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For lab courses in Physical Geology. A top-seller for over 35 years with over one million copies sold, this lab manual represents by far the best collection of photos of rocks and minerals-and one of the best compilations of exercises-available. With exercises using maps, aerial photos, satellite imagery, and other materials, this classic manual encompasses all the major geologic processes as well as the identification of rocks and minerals. All changes in the Twelfth Edition are based on reviewer feedback.
Why do elephants have sturdier thigh bones than humans? Why can't ostriches fly? How do bacteria swim through fluids? With each chapter structured around relevant biological case studies and examples, this engaging, full-colour book introduces fundamental physical concepts essential in the study of biological phenomena. Optics is introduced within the context of butterfly wing colouration, electricity is explained through the propagation of nerve signals, and accelerated motion is conveniently illustrated using the example of the jumping armadillo. Other key physical concepts covered include waves, mechanical forces, thermodynamics and magnetism, and important biological techniques are also discussed within this context, such as gel electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy. A detailed appendix provides further discussion of the mathematical concepts utilised within the book, and numerous exercises and quizzes allow readers to test their understanding of key concepts. This book is invaluable to students aiming to improve their quantitative and analytical skills and understand the deeper nature of biological phenomena.
This hands-on introduction to numerical geodynamic modelling provides a solid grounding in the necessary mathematical theory and techniques, including continuum mechanics and partial differential equations, before introducing key numerical modelling methods and applications. Fully updated, this second edition includes four completely new chapters covering the most recent advances in modelling inertial processes, seismic cycles and fluid-solid interactions, and the development of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms. Many well-documented, state-of-the-art visco-elasto-plastic 2D models are presented, which allow robust modelling of key geodynamic processes. Requiring only minimal prerequisite mathematical training, and featuring over sixty practical exercises and ninety MATLAB (R) examples, this user-friendly resource encourages experimentation with geodynamic models. It is an ideal introduction for advanced courses and can be used as a self-study aid for graduates seeking to master geodynamic modelling for their own research projects.
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
This introduction to dimensional analysis covers the methods, history and formalisation of the field, and provides physics and engineering applications. Covering topics from mechanics, hydro- and electrodynamics to thermal and quantum physics, it illustrates the possibilities and limitations of dimensional analysis. Introducing basic physics and fluid engineering topics through the mathematical methods of dimensional analysis, this book is perfect for students in physics, engineering and mathematics. Explaining potentially unfamiliar concepts such as viscosity and diffusivity, the text includes worked examples and end-of-chapter problems with answers provided in an accompanying appendix, which help make it ideal for self-study. Long-standing methodological problems arising in popular presentations of dimensional analysis are also identified and solved, making the book a useful text for advanced students and professionals.
The astonishing science of neutron stars and the stories of the scientists who study them. Neutron stars are as bewildering as they are elusive. The remnants of exploded stellar giants, they are tiny, merely twenty kilometers across, and incredibly dense. One teaspoon of a neutron star would weigh several million tons. They can spin up to a thousand times per second, they possess the strongest magnetic fields known in nature, and they may be the source of the most powerful explosions in the universe. Through vivid storytelling and on-site reporting from observatories all over the world, Neutron Stars offers an engaging account of these still-mysterious objects. Award-winning science journalist Katia Moskvitch takes readers from the vast Atacama Desert to the arid plains of South Africa to visit the magnificent radio telescopes and brilliant scientists responsible for our knowledge of neutron stars. She recounts the exhilarating discoveries, frustrating disappointments, and heated controversies of the past several decades and explains cutting-edge research into such phenomena as colliding neutron stars and fast radio bursts: extremely powerful but ultra-short flashes in space that scientists are still struggling to understand. She also shows how neutron stars have advanced our broader understanding of the universe-shedding light on topics such as dark matter, black holes, general relativity, and the origins of heavy elements like gold and platinum-and how we might one day use these cosmic beacons to guide interstellar travel. With clarity and passion, Moskvitch describes what we are learning at the boundaries of astronomy, where stars have life beyond death.
Why are we alive? Most things in the universe aren't. And if you trace the evolutionary history of plants and animals back far enough, you will find that, at some point, neither were we. Scientists have wrestled with this problem for centuries, and no one has been able to offer a credible theory. But in 2013, at just 30 years old, biophysicist Jeremy England published a paper that has utterly upended the ongoing study of life's origins. In Every Life Is on Fire, he describes, for the first time, his highly publicized theory known as dissipative adaptation. In any disordered system, matter clumps together and breaks apart, mostly randomly, without consequence. But some of the clumps that form are momentarily better at doing one specific job: dissipating energy. These structures are less likely to fall apart. Over time, they become better at both withstanding the disorder surrounding them and creating copies of themselves. From this deep insight, grounded in thermodynamics, England is able to isolate the emergence of the first life-like behaviors. Scientists have always thought that life began as a stroke of spectacular luck. But in fact, life may be inevitable, a product of the iron physical laws of the universe. England is both a world-class physicist and an ordained rabbi, and so his enquiry doesn't end with the physics of life. We ask questions like "How did life begin?" not just for the fun of scientific inquiry, but because we want a deeper understanding of who we are and why we're here. Even if physics can explain how life-like behaviors emerged, England doubts that reducing life down to the energy flows of a bunch of microscopic particles can ever give us a satisfying answer to what it means to be alive?. He believes that life is fundamentally a philosophical distinction, not a natural one. So before we can seriously look for life's physical origins, we must first make basic choices about what we think life means. This is something researchers often fail to recognize, and it is why, throughout In Every Life Is on Fire, England informs the premises of his theory with a careful exploration of what life is for. For anyone who reads this book, no matter their creed, In Every Life Is On Fire offers a rare work of popular science that explores not just what science does, but how it imbues our lives with meaning.
Foundations of Astrophysics provides a contemporary and complete introduction to astrophysics for astronomy and physics majors. With a logical presentation and conceptual and quantitative end-of-chapter problems, the material is accessible to introductory astrophysics students taking a two-semester survey course. Starting with the motions of the solar system and a discussion of the interaction of matter and light, the authors explore the physical nature of objects in the solar system, and the exciting new field of exoplanets. The second half of their text covers stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astronomy, followed by a brief discussion of cosmology. This is a reissue of the original 2010 edition, which has established itself as one of the market-leading astrophysics texts, well known for its clarity and simplicity. It has introduced thousands of physical science students to the breadth of astronomy, and helped prepare them for more advanced studies.
Exploring the origins and evolution of magnetic fields in planets, stars and galaxies, this book gives a basic introduction to magnetohydrodynamics and surveys the observational data, with particular focus on geomagnetism and solar magnetism. Pioneering laboratory experiments that seek to replicate particular aspects of fluid dynamo action are also described. The authors provide a complete treatment of laminar dynamo theory, and of the mean-field electrodynamics that incorporates the effects of random waves and turbulence. Both dynamo theory and its counterpart, the theory of magnetic relaxation, are covered. Topological constraints associated with conservation of magnetic helicity are thoroughly explored and major challenges are addressed in areas such as fast-dynamo theory, accretion-disc dynamo theory and the theory of magnetostrophic turbulence. The book is aimed at graduate-level students in mathematics, physics, Earth sciences and astrophysics, and will be a valuable resource for researchers at all levels.
First published in 1973, Gravitation is a landmark graduate-level textbook that presents Einstein's general theory of relativity and offers a rigorous, full-year course on the physics of gravitation. Upon publication, Science called it "a pedagogic masterpiece," and it has since become a classic, considered essential reading for every serious student and researcher in the field of relativity. This authoritative text has shaped the research of generations of physicists and astronomers, and the book continues to influence the way experts think about the subject. With an emphasis on geometric interpretation, this masterful and comprehensive book introduces the theory of relativity; describes physical applications, from stars to black holes and gravitational waves; and portrays the field's frontiers. The book also offers a unique, alternating, two-track pathway through the subject. Material focusing on basic physical ideas is designated as Track 1 and formulates an appropriate one-semester graduate-level course. The remaining Track 2 material provides a wealth of advanced topics instructors can draw on for a two-semester course, with Track 1 sections serving as prerequisites. This must-have reference for students and scholars of relativity includes a new preface by David Kaiser, reflecting on the history of the book's publication and reception, and a new introduction by Charles Misner and Kip Thorne, discussing exciting developments in the field since the book's original publication. * The book teaches students to:* Grasp the laws of physics in flat and curved spacetime* Predict orders of magnitude* Calculate using the principal tools of modern geometry* Understand Einstein's geometric framework for physics* Explore applications, including neutron stars, Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes, gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, cosmology, and so much more
With ninety per cent of visible matter in the universe existing in the plasma state, an understanding of magnetohydrodynamics is essential for anyone looking to understand solar and astrophysical processes, from stars to accretion discs and galaxies; as well as laboratory applications focused on harnessing controlled fusion energy. This introduction to magnetohydrodynamics brings together the theory of plasma behavior with advanced topics including the applications of plasma physics to thermonuclear fusion and plasma- astrophysics. Topics covered include streaming and toroidal plasmas, nonlinear dynamics, modern computational techniques, incompressible plasma turbulence and extreme transonic and relativistic plasma flows. The numerical techniques needed to apply magnetohydrodynamics are explained, allowing the reader to move from theory to application and exploit the latest algorithmic advances. Bringing together two previous volumes: Principles of Magnetohydrodynamics and Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, and completely updated with new examples, insights and applications, this volume constitutes a comprehensive reference for students and researchers interested in plasma physics, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion.
From the world-renowned physicist and bestselling author of The Elegant Universe and The Fabric of the Cosmos, a captivating exploration of deep time and humanity's search for purpose In both time and space, the cosmos is astoundingly vast, and yet is governed by simple, elegant, universal mathematical laws. On this cosmic timeline, our human era is spectacular but fleeting. Someday, we know, we will all die. And, we know, so too will the universe itself. Until the End of Time is Brian Greene's breathtaking new exploration of the cosmos and our quest to understand it. Greene takes us on a journey across time, from our most refined understanding of the universe's beginning, to the closest science can take us to the very end. He explores how life and mind emerged from the initial chaos, and how our minds, in coming to understand their own impermanence, seek in different ways to give meaning to experience: in story, myth, religion, creative expression, science, the quest for truth, and our longing for the timeless, or eternal. Through a series of nested stories that explain distinct but interwoven layers of reality-from the quantum mechanics to consciousness to black holes-Greene provides us with a clearer sense of how we came to be, a finer picture of where we are now, and a firmer understanding of where we are headed. Yet all this understanding, which arose with the emergence of life, will dissolve with its conclusion. Which leaves us with one realization: during our brief moment in the sun, we are tasked with the charge of finding our own meaning. Let us embark.
High time-resolution astrophysics (HTRA) involves measuring and studying astronomical phenomena on timescales of seconds to milliseconds. Although many areas of astronomy, such as X-ray astronomy and pulsar observations, have traditionally required high time-resolution studies, HTRA techniques are now being applied to optical, infrared and gamma-ray wavelength regimes, due to the development of high efficiency detectors and larger telescopes that can gather photons at a higher rate. With lectures from eminent scientists aimed at young researchers and postdoctorate students in observational astronomy and astrophysics, this volume gives a practical overview and introduction to the tools and techniques of HTRA. Just as multi-spectral observations of astrophysical phenomena are already yielding new scientific results, many astronomers are optimistic that exploring the time domain will open up an important new frontier in observational astronomy over the next decade.
This is a modern, introductory textbook on the dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean, with a healthy dose of geophysical fluid dynamics. It will be invaluable for intermediate to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology, oceanography, mathematics, and physics. It is unique in taking the reader from very basic concepts to the forefront of research. It also forms an excellent refresher for researchers in atmospheric science and oceanography. It differs from other books at this level in both style and content: as well as very basic material it includes some elementary introductions to more advanced topics. The advanced sections can easily be omitted for a more introductory course, as they are clearly marked in the text. Readers who wish to explore these topics in more detail can refer to this book's parent, Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation, now in its second edition.
A thorough explanation of the tenets of biomechanics
At once a basic and applied science, biomechanics focuses on the mechanical cause-effect relationships that determine the motions of living organisms. "Biomechanics for Dummies" examines the relationship between biological and mechanical worlds. It clarifies a vital topic for students of biomechanics who work in a variety of fields, including biological sciences, exercise and sports science, health sciences, ergonomics and human factors, and engineering and applied science. Following the path of a traditional introductory course, "Biomechanics for Dummies" covers the terminology and fundamentals of biomechanics, bone, joint, and muscle composition and function, motion analysis and control, kinematics and kinetics, fluid mechanics, stress and strain, applications of biomechanics, and black and white medical illustrations.Offers insights and expertise in biomechanics to provide an easy-to-follow, jargon-free guide to the subjectProvides students who major in kinesiology, neuroscience, biomedical engineering, mechanical engineering, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physical education, nutritional science, and many other subjects with a basic knowledge of biomechanics
Students and self-motivated learners interested in biological, applied, exercise, sports, and health sciences should not be without this accessible guide to the fundamentals.
This concise and accessible book provides a detailed introduction to the fundamental principles of atomic physics at an undergraduate level. Concepts are explained in an intuitive way and the book assumes only a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. With a compact format specifically designed for students, the first part of the book covers the key principles of the subject, including the quantum theory of the hydrogen atom, radiative transitions, the shell model of multi-electron atoms, spin-orbit coupling, and the effects of external fields. The second part provides an introduction to the four key applications of atomic physics: lasers, cold atoms, solid-state spectroscopy and astrophysics. This highly pedagogical text includes worked examples and end of chapter problems to allow students to test their knowledge, as well as numerous diagrams of key concepts, making it perfect for undergraduate students looking for a succinct primer on the concepts and applications of atomic physics.
Waves and flows are pervasive on and within Earth. This book presents a unified physical and mathematical approach to waves and flows in the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, volcanoes and the mantle, emphasizing the common physical principles and mathematical methods that apply to a variety of phenomena and disciplines. It is organized into seven parts: introductory material; kinematics, dynamics and rheology; waves in non-rotating fluids; waves in rotating fluids; non-rotating flows; rotating flows; and silicate flows. The chapters are supplemented by 47 'fundaments', containing knowledge that is fundamental to the material presented in the main text, organized into seven appendices: mathematics; dimensions and units; kinematics; dynamics; thermodynamics; waves; and flows. This book is an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers seeking an introduction to the mathematics of waves and flows in the Earth system, and will serve as a supplementary textbook for a number of courses in geophysical fluid dynamics.
In this introductory textbook, thermodynamics is presented as a natural extension of mechanics, so that the laws and concepts learned in mechanics serve to get acquainted with the theory. The foundations of thermodynamics are presented in the first part. The second part covers a wide range of applications, which are of central importance in the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering, including calorimetry, phase transitions, heat engines and chemical reactions. In the third part, devoted to continuous media, Fourier and Fick's laws, diffusion equations and many transport effects are derived using a unified approach. Each chapter concludes with a selection of worked examples and several exercises, to reinforce key concepts under discussion. A full solutions manual is available at the end of the book. It contains more than 150 problems based on contemporary issues faced by scientists and engineers that are solved in detail for undergraduate and graduate students.
Changes and additions to the new edition of this classic textbook include a new chapter on symmetries, new problems and examples, improved explanations, more numerical problems to be worked on a computer, new applications to solid state physics, and consolidated treatment of time-dependent potentials.
Integrating both scientific and philosophical perspectives, this book provides an informed analysis of the challenges of formulating a universal theory of life. Among the issues discussed are crucial differences between definitions and scientific theories and, in the context of examples from the history of science, how successful general theories develop. The central problem discussed is two-fold: first, our understanding of life is still tacitly wedded to an antiquated Aristotelian framework for biology; and second, there are compelling reasons for considering that familiar Earth life, which descends from a last universal common ancestor, is unrepresentative. What is needed are examples of life as we don't know it. Potential sources are evaluated, including artificial life, extraterrestrial life, and a shadow biosphere right here on Earth, and a novel strategy for searching for unfamiliar life in the absence of a definition or general theory is developed. The book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers studying the nature, origins, and extent of life in the universe.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
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