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Understanding plant anatomy is not only fundamental to the study of plant systematics and palaeobotany, but is also an essential part of evolutionary biology, physiology, ecology and the rapidly expanding science of developmental genetics. This modernised new edition covers all aspects of comparative plant structure and development, arranged in a series of chapters on the stem, root, leaf, flower, pollen, seed and fruit. Internal structures are described using magnification aids from the simple hand-lens to the electron microscope. Numerous references to recent topical literature are included, and new illustrations reflect a wide range of flowering plant species. The phylogenetic context of plant names has been updated as a result of improved understanding of the relationships among flowering plants. This clearly written text is ideal for students studying a wide range of courses in botany and plant science, and is also an excellent resource for professional and amateur horticulturists.
This books presents an updated compilation on fundamental interaction mechanisms of microbial communities with the plant roots and rhizosphere (belowground) and leaves and aerial parts (aboveground). Plant rhizopshere recruits its own microbial composition that survive there and help plants grow and develop better under biotic and abiotic conditions. Similar is the case with the beneficial microorganisms which are applied as inoculants with characteristic functions. The mechanism of plant-microbe interactions is interesting phenomenon in biological perspectives with numerous implications in the fields. The First volume focuses on the basic and fundamental mechanisms that have been worked out by the scientific communities taking into account different plant-microbe systems. This includes methods that decipher mechanisms at cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels and the functions that are the final outcome of any beneficial or non-beneficial interactions in crop plants and microbes. Recent advances in this research area is covered in different book chapters that reflect the impact of microbial interactions on soil and plant health, dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities, interaction mechanisms of microbes with multiple functional attributes, microbiome of contrasting crop production systems (organic vs conventional), mechanisms behind symbiotic and pathogenic interactions, endophytic (bacterial and fungal) interaction and benefits, rhizoplane and endosphere associations, signalling cascades and determinants in rhizosphere, quorum sensing in bacteria and impact on interaction, mycorrhizal interaction mechanisms, induced disease resistance and plant immunization, interaction mechanisms that suppress disease and belowground microbial crosstalk with plant rhizosphere. Methods based on multiphasic and multi-omics approaches were discussed in detail by the authors. Content-wise, the book offers an advanced account on various aspects of plant-microbe interactions and valuable implications in agro-ecological perspectives.
This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channe ls. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
The book addresses current public concern about the adverse effect of agrochemicals and their effect on the agro-ecosystem. This book also aims to satisfy and contribute to the increasing interest in understanding the co-operative activities among microbial populations and their interaction with plants. It contains chapters on a variety of interrelated aspects of plant-microbe interactions with a single theme of stress management and sustainable agriculture. The book will be very useful for students, academicians, researcher working on plant-microbe interaction and also for policy makers involved in food security and sustainable agriculture.
This book brings together recent advances in the area of abiotic stress tolerance in various vegetables, fruit crops, plantation crops and tuber crops. The main challenges to improving the productivity of horticultural crops are the different types of abiotic stresses generally caused by climate change at the regional and global level. Heat, drought, cold and salinity are the major abiotic stresses that adversely affect growth and productivity and can trigger a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in various horticultural crops. To date, there are no books covering horticultural crop-specific abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms and their management. Addressing that gap, the book is divided into 2 sections, the first of which highlights recent advances in the general aspects of abiotic stress tolerance like the role of hormones, reactive oxygen species, seed treatments, molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance and heavy metal toxicity, while the second focuses on the abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms of various vegetables, fruit crops, plantation crops and tuber crops. It includes comprehensive discussions of fruit crops like mango, grapes, banana, litchi and arid zone fruits; vegetables crops like tomato, capsicum, onion and tuber crops; and plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, oil palm and black pepper. Among the strategies for plant stress survival, examples of both avoidance and tolerance relevant to particular crops are examined in detail, supported by selected comprehensive case studies of progress. As such, the book offers a valuable resource suited for scientists and graduate students working in the fields of crop improvement, genetic engineering, and the abiotic stress tolerance of horticultural crops.
This thoroughly revised and updated edition provides an accessible overview of the rapidly advancing field of plant physiology. Key topics covered include absorption of water, ascent of sap, transpiration, mineral nutrition, fat metabolism, enzymes and plant hormones. Separate chapters are included on photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism, and emphasis is placed on their contribution to food security, climate resilient farming (or climate-smart agriculture) and sustainable development. There is also a chapter on the seminal contributions of plant physiologists. Supported by the inclusion of laboratory experimental exercises and solved numerical problems, the text emphasises the conceptual framework, for example, in coverage of topics such as thermodynamics, water potential gradients and energy transformation during metabolic processes, water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Bringing together the theoretical and practical details, this text is accessible, self-contained and student-friendly.
This book presents various aspects of agroforestry research and development, as well as the latest trends in degraded landscape management. Over the last four decades, agroforestry research (particularly on degraded landscapes) has evolved into an essential problem-solving science, e.g. in terms of sustaining agricultural productivity, improving soil health and biodiversity, enhancing ecosystem services, supporting carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change. This book examines temperate and tropical agroforestry systems around the world, focusing on traditional and modern practices and technologies used to rehabilitate degraded lands. It covers the latest research advances, trends and challenges in the utilization and reclamation of degraded lands, e.g. urban and peri-urban agroforestry, reclamation of degraded landscapes, tree-based multi-enterprise agriculture, domestication of high-value halophytes, afforestation of coastal areas, preserving mangroves and much more. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for a broad range of stakeholders including farmers, scientists, researchers, educators, students, development/extension agents, environmentalists, policy/decision makers, and government and non-government organizations.
Microbial biotechnology is an emerging field with applications in a broad range of sectors involving food security, human nutrition, plant protection and overall basic research in the agricultural sciences. The environment has been sustaining the burden of mankind from time immemorial, and our indiscriminate use of its resources has led to the degradation of the climate, loss of soil fertility, and the need for sustainable strategies. The major focus in the coming decades will be on achieving a green and clean environment by utilizing soil and plant-associated beneficial microbial communities. Plant-microbe interactions include the association of microbes with plant systems: epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric. The microbes associated with plant ecosystems play an important role in plant growth, development, and soil health. Moreover, soil and plant microbiomes help to promote plant growth, either directly or indirectly by means of plant growth-promoting mechanisms, e.g. the release of plant growth regulators; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium and zinc; biological nitrogen fixation; or by producing siderophores, ammonia, HCN and other secondary metabolites. These beneficial microbial communities represent a novel and promising solution for agro-environmental sustainability by providing biofertilizers, bioprotectants, and biostimulants, in addition to mitigating various types of abiotic stress in plants. This book focuses on plant-microbe interactions; the biodiversity of soil and plant microbiomes; and their role in plant growth and soil health. Accordingly, it will be immensely useful to readers working in the biological sciences, especially microbiologists, biochemists and microbial biotechnologists.
This book presents biotechnological advances and approaches to improving the nutritional value of agri-foods. The respective chapters explore how biotechnology is being used to enhance food production, nutritional quality, food safety and food packaging, and to address postharvest issues. Written and prepared by eminent scientists working in the field of food biotechnology, the book offers authentic, reliable and detailed information on technological advances, fundamental principles, and the applications of recent innovations. Accordingly, it offers a valuable guide for researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of biotechnology, agriculture and food technology.
Plant remains can preserve a critical part of history of life on Earth. While telling the fascinating evolutionary story of plants and vegetation across the last 500 million years, this book also crucially offers non-specialists a practical guide to studying, dealing with and interpreting plant fossils. It shows how various techniques can be used to reveal the secrets of plant fossils and how to identify common types, such as compressions and impressions. Incorporating the concepts of evolutionary floras, this second edition includes revised data on all main plant groups, the latest approaches to naming plant fossils using fossil-taxa and techniques such as tomography. With extensive illustrations of plant fossils and living plants, the book encourages readers to think of fossils as once-living organisms. It is written for students on introductory or intermediate courses in palaeobotany, palaeontology, plant evolutionary biology and plant science, and for amateurs interested in studying plant fossils.
Emphasizing the unpredictable nature of plant behaviour under stress and in relation to complex interactions of biological pathways, this work covers the versatility of plants in adapting to environmental change. It analyzes environmentally triggered adaptions in developmental programmes of plants that lead to permanent, heritable DNA modifications.
This book presents an overview of the latest advances and developments in plant biotechnology. The respective chapters explore emerging areas of plant biotechnology such as RNAi technology, fermentation technology, genetic engineering, nanoparticles and their applications, climate resilient crops, bio-films, bio-plastic, bio-remediation, flavonoids, antioxidants etc. All chapters were written by respected experts and address the latest developments in plant biotechnology that are of industrial importance, especially with regard to crop yields and post-harvest strategies. As such, the book offers a valuable guide for students, educators and researchers in all disciplines of the life sciences, agricultural sciences, medicine, and biotechnology at universities, research institutions and biotechnology companies.
To address the environmental, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues associated with increasing global human energy consumption, technologies for utilizing renewable carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy sources must be identified and developed. Among renewable sources, solar energy is quite promising as it alone is sufficient to meet global human demands well into the foreseeable future. However, it is diffuse and diurnal. Thus effective strategies must be developed for its capture, conversion and storage. In this context, photosynthesis provides a paradigm for large-scale deployment. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and has evolved over 3 billion years. The process of photosynthesis currently produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which equates to a global energy storage rate of ~100 TW. Recently, detailed structural information on the natural photosynthetic systems has been acquired at the molecular level, providing a foundation for comprehensive functional studies of the photosynthetic process. Likewise, sophisticated spectroscopic techniques have revealed important mechanistic details. Such accomplishments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to construct artificial systems for solar energy transduction that are inspired by their biological counterparts. The book contains articles written by experts and world leaders in their respective fields and summarizes the exciting breakthroughs toward understanding the structures and mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus as well as efforts toward developing revolutionary new energy conversion technologies. The topics/chapters will be organized in terms of the natural sequence of events occurring in the process of photosynthesis, while keeping a higher-order organization of structure and mechanism as well as the notion that biology can inspire human technologies. For example, the topic of light harvesting, will be followed by charge separation at reaction centers, followed by charge stabilization, followed by chemical reactions, followed by protection mechanisms, followed by other more specialized topics and finally ending with artificial systems and looking forward. As shown in the table of contents (TOC), the book includes and integrates topics on the structures and mechanisms of photosynthesis, and provides relevant information on applications to bioenergy and solar energy transduction.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. This volume includes the latest research into the diseases that affect non-vascular plants. The chapters bring to light the most recent studies of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases. The information provided here helps readers to stay current with this field's ongoing research and ever-developing knowledge base.
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
This book is the first of its kind to highlight the positive impact of natural UV radiation on plants through unique adaptations in various metabolic pathways, and provides an evolutionary sketch of the development of molecular mechanisms for protecting plants from solar UV ever since their migration to terrestrial habitats. Experimental evidence is provided for establishing how plants, through their stationary habit in the open field, survive and flourish by developing suitable UV acclimation strategies through the repair of damaged macromolecules and/or upregulation of screening compounds viz. flavonoids. Presenting an analysis of related literature, it also highlights the importance of outdoor experiments over those in closed chamber under artificial UV light for obtaining realistic data. The book presents a comprehensive account of the stratospheric ozone layer, its formation and seasonal thinning, with particular reference to alarming anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer since the last quarter of the twentieth century, which has resulted in increased UV fluence on Earth. It discusses variations in the hazardous impact of UV on life at different latitudes through the ages, and examines altitudinal variations in UV effects in case studies demonstrating high antioxidant content and aroma status in Darjeeling tea leaves (at high altitudes) compared with those of the same tea clones in Assam leaves (at low altitudes), with both sites being at the same latitude. It provides evidence which suggests that the UV effects relating to the expression of seed vigour-viability could be epigenetic. Further, it presents recently developed microscopic technologies for demonstrating the penetration of UV into plant cells, and discusses how cellular metabolism can be affected either directly or via signal transduction. Effect of damage in DNA (the key target of UV radiation) has been demonstrated and estimated using precise techniques. The latest "FOX Hunting" technique as a useful means of transcriptome analysis that may be used for developing UV tolerant plants through Marker Assisted Breeding has also been discussed. Using biochemical and biotechnological methods, the experiments presented highlight the gene X environment based upregulation of specific metabolic pathways, allowing i) value addition in plant-derived food, and ii) paving the way for the industrial manufacture of Alternative Medicine products. The book is enriched by a critical review of the available literature and appropriate case studies selected from the author's own findings, which span nearly four decades of active research.
From their ability to use energy from sunlight to make their own food, to combating attacks from diseases and predators, plants have evolved an amazing range of life-sustaining strategies. Written with the non-specialist in mind, John King's lively natural history explains how plants function, from how they gain energy and nutrition to how they grow, develop and ultimately die. New to this edition is a section devoted to plants and the environment, exploring how problems created by human activities, such as global warming, pollution of land, water and air, and increasing ocean acidity, are impacting on the lives of plants. King's narrative provides a simple, highly readable introduction, with boxes in each chapter offering additional or more advanced material for readers seeking more detail. He concludes that despite the challenges posed by growing environmental perils, plants will continue to dominate our planet.
An Introduction that describes the origin of cytochrome notation also connects to the history of the field, focusing on research in England in the pre-World War II era. The start of the modern era of studies on structure-function of cytochromes and energy-transducing membrane proteins was marked by the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given to J. Deisenhofer, H. Michel, and R. Huber for determination of the crystal structure of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. An ab initio logic of presentation in the book discusses the evolution of cytochromes and hemes, followed by theoretical perspectives on electron transfer in proteins and specifically in cytochromes. There is an extensive description of the molecular structures of cytochromes and cytochrome complexes from eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources, bacterial, plant and animal. The presentation of atomic structure information has a major role in these discussions, and makes an important contribution to the broad field of membrane protein structure-function.
This book provides a convincing argument for the view that whole cells and whole plants growing in competitive wild conditions show aspects of plant behaviour that can be accurately described as 'intelligent'. Trewavas argues that behaviour, like intelligence, must be assessed within the constraints of the anatomical and physiological framework of the organism in question. The fact that plants do not have centralized nervous systems for example, does not exclude intelligent behaviour. Outside the human dimension, culture is thought largely absent and fitness is the biological property of value. Thus, solving environmental problems that threaten to reduce fitness is another way of viewing intelligent behaviour and has a similar meaning to adaptively variable behaviour. The capacity to solve these problems might be considered to vary in different organisms, but variation does not mean absence. By extending these ideas into a book that allows a critical and amplified discussion, the author hopes to raise an awareness of the concept of purposive behaviour in plants.
Covers the basic knowledge of the regulation of biosynthesis of various amino acids in plants and the application of this knowledge to the discovery of novel inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and for enhancing the nutritional value of plant products. Provides an exhaustive list of pathway inhibitors.
This manual details the techniques involved in the study of plant microbe interactions (PMI). Covering a wide range of basic and advanced techniques associated with research on biological nitrogen fixation, microbe-mediated plant nutrient use efficiency, the biological control of plant diseases and pests such as nematodes, it will appeal to postgraduate students, research scholars and postdoctoral fellows, as well as teachers from various fields, including pathology, entomology and agronomy. It consists of five broad sections featuring different units. Information panels at the beginning of each unit present essential knowledge as well as advances in a particular topic. The manual can also serve as a textbook for undergraduate courses like Techniques for Plant-Microbe Interactions; Biological Control of Plant Diseases; and Nutrient Use Efficiency. Providing basic insights and working protocols from all related disciplines, this unique laboratory manual is a valuable resource for researchers interested in investigating PMI.
Genetic transformation is a key technology, in which genes are transferred from one organism to another in order to improve agronomic traits and ultimately help humans. However, there is concern in some quarters that genetically modified crops may disturb the ecosystem. A number of non-governmental organizations continue to protest against GM crops and foods, despite the fact that many organisms are genetically modified naturally in the course of evolution. In this context, there is a need to educate the public about the importance of GM crops in terms of food and nutritional security. This book provides an overview of various crop plants where genetic transformation has been successfully implemented to improve their agronomically useful traits. It includes information on the gene(s) transferred, the method of gene transfer and the beneficial effects of these gene transfers and the agronomic improvements compared to the wild plants. Further, it discusses the commercial prospects of these GM crops as well as the associated challenges. Given its scope, this book is a valuable resource for agricultural and horticultural scientists/experts wanting to explain to the public, politicians and non-governmental organizations the details of GM crops and how they can improve crops and the lives of farmers. It also appeals to researchers and postgraduate students. This volume focuses on the transgenics of mungbean, cowpea, chickpea, cotton, mulberrry, Jatropha, fingermillet, papaya, citrus plants and cassava. It also discusses CRISPR edited lines.
Surface bio-contamination has become a severe problem that contributes to outbreaks of community acquired and nosocomial infections through contiguous fomite transmission of diseases. Every year, thousands of patients die due to nosocomial infections by pathogens. It is therefore essential to develop novel strategies to prevent or improve the treatment of biomaterial concomitant infections. The concept of antimicrobial materials is becoming increasingly important not only in the hospital and healthcare environments, but also for laboratories, home appliances, and certain industrial applications. Materials are now being developed to prevent the buildup, spread and transfer of harmful microbes, and to dynamically deactivate them. Drawing on research and examples from around the world, this book highlights the latest advances in, and applications of, antibacterial biomaterials for biomedical devices, and focuses on metals with antibacterial coatings/surfaces, antibacterial stainless steels and other commonly used antibacterial materials. It also discusses the role of innovative approaches and provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge research on the processing, properties and technologies involved in the development of antimicrobial applications. Given its scope, the book will be of interest to researchers and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of biochemistry, microbiology, and environmental chemistry
Dendrology: Cones, Flowers, Fruits and Seeds offers a comprehensive overview of the morphology of reproductive organs of woody plants of Europe in one resource. The book contains 2020 woody taxa (845 species, 58 subspecies, 38 varieties, 13 forms, 40 hybrids and 1026 cultivars), belonging to 400 genera and 121 families. It includes 447 taxa of trees and shrubs that are autochthonous in Europe and numerous ornamental species that originate from North America, Asia, South America, Australia and Africa, along with invasive woody species. Accompanied by thousands of original photographs, the book is designed to efficiently guide the reader to accurate identification. Other features include taxa organized in alphabetical order of their botanical names, flowering and fruiting time, mode of fruit or seed dispersal, and distribution range, making this a must-have reference for students and researchers in dendrology, botany, forestry, forest management and conservation, arboriculture and horticulture.
Plants have a very specific and efficient mechanism to obtain, translocate and store nutrients from the surrounding environment. The precise mechanism that helps a plant in nutrient translocation from root to shoot also, in the same way, transfers and stores toxic metals within their structure. Metal toxicity generally causes multiple direct or indirect effects on plants, affecting nearly all of their physiological functions. Plant tolerance to heavy metals depends largely on plant efficiency in uptake, translocation and sequestration of heavy metals in specific cell organelles or specialized tissues. The main purpose of this book is to present a holistic view of the recent advancement in the field of accumulation and remediation using plants, the green solar powered alternative to ameliorate heavy metal from the polluted environment. The key features of the book are related to metal transporters and metal accumulation mechanisms under heavy metal stress in plants, plant transcriptional regulation and responses under metal contamination, multiple toxic metal contaminations and its phytoremediation approaches etc. Based on the advancement of research in recent years, the information compiled in this book will bring an in-depth knowledge on the bioaccumulation of metals, their transportation in natural conditions or genetically modified plants and their strategy to cope with the toxicity to survive in the hostile environment.
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