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For lab courses in Physical Geology. A top-seller for over 35 years with over one million copies sold, this lab manual represents by far the best collection of photos of rocks and minerals-and one of the best compilations of exercises-available. With exercises using maps, aerial photos, satellite imagery, and other materials, this classic manual encompasses all the major geologic processes as well as the identification of rocks and minerals. All changes in the Twelfth Edition are based on reviewer feedback.
This hands-on introduction to numerical geodynamic modelling provides a solid grounding in the necessary mathematical theory and techniques, including continuum mechanics and partial differential equations, before introducing key numerical modelling methods and applications. Fully updated, this second edition includes four completely new chapters covering the most recent advances in modelling inertial processes, seismic cycles and fluid-solid interactions, and the development of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms. Many well-documented, state-of-the-art visco-elasto-plastic 2D models are presented, which allow robust modelling of key geodynamic processes. Requiring only minimal prerequisite mathematical training, and featuring over sixty practical exercises and ninety MATLAB (R) examples, this user-friendly resource encourages experimentation with geodynamic models. It is an ideal introduction for advanced courses and can be used as a self-study aid for graduates seeking to master geodynamic modelling for their own research projects.
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
Waves and flows are pervasive on and within Earth. This book presents a unified physical and mathematical approach to waves and flows in the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, volcanoes and the mantle, emphasizing the common physical principles and mathematical methods that apply to a variety of phenomena and disciplines. It is organized into seven parts: introductory material; kinematics, dynamics and rheology; waves in non-rotating fluids; waves in rotating fluids; non-rotating flows; rotating flows; and silicate flows. The chapters are supplemented by 47 'fundaments', containing knowledge that is fundamental to the material presented in the main text, organized into seven appendices: mathematics; dimensions and units; kinematics; dynamics; thermodynamics; waves; and flows. This book is an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers seeking an introduction to the mathematics of waves and flows in the Earth system, and will serve as a supplementary textbook for a number of courses in geophysical fluid dynamics.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
The inner core is a planet within a planet: a hot sphere with a mass of one hundred quintillion tons of iron and nickel that lies more than 5000 kilometres beneath our feet. It plays a crucial role in driving outer core fluid motion and the geodynamo, which generates the Earth's magnetic field. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive review of past and contemporary research on the Earth's inner core from a seismological perspective. Chapters cover the collection, processing and interpretation of seismological data, as well as our current knowledge of the structure, anisotropy, attenuation, rotational dynamics, and boundary of the inner core. Reviewing the latest research and suggesting new seismological techniques and future avenues, it is an essential resource for both seismologists and non-seismologists interested in this fascinating field of research. It will also form a useful resource for courses in seismology and deep Earth processes.
Exploration seismology uses seismic imaging to form detailed images of the Earth's interior, enabling the location of likely petroleum targets. Due to the size of seismic datasets, sophisticated numerical algorithms are required. This book provides a technical guide to the essential algorithms and computational aspects of data processing, covering the theory and methods of seismic imaging. The first part introduces an extensive online library of MATLAB (R) seismic data processing codes maintained by the CREWES project at the University of Calgary. Later chapters then focus on digital signal theory and relevant aspects of wave propagation and seismic modelling, followed by deconvolution and seismic migration methods. Presenting a rigorous explanation of how to construct seismic images, it provides readers with practical tools and codes to pursue research projects and analyses. It is ideal for advanced students and researchers in applied geophysics, and for practicing exploration geoscientists in the oil and gas industry.
There are several billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. One of them is the middle-aged G2V yellow dwarf that rules our lives. The Sun Today discusses the Sun's appearance and composition, its internal workings, and the various kinds of radiation it emits, and it puts forward a novel explanation for coronal heating. The book draws on the findings of telescopic observation, space missions, and technical and theoretical advances in many fields, and shows why we need to know more if we are to understand and manage our foothold in the Universe. From the reviews of other books by Claudio Vita-Finzi: The Sun - A User's Manual (2008) ....this, jargon-free, concise, beautifully illustrated and eminently readable book... D.W. Hughes, Times Literary Supplement Solar History (2013) ....a book that is supremely informative, intensely stimulating and enjoyable to read... Ian Seymour, Astronomy Now A History of the Solar System (2016) ...there is a huge amount of useful information in this book that would benefit anyone who needed more detail than is available in a typical popular science title. Brian Clegg, Popular Science
An authoritative interdisciplinary account of the historic discovery of gravitational waves In 1915, Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves-ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the movement of large masses-as part of the theory of general relativity. A century later, researchers with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) confirmed Einstein's prediction, detecting gravitational waves generated by the collision of two black holes. Shedding new light on the hundred-year history of this momentous achievement, Einstein Was Right brings together essays by two of the physicists who won the Nobel Prize for their instrumental roles in the discovery, along with contributions by leading scholars who offer unparalleled insights into one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of our time. This illuminating book features an introduction by Tilman Sauer and invaluable firsthand perspectives on the history and significance of the LIGO consortium by physicists Barry Barish and Kip Thorne. Theoretical physicist Alessandra Buonanno discusses the new possibilities opened by gravitational wave astronomy, and sociologist of science Harry Collins and historians of science Diana Kormos Buchwald, Daniel Kennefick, and Jurgen Renn provide further insights into the history of relativity and LIGO. The book closes with a reflection by philosopher Don Howard on the significance of Einstein's theory for the philosophy of science. Edited by Jed Buchwald, Einstein Was Right is a compelling and thought-provoking account of one of the most thrilling scientific discoveries of the modern age.
Perfect for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in geophysics, physics, mathematics, geology and engineering, this book is devoted exclusively to seismic wave theory. The result is an invaluable teaching tool, with its detailed derivations of formulas, clear explanations of topics, exercises along with selected answers, and an additional set of exercises with derived answers on the book's website. Some highlights of the text include: a review of vector calculus and Fourier transforms and an introduction to tensors, which prepare readers for the chapters to come; and a detailed discussion on computing reflection and transmission coefficients, a topic of wide interest in the field; a discussion in later chapters of plane waves in anisotropic and anelastic media, which serves as a useful introduction to these two areas of current research in geophysics. Students will learn to understand seismic wave theory through the book's clear and concise pedagogy.
This book aims to give an overview on the present state of volcanic lake research, covering topics such as volcano monitoring, the chemistry, dynamics and degassing of acidic crater lakes, mass-energy-chemical-isotopic balance approaches, limnology and degassing of Nyos-type lakes, the impact on the human and natural environment, the eruption products and impact of crater lake breaching eruptions, numerical modeling of gas clouds and lake eruptions, thermo-hydro-mechanical and deformation modeling, CO2 fluxes from lakes, volcanic lakes observed from space, biological activity, continuous monitoring techniques, and some aspects more. We hope to offer an updated manual on volcanic lake research, providing classic research methods, and point towards a more high-tech approach of future volcanic lake research and continuous monitoring.
In the twenty-first century, we take the means to measure time for granted, without contemplating the sophisticated concepts on which our time scales are based. This volume presents the evolution of concepts of time and methods of time keeping up to the present day. It outlines the progression of time based on sundials, water clocks, and the Earth's rotation, to time measurement using pendulum clocks, quartz crystal clocks, and atomic frequency standards. Time scales created as a result of these improvements in technology and the development of general and special relativity are explained. This second edition has been updated throughout to describe twentieth- and twenty-first-century advances and discusses the redefinition of SI units and the future of UTC. A new chapter on time and cosmology has been added. This broad-ranging reference benefits a diverse readership, including historians, scientists, engineers, educators, and it is accessible to general readers.
This is the third volume of the five-volume book series "Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management". The book series deals with the following topics: * Environmental deterioration and pollution, management of environmental problems * Environmental toxicology - a tool for managing chemical substances and contaminated environment * Assessment and monitoring tools, risk assessment * Risk reduction measures and technologies * Case studies for demonstration of the application of engineering tools The authors aim to describe interactions and options in risk management by providing a broad scientific overview of the environment, its human uses and the associated local, regional and global environmental problems; interpreting the holistic approach used in solving environmental protection issues; striking a balance between nature's needs and engineering capabilities; understanding interactions between regulation, management and engineering; obtaining information about novel technologies and innovative engineering tools. This third volume provides an overview on the basic principles, concepts, practices and tools of environmental monitoring and contaminated site assessment. The volume focuses on those engineering tools that enable integrated site assessment and decision making and ensure an efficient control of the environment. Some topics supporting sustainable land use and efficient environmental management are listed below: * Efficient management and regulation of contaminated land and the environment; * Early warning and environmental monitoring; * Assessment of contaminated land: the best practices; * Environmental sampling; * Risk characterization and contaminated matrix assessment; * Integrated application of physical, chemical, biological, ecological and (eco) toxicological characterization methods; * Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) and decision making; * Online analyzers, electrodes and biosensors for assessment and monitoring of waters.; * In situ and real-time measurement tools for soil and contaminated sites; * Rapid on-site methods and contaminant and toxicity assessment kits; * Engineering tools from omics technologies, microsensors to heavy machinery; * Dynamic characterization of subsurface soil and groundwater using membrane interface probes, optical and X-ray fl uorescence and ELCAD wastewater characterization; * Geochemical modeling: methods and applications; * Environmental assessment using cyclodextrins. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.
This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA's Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment used in sample collection. The Lunar Receiving Laboratory, which was designed and built at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Texas for analysis and storage of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo lunar landing missions is also described in detail. There are also descriptions of astronaut mission training for sample collecting, with the focus on the specific portions of the mission EVAs devoted to this activity.
Since the beginning of the US shale gas revolution in 2005, the development of unconventional oil and gas resources has gathered tremendous pace around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key geologic, geophysical, and engineering principles that govern the development of unconventional reservoirs. The book begins with a detailed characterization of unconventional reservoir rocks: their composition and microstructure, mechanical properties, and the processes controlling fault slip and fluid flow. A discussion of geomechanical principles follows, including the state of stress, pore pressure, and the importance of fractures and faults. After reviewing the fundamentals of horizontal drilling, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, and stimulation of slip on pre-existing faults, the key factors impacting hydrocarbon production are explored. The final chapters cover environmental impacts and how to mitigate hazards associated with induced seismicity. This text provides an essential overview for students, researchers, and industry professionals interested in unconventional reservoirs.
This is the first undergraduate textbook to fully integrate results from geophysics, geochemistry, and petrology to describe the structure, composition, and dynamic processes that operate throughout the solid Earth. It presents an Earth system science approach to studies of the Earth's interior and develops a global view of solid Earth cycles to explain geodynamic and plate tectonic processes. This book initially explores the formation and evolution of the early Earth, then considers the operative forces for plate tectonic movements at the Earth's surface, and finally discusses global cycles within the deep Earth and their effect on the surface environment. Interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and their influence at and beneath the Earth's surface are examined in detail. This textbook thus provides a concise yet extensive coverage of the solid Earth. Written for intermediate undergraduates, it includes a wealth of features to support student learning at this level.
This book provides thorough and comprehensive coverage of most of the new and important quantitative methods of data analysis for graduate students and practitioners. In recent years, data analysis methods have exploded alongside advanced computing power, and it is critical to understand such methods to get the most out of data, and to extract signal from noise. The book excels in explaining difficult concepts through simple explanations and detailed explanatory illustrations. Most unique is the focus on confidence limits for power spectra and their proper interpretation, something rare or completely missing in other books. Likewise, there is a thorough discussion of how to assess uncertainty via use of Expectancy, and the easy to apply and understand Bootstrap method. The book is written so that descriptions of each method are as self-contained as possible. Many examples are presented to clarify interpretations, as are user tips in highlighted boxes.
This reference encompasses the fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in a single volume. Both sciences have applications in navigation, in the search for minerals and hydrocarbons, in dating rock sequences, and in unraveling past geologic movements such as plate motions they have contributed to a better understanding of the Earth. The book describes in fine detail the current state of knowledge and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the most basic concepts. It is an indispensable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for geologists, physicists, atmospheric and environmental scientists, and engineers.
This contributed volume arose from the idea of assembling scientists from space research and ground development, time transfer techniques and radio science missions, the time-frequency community, and both the geodesy-geophysics and solar system exploration communities. Such a fusion of diverse interests in these fields related to time measurement has rarely, if ever, been achieved. The topics covered in these papers include clocks, time transfer, technology, and the applications of high-precision clocks in Earth Sciences, Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, and Solar System exploration. This book will be of major interest to all those involved in the implementation and utilization of space-based high precision timing for a wide range of applications. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "High Performance Clocks with Special Emphasis on Geodesy and Geophysics and Applications to Other Bodies of the Solar System"
This book introduces methodologies for subsurface imaging based upon asymptotic and trajectory-based methods for modeling fluid flow, transport and deformation. It describes trajectory-based imaging from its mathematical formulation, through the construction and solution of the imaging equations, to the assessment of the accuracy and resolution associated with the image. Unique in its approach, it provides a unified framework for the complete spectrum of physical phenomena from wave-like hyperbolic problems to diffusive parabolic problems and non-linear problems of mixed character. The practical aspects of imaging, particularly efficient and robust methods for updating high resolution geologic models using fluid flow, transport and geophysical data, are emphasized throughout the book. Complete with online software applications and examples that enable readers to gain hands-on experience, this volume is an invaluable resource for graduate-level courses, as well as for academic researchers and industry practitioners in the fields of geoscience, hydrology, and petroleum and environmental engineering.
This volume describes how controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are used to determine the electrical conductivity and hydrocarbon content of the upper few kilometres of the Earth, on land and at sea. The authors show how the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured data may be maximised via suitable choice of acquisition and processing parameters and selection of subsequent data analysis procedures. Complete impulse responses for every electric and magnetic source and receiver configuration are derived, providing a guide to the expected response for real data. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D modelling and inversion procedures for recovery of Earth conductivity are presented, emphasising the importance of updating model parameters using complementary geophysical data and rock physics relations. Requiring no specialist prior knowledge of electromagnetic theory, and providing a step-by-step guide through the necessary mathematics, this book provides an accessible introduction for advanced students, researchers and industry practitioners in exploration geoscience and petroleum engineering.
Seismic Risk Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants addresses the needs of graduate students in engineering, practicing engineers in industry, and regulators in government agencies, presenting the entire process of seismic risk analysis in a clear, logical, and concise manner. It offers a systematic and comprehensive introduction to seismic risk analysis of critical engineering structures focusing on nuclear power plants, with a balance between theory and applications, and includes the latest advances in research. It is suitable as a graduate-level textbook, for self-study, or as a reference book. Various aspects of seismic risk analysis - from seismic hazard, demand, and fragility analyses to seismic risk quantification, are discussed, with detailed step-by-step analysis of specific engineering examples. It presents a wide range of topics essential for understanding and performing seismic risk analysis, including engineering seismology, probability theory and random processes, digital signal processing, structural dynamics, random vibration, and engineering risk and reliability.
This book serves as a guide to discovering the most interesting volcano sites in Italy. Accompanied by some extraordinary contemporary images of active Neapolitan volcanoes, it explains the main volcanic processes that have been shaping the landscape of the Campania region and influencing human settlements in this area since Greek and Roman times and that have prompted leading international scientists to visit and study this natural volcanology laboratory. While volcanology is the central topic, the book also addresses other aspects related to the area's volcanism and is divided into three sections: 1) Neapolitan volcanic activity and processes (with a general introduction to volcanology and its development around Naples together with descriptions of the landscape and the main sites worth visiting); 2) Volcanoes and their interactions with local human settlements since the Bronze Age, recent population growth and the transformation of the territory; 3) The risks posed by Neapolitan Volcanoes, their recent activity and the problem of forecasting any future eruption.
Geosequestration involves the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide from major industrial sources, providing a potential solution for reducing the rate of increase of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and mitigating climate change. This volume provides an overview of the major geophysical techniques and analysis methods for monitoring the movement and predictability of carbon dioxide plumes underground. Comprising chapters from eminent researchers, the book is illustrated with practical examples and case studies of active projects and government initiatives, and discusses their successes and remaining challenges. A key case study from Norway demonstrates how governments and other stake-holders could estimate storage capacity and design storage projects that meet the requirements of regulatory authorities. Presenting reasons for embracing geosequestration, technical best practice for carbon management, and outlooks for the future, this volume provides a key reference for academic researchers, industry practitioners and graduate students looking to gain insight into subsurface carbon management.
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