carbon healthy cities. The book lists the ranking of China's 269 high-level cities, with economic, environmental, resource, construction, transportation and health indexes as an assessment for creating a low-carbon healthy future. The book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of building low-carbon healthy cities in China.
Theoretical treatments of fracture mechanics abound in the literature. Among the first books to address this vital topic from an applied standpoint was the first edition of Practical Fracture Mechanics in Design. Completely updated and expanded to reflect recent developments in the field, the second edition of this valuable reference concisely reviews all of the fracture modes and design methodologies needed for control and prevention of structural failures in mechanical components. Practical Fracture Mechanics in Design, Second Edition begins with the historical development of the field, which is critical in understanding the origins and purpose of the various methodologies and equations. The book goes on to provide the fundamentals, basic formulas, elementary worked examples, and references with an emphasis on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). The author also includes case studies and design problems to clarify the concepts and explain their application. New chapters cover experimental methods in fracture, fracture of composite materials, dynamic fracture, and post mortem analysis of fracture surfaces. Providing much more than a simple introduction to fracture mechanics, this critical, authoritative guide supplies easy-to-use and understand tools based on hands-on experience in design, emphasizing practical applications over heavily theoretical, rigorous mathematical derivations.
Leading architectural firms are now using in-house design simulation to help make more sustainable design decisions. Taking advantage of these new tools requires understanding of what can be done with simulation, how to do it, and how to interpret the results. This software-agnostic book, which is intended for you to use as a professional architect, shows you how to reduce the energy use of all buildings using simulation for shading, daylighting, airflow, and energy modeling. Written by a practicing architect who specializes in design simulation, the book includes 30 case studies of net-zero buildings, as well as of projects with less lofty goals, to demonstrate how energy simulation has helped designers make early decisions. Within each case study, author Kjell Anderson mentions the software used, how the simulation was set up, and how the project team used the simulation to make design decisions. Chapters and case studies are written so that you learn general concepts without being tied to particular software. Each chapter builds on the theory from previous chapters, includes a summary of concept-level hand calculations (if applicable), and gives comprehensive explanations with graphic examples. Additional topics include simulation basics, comfort, climate analysis, a discussion on how simulation is integrated into some firms, and an overview of some popular design simulation software.
Presenting the best papers of the 3rd EPFL-UNESCO Chair Conference on Technologies for Development, this publication offers a valuable collection of innovative case studies exploring access to energy and renewable energy technologies in the Global South. It investigates the key determinants for successfully providing energy to resource-poor communities and examines a wide range of technologies for energy production, distribution, storage and efficient use. Taken together, these case studies deal with the entire life cycle of products and solutions, as well as the complete value chain including all relevant stake holders. The collection also draws upon empirical research conducted in Africa and South America to present critical perspectives on women's access to technologies in the renewable sector. This publication serves as a bridge between engineers, economists and other scientists involved in research on the interface between technology and human, social and economic development. It also provides a valuable resource to academics and researchers of the natural sciences, computer science, information management, quantitative social sciences and business studies.
The proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials include 73 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 20 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 73 papers are grouped into the following sections: - General Issues - Wind Energy - Solar Energy - Nuclear Energy - Biofuels and Bioenergy - Fossil Energy - Hydropower - Energy Storage, Conservation and Efficiency - Environmental Issues - Carbon Capture and Storage - Bio-Assessment and Toxicology - Air Pollution from Mobile and Stationary Sources - Transport of Air Pollutants - Environmentally Friendly Construction and Development - Energy Management Systems - Materials for Sustainable Energy - Materials for Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion - Fuel Cells - Hydrogen Storage - Photovoltaics and Solar Cells - Hydrogen Production and Fuel Generation from Renewables (Catalysis) - Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Conversion - Energy-Saving Materials - Thermoelectrics - Saving Energy in Buildings - Modeling and Theoretical Aspects in Energy-Related Materials
In a world increasingly concerned about the impact of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere on global climate, the A Carbon Primer for the Built Environment will provide an understanding of the science and the public policy and regulation intended to tackle climate change. It will spell out the essential information needed for navigating through the growing regulatory maze with confidence. The book will: Provide an explanation of climate change, why carbon has been targeted as the main culprit and how this will impact the working lives of architects Explain key concepts such as: carbon footprinting, contraction & convergence, concentration based targets, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, decarbonising supply and reducing energy demand as well as the relevance of relevant government targets and international agreements Suggest an overall framework for achieving the carbon reduction targets and the requirements that will place on building designers Outline requirements and common standards and codes - providing guidance on compliance mechanisms Suggest and examine likely models for future practice The book will be essential reading for anyone wanting to familiarise themselves with the new landscape of carbon reduction in the built environment, with a particular focus on building design. It will also provide an accessible reference volume for information on particular policies, terms and initiatives as well as key data and numbers that will assist initial carbon calculations.
Today, the silicon feedstock for photovoltaic cells comes from processes which were originally developed for the microelectronic industry. It covers almost 90% of the photovoltaic market, with mass production volume at least one order of magnitude larger than those devoted to microelectronics. However, it is hard to imagine that this kind of feedstock (extremely pure but heavily penalized by its high energy cost) could remain the only source of silicon for a photovoltaic market which is in continuous expansion, and which has a cumulative growth rate in excess of 30% in the last few years. Even though reports suggest that the silicon share will slowly decrease in the next twenty years, finding a way to manufacture a specific solar grade feedstock in large quantities, at a low cost while maintaining the quality needed, still remains a crucial issue. Thin film and quantum confinement-based silicon cells might be a complementary solution. Advanced Silicon Materials for Photovoltaic Applications has been designed to describe the full potentialities of silicon as a multipurpose material and covers: * Physical, chemical and structural properties of silicon * Production routes including the promise of low cost feedstock for PV applications * Defect engineering and the role of impurities and defects * Characterization techniques, and advanced analytical techniques for metallic and non-metallic impurities * Thin film silicon and thin film solar cells * Innovative quantum effects, and 3rd generation solar cells With contributions from internationally recognized authorities, this book gives a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-the-art of process technologies and material properties, essential for anyone interested in the application and development of photovoltaics.
This Brief examines the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy in central Oxford as a means of assessing the effect of reduced traffic congestion in the city centre on its sustainability. Air pollution (from vehicular traffic) has been monitored at three locations in central Oxford on the High Street, St Aldates and St Ebbes (background monitoring station). There is a further monitoring site situated in East Oxford, but this one is not considered to be central. Based on long-term monitoring at these monitoring stations, a deliberation of urban sustainability is presented. Implications are considered for long-term planning and green design in particular is part of the discussion. More specifically, urban greening strategies are presented as (soft engineering) approaches to controlling air pollution problems at this urban location. In the context of low carbon cities, green walls are assessed as they affect urban greening and energy conservation, as they enhance insulation on the exterior of solid wall buildings. Urban sustainability is best monitored using decades of data rather than just years. The Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) was implemented in central Oxford, UK in 2001 and now a record of at least a decade of monitoring data is available for such a longer-term assessment. This work revisits the OTS from long after its implementation in the Oxford city centre and specifically examines the impact of reduced traffic congestion on sustainability. This includes address of traffic congestion, air pollution (from vehicular or traffic pollution) and the effects on the urban environment, including buildings. In parallel to this, the role of urban vegetation is considered as a sink for a variety of pollutants. Green walls, as part of urban greening, have implications for low carbon cities in the context of urban heat islands and global warming.
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations. Readers will arrive at a comprehensive understanding of various mercury emission control methods that are suitable for industrial applications. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, engineers and graduate students in the fields of energy science and technology, environmental science and technology and chemical engineering.
Provides insight on both classical means and new trends in the application of power electronic and artificial intelligence techniques in power system operation and control This book presents advanced solutions for power system controllability improvement, transmission capability enhancement and operation planning. The book is organized into three parts. The first part describes the CSC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC technologies, the second part presents the FACTS devices, and the third part refers to the artificial intelligence techniques. All technologies and tools approached in this book are essential for power system development to comply with the smart grid requirements. * Discusses detailed operating principles and diagrams, theory of modeling, control strategies and physical installations around the world of HVDC and FACTS systems * Covers a wide range of Artificial Intelligence techniques that are successfully applied for many power system problems, from planning and monitoring to operation and control * Each chapter is carefully edited, with drawings and illustrations that helps the reader to easily understand the principles of operation or application Advanced Solutions in Power Systems: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence is written for graduate students, researchers in transmission and distribution networks, and power system operation. This book also serves as a reference for professional software developers and practicing engineers.
This latest volume includes contributions on the latest advances in energy research. Chapter One introduces photovoltaic-green (PV-green) roofing systems according to three different approaches: critical review about crucial factors which influence the performance of a PV-green roof; experimental; and environmental/Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Chapter Two discusses the benefits of green roof systems. Chapter Three provides an introduction to the composition and the functioning of building management systems (BMS), as well as shows some of the available systems in the market, specifically those that are related to the automatic control of lighting and shading devices according to sunlight intensity, climate control and the monitoring of energy consumption in a service building. Chapter Four reviews both the experimental and numerical work that has been conducted on encapsulated phase change material (EPCM) thermal energy storage (TES) systems with applications in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Chapter Five presents the effect of thermal energy storage on the performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems under different operational strategies. Chapter Six studies the effects of different levels of water flow rate and temperature on the performance of an induced draft cooling tower. Chapter Seven reviews the harvesting of power from bamboo charcoal. Chapter Eight investigates the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere coupling and the effect of geomagnetic activity on meteorological processes in the atmosphere.
Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, and equipment design in one volume, making it a unique resource for specialists implementing the use of oxygen in combustion systems.
This second edition of the bestselling book has more than doubled in size. Extensively updated and expanded, it covers significant advances in the technology that have occurred since the publication of the first edition.
What s New in This Edition
This book offers a unified, up-to-date look at important commercialized uses of oxygen-enhanced combustion in a wide range of industries. It brings together the latest knowledge to assist those researching, engineering, and implementing combustion in power plants, engines, and other applications."
The rigorous treatment of combustion can be so complex that the kinetic variables, fluid turbulence factors, luminosity, and other factors cannot be defined well enough to find realistic solutions. Simplifying the processes, The Coen & Hamworthy Combustion Handbook provides practical guidance to help you make informed choices about fuels, burners, and associated combustion equipment-and to clearly understand the impacts of the many variables. Editors Stephen B. Londerville and Charles E. Baukal, Jr, top combustion experts from John Zink Hamworthy Combustion and the Coen Company, supply a thorough, state-of-the-art overview of boiler burners that covers Coen, Hamworthy, and Todd brand boiler burners. A Refresher in Fundamentals and State-of-the-Art Solutions for Combustion System Problems Roughly divided into two parts, the book first reviews combustion engineering fundamentals. It then uses a building-block approach to present specific computations and applications in industrial and utility combustion systems, including those for Transport and introduction of fuel and air to a system Safe monitoring of the combustion system Control of flows and operational parameters Design of a burner/combustion chamber to achieve performance levels for emissions and heat transfer Avoidance of excessive noise and vibration and the extension of equipment life under adverse conditions Coverage includes units, fluids, chemistry, and heat transfer, as well as atomization, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), noise, auxiliary support equipment, and the combustion of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels. Significant attention is also given to the formation, reduction, and prediction of emissions from combustion systems. Each chapter builds from the simple to the more complex and contains a wealth of practical examples and full-color photographs and illustrations. Practical Computations and Applications for Industrial and Utility Combustion Systems A ready reference and refresher, this unique handbook is designed for anyone involved in combustion equipment selection, sizing, and emissions control. It will help you make calculations and decisions on design features, fuel choices, emissions, controls, burner selection, and burner/furnace combinations with more confidence.
This book, the outgrowth of a graduate course the authors taught at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was designed to fill an
urgent need--the training of engineers in the production of
synthetic fuels to replace dwindling supplies of natural ones. The
authors presented synthetic fuels as a unified engineering subject,
while recognizing that many of its principles are well-understood
aspects of various engineering fields.
This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For these reasons, immobilized enzymatic process has been developed which retains the advantages of the soluble enzymatic process and reuse of the enzyme is possible which decreases the enzyme cost, the biodiesel produced does not contain any enzyme residue and the activity of the enzyme can be increased by immobilization. The drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme process are mass transfer limitation, enzyme leakage, the lack of a versatile commercial immobilized enzyme and some of immobilization methods involve toxic chemicals. To overcome the drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme, an attempt is made to use a degradable biopolymer ( -carrageenan) as a carrier for lipase immobilization.
The linkages between WTO rules governing trade and energy security with a certain degree of focus on India are the main subject of this book. The edited volume brings together the views of academics, policymakers and experts with extensive experience covering WTO and international trade issues. The issues examined include mapping the linkages between trade and energy security in the WTO agreements, case law, accession and Doha negotiations; assessing the issues that could be raised by energy deficit or energy surplus countries at the WTO; analyzing the provisions of the ECT and NAFTA vis-a-vis the Indian policy framework and examining the trade regimes of selected OPEC members and other major suppliers of fossil fuels to India. While the Indian perspective is evident in the contributions, this book will also be of interest to an international audience, as trade, the WTO and energy security are global concerns and of relevance to all practitioners and academics working on these issues."
The aim of this book is to investigate critical economic aspects and price risks along international pellet supply chains and to offer new insights into the interconnections between the sector, the various supply risks within the market and guidelines for de-risking biomass supply chains. It provides three real case studies as practical examples of determining actual supply costs from resource production to end-user and in doing so identifies and analyzes general economic performance indicators and price drivers for biomass supply chains. It also investigates the impact of several risks like raw material prices, exchange and freight rates on total prices. As a result, the reader learns how price risks are hedged to avoid project defaults and how to achieve the renewable energy targets of the end-user. Practical guidelines for recognising critical economic issues in biomass supply chains and for applying adequate de-risk strategies are also provided. Offering insights to a broad audience, this book is intended for researchers and professionals interested in renewable energy systems, biomass resource management and supply chain management. It also provides an invaluable resource to policy makers seeking guidelines for successfully managing the introduction of sustainable biomass projects.
This book is a compilation of very personal approaches to mentoring and sponsoring, breaking the stereotypes of seniority, age or experience. The authors have provided a platform to understand that mentoring and especially sponsoring are in fact a win-win relation, in which both sides, mentors and mentees; and sponsors and sponsored individuals learn from each other, enhancing their career paths. How they managed to create a growth space for themselves and their teams through mentoring and sponsoring, is a story of professional leadership. They shared a privileged outlook to understand the root causes of barriers, as well as to envision plausible solutions for difficult career crossroads, in which mentorship or sponsoring was key to steer step changes. The authors propose not only their vision, but a remarkable collection of unfiltered interviews with young and renown professionals in many sectors, from photography to music, research, sports, energy, and more, completing a vision of what is key for both sides of the equation pertinent to mentoring and sponsoring: the givers and the receivers. They explain what is needed to gain the most out of the mentoring and sponsoring loops, with their own career stories. Success is supported by many factors, in which the most important are the technical competency and performance aligned with resilience. However, in the long path of a career, mentors and particularly sponsors play a foundational and frequently a changing-life role, improving our perspective or triggering reflections and actions that benefitted our journeys at work and in life. This book provides insights on what works for an effective mentoring and sponsoring process. It is useful for all professionals, especially those starting their career journeys.
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