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The Mediterranean region contains a diverse and interesting
climate ranging from areas with permanent glaciers to areas of
subtropical, semiarid regions. The region is potentially sensitive
to climate change and its progress has environmental, social, and
economic implications within and beyond the region. Produced by the
Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability Research
Networking Project, this book reviews the evolution of the
Mediterranean climate over the past two millennia with projections
further into the twenty-first century as well as examining in
detail various aspects of the Mediterranean region s climate
including evolution, atmospheric variables, and oceanic and land
elements. Integrated with this, the book also considers the social
and economic problems or vulnerabilities associated with the
region. Written and reviewed by multiple researchers to ensure a
high level of information presented clearly, Mediterranean Climate
Variables will be an invaluable source of information for
geologists, oceanographers, and anyone interested in learning more
about the Mediterranean climate.
This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful. The key features include: presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porus media; contains a new chapter on the analogy between acoustic and electromagnetic waves, incorporating the subject of electromagnetic waves; and emphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil.
"The Geologic Time Scale 2012," winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy.
This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field.
The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access. Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility. Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events. Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content).
This volume summarizes the results of the MARGO international working group, with the aim to develop an updated and harmonised reconstruction of sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extent of the Last Glacial Maximum oceans. The MARGO approach differs from previous efforts by developing and consistently applying measures of various aspects of reconstruction reliability, and by combining faunal and geochemical proxies.
Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy provides an in-depth coverage and impartial assessment of all current ideas and models in the field of sequence stratigraphy. Even though widely popular among all groups interested in the analysis of sedimentary basin fills, both in academia and in the industry, sequence stratigraphy is yet a difficult undertaking due to an overwhelming jargon and the persistence of conflicting approaches as to how the sequence stratigraphic method should be applied to the rock record. This textbook examines the relationship between such conflicting approaches from the perspective of a unifying platform, demonstrating that sufficient common ground exists to eliminate terminology barriers and to facilitate communication between all practitioners of sequence stratigraphy.
Expert petroleum geologists David Roberts and Albert Bally bring
you "Regional Geology and Tectonics: Phanerozoic Rift Systems and
Sedimentary Basins," volume two in a three-volume series covering
Phanerozoic regional geology and tectonics. Experience in analyzing
and assessing rifts-locations where the Earth s outer shell and
crust have been stretched over time by seismic activity-is critical
for you as an exploration geologist in identifying Earth s most
lucrative hydrocarbon locations in which extraction is both
efficient and safe. Vast compilations of related industry data
present regional seismic lines and cross sections, and summaries of
analogue and theoretical models are provided as an essential
backdrop to the structure and stratigraphy of various geological
Volcanic seismology represents the main, and often the only, tool to forecast volcanic eruptions and to monitor the eruption process. This book describes the main types of seismic signals at volcanoes, their nature and spatial and temporal distributions at different stages of eruptive activity. Following from the success of the first edition, published in 2003, the second edition consists of 19 chapters including significant revision and five new chapters. Organized into four sections, the book begins with an introduction to the history and topic of volcanic seismology, discussing the theoretical and experimental models that were developed for the study of the origin of volcanic earthquakes. The second section is devoted to the study of volcano-tectonic earthquakes, giving the theoretical basis for their occurrence and swarms as well as case stories of volcano-tectonic activity associated with the eruptions at basaltic, andesitic, and dacitic volcanoes. There were 40 cases of volcanic eruptions at 20 volcanoes that occurred all over the world from 1910 to 2005, which are discussed. General regularities of volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms, their participation in the eruptive process, their source properties, and the hazard of strong volcano-tectonic earthquakes are also described. The third section describes the theoretical basis for the occurrence of eruption earthquakes together with the description of volcanic tremor, the seismic signals associated with pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and lahars, and volcanic explosions, long-period and very-long-period seismic signals at volcanoes, micro-earthquake swarms, and acoustic events. The final section discuss the mitigation of volcanic hazard and include the methodology of seismic monitoring of volcanic activity, the examples of forecasting of volcanic eruptions by seismic methods, and the description of seismic activity in the regions of dormant volcanoes.
This book will be essential for students and practitioners of
volcanic seismology to understand the essential elements of
Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphism (UHPM) is a fast growing discipline
that was established 25 years ago after discoveries of high
pressure minerals, coesite and diamonds. The current explosion of
research on UHMP terranes reflects their significance for
understanding large scale mantle dynamics, major elements of plate
tectonics such as continental collisions, deep subduction and
exhumation, mountains building, geochemical recycling 'from surface
to the core', and a deep storage of light elements participating in
green-house effects in the atmosphere. This book provides insights
into the formation of diamond and coesite at very high pressures
and explores new ideas regarding the tectonic setting of this style
The Physics of Glaciers, Fourth Edition, discusses the physical principles that underlie the behavior and characteristics of glaciers. The term glacier refers to all bodies of ice created by the accumulation of snowfall, e.g., mountain glaciers, ice caps, continental ice sheets, and ice shelves. Glaciology-the study of all forms of ice-is an interdisciplinary field encompassing physics, geology, atmospheric science, mathematics, and others. This book covers various aspects of glacier studies, including the transformation of snow to ice, grain-scale structures and ice deformation, mass exchange processes, glacial hydrology, glacier flow, and the impact of climate change. The present edition features two new chapters: "Ice Sheets and the Earth System" and "Ice, Sea Level, and Contemporary Climate Change." The chapter on ice core studies has been updated from the previous version with new material. The materials on the flow of mountain glaciers, ice sheets, ice streams, and ice shelves have been combined into a single chapter entitled "The Flow of Ice Masses."
Researchers in the field of exploration geophysics have developed new methods for the acquisition, processing and interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, based on detailed investigations of bore wells around the globe. "Fractal Models in Exploration Geophysics" describes fractal-based models for characterizing these complex subsurface geological structures.
The authors introduce the inverse problem using a fractal
approach which they then develop with the implementation of a
global optimization algorithm for seismic data: very fast simulated
annealing (VFSA). This approach provides high-resolution inverse
modeling results-particularly useful for reservoir
* Serves as a valuable resource for researchers studying the application of fractals in exploration, and for practitioners directly applying field data for geo-modeling * Discusses the basic principles and practical applications of time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring technology-application rapidly advancing topic * Provides the fundamentals for those interested in reservoir geophysics and reservoir simulation study * Demonstrates an example of reservoir simulation for enhanced oil recovery using CO2 injection
"Advanced Remote Sensing" is an application-based reference that
provides a single source of mathematical concepts necessary for
remote sensing data gathering and assimilation. It presents
state-of-the-art techniques for estimating land surface variables
from a variety of data types, including optical sensors such as
RADAR and LIDAR. Scientists in a number of different fields
including geography, geology, atmospheric science, environmental
science, planetary science and ecology will have access to
critically-important data extraction techniques and their virtually
unlimited applications. While rigorous enough for the most
experienced of scientists, the techniques are well designed and
integrated, making the book s content intuitive, clearly presented,
and practical in its implementation.
* Comprehensive overview of various practical methods and algorithms * Detailed description of the principles and procedures of the state-of-the-art algorithms * Real-world case studies open several chapters * More than 500 full-color figures and tables * Edited by top remote sensing experts with contributions from authors across the geosciences"
Currently, the acquisition of seismic surveys is performed as a
sequential operation in which shots are computed separately, one
after the other. The concept of the multishooting approach
illustrates that several shots can be generated from several
locations and at different time intervals simultaneously. This
approach is similar to that of multiple-access technology, which is
widely used in cellular communications to allow several subscribers
to share the same telephone line.
Treatise on Geophysics: Mineral Physics, Volume 2, provides a comprehensive review of the current state of understanding of mineral physics. Each chapter demonstrates the significant progress that has been made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of minerals, and also highlights a number of issues which are still outstanding or that need further work to resolve current contradictions. The book first reviews the current status of our understanding of the nature of the deep Earth. These include the seismic properties of rocks and minerals; problems of the lower mantle and the core-mantle boundary; and the state of knowledge on mantle chemistry and the nature and evolution of the core. The discussions then turn to the theory underlying high-pressure, high-temperature physics, and the major experimental methods being developed to probe this parameter space. The remaining chapters explain the specific techniques for measuring elastic and acoustic properties, electronic and magnetic properties, and rheological properties; the nature and origin of anisotropy in the Earth; the properties of melt; and the magnetic and electrical properties of mantle phases.
Magnetic methods are widely used in exploration, engineering,
borehole and global geophysics, and the subjects of this book are
the physical and mathematical principles of these methods
regardless of the area of application.
Adsorption of Metals by Geomedia II serves as a needed resource for
this topic which has received much attention during the past 25
years. The book provides an in-depth review of the field, followed
by numerous chapters that document the current status of adsorption
research for a variety of metals by geomedia ranging from
individual minerals to sediments and soils. Adsorption mechanisms
are detailed and precipitation is presented as a distinct sorption
process. Virtually all factors affecting the extent of metal
adsorption are examined, including the effects of selected anions,
competition among metals, pH, metal concentration, loading,
variable metal adsorption capacity, ionic strength, hydrogen
exchange and stoichiometry, and solids concentration. A variety of
adsorption models are briefly presented and some are used to extend
laboratory studies to field sites.
This self-contained monograph gives a thorough introduction to the
theory of gravity which is used as the basis for developing
applications in exploration and geodesy. In addition, a survey of
gravity instrumentation is given, with emphasis on the theory of
underlying these instruments. The book finishes with an exposition
of forward modeling and inverston, again emphasizing fundamental
The contents of this monograph are two-scope. First, it intends to
provide a synthetic but complete account of the thermodynamic and
kinetic foundations on which the reaction path modeling of
geological CO2 sequestration is based. In particular, a great
effort is devoted to review the thermodynamic properties of CO2 and
of the CO2-H2O system and the interactions in the aqueous solution,
the thermodynamic stability of solid product phases (by means of
several stability plots and activity plots), the volumes of
carbonation reactions, and especially the kinetics of
dissolution/precipitation reactions of silicates, oxides,
hydroxides, and carbonates.
The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence.
Acoustic logging is a multidisciplinary technology involving basic theory, instrumentation, and data processing/interpretation methodologies. The advancement of the technology now allows for a broad range of measurements to obtain formation properties such as elastic wave velocity and attenuation, formation permeability, and seismic anisotropy that are important for petroleum reservoir exploration. With these advances, it is easier to detect and characterize formation fractures, estimate formation stress field, and locate/estimate petroleum reserves. The technology has evolved from the monopole acoustic logging into the multipole, including dipole, cross-dipole, and even quadrupole, acoustic logging measurements. The measurement process has developed from the conventional wireline logging into the logging-while-drilling stage.
"Geosciences, Environment and Man" has three major objectives, which determine the division in three parts of this volume: I. To consider the main natural geological processes interfering with and therefore threatening the activities of man: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, land movements, floods, wind and coastal risks; main prevention and mitigation measures against these natural hazards are presented. II. To examine the exploitation of earth's natural resources such as materials, ores and minerals, fossil fuels, water, radioactivity, and the resulting consequences on solid Earth balance and future. III. To assess the hold level reached by the activities of man on planet surface envelopes through agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and communication; the local to global effects of human influence triggered by recent demographic growth on underground, soils, water and air characters are taken into account. Both deteriorating and beneficial aspects of Earth - the interactions of man are emphasized, as well as mitigation or restoration measures and perspectives.
Written by one of Korea's most respected earth scientists, "Geology and Sedimentology of the Korean Peninsula" analyzes sedimentary facies, basin evolution, and sequence stratigraphy to provide answers to depositional processes and environmental changes through the Earth's history, including tectonic events, climate changes, and sea-level fluctuations. This is one of the first books covering the geology of the Korean peninsula. It offers an in-depth exploration of this region, which also allows comparison with sedimentary basins around the world. This is an important book for students, researchers, and professionals working in the geography of East Asia.
The study of sedimentary basins can help advance basic
understanding of how the Earth's crust developed, as well as offer
insights into the influence of environmental and climate change.
Sedimentary basins are also of interest due to their importance in
the exploration and recovery of natural resources, including oil
and gas, water, and industrial minerals.
Pulp and paper production has increased globally and will continue
to increase in the near future. Approximately 155 million tons of
wood pulp is produced worldwide and about 260 million is projected
for 2010. To cope with the increasing demand, an increase in
production and improved environmental performance is needed as the
industry is under constant pressure to reduce environmental
emissions to air and water. This book gives updated information on
environmentally benign approaches for pulp bleaching, which can
help solve the problems associated with conventional bleaching
The author argues that, after four decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction.
Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high
energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary
"Landscape Evolution in the United States "is an accessible text that balances interdisciplinary theory and application within the physical geography, geology, geomorphology, and climatology of the United States. Landscape evolution refers to the changing terrain of any given area of the Earth's crust over time. Common causes of evolution (or geomorphology-land morphing into a different size or shape over time) are glacial erosion and deposition, volcanism, earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, sediment transport into rivers, landslides, climate change, and other surface processes. The book is divided into three main parts covering landscape components and how they are affected by climactic, tectonic and ocean systems; varying structural provinces including the Cascadia Volcanic Arc and California Transpressional System; and the formation and collapse of mountain systems.
The vast diversity of terrain and landscapes across the United
States makes this an ideal tool for geoscientists worldwide who are
researching the country s geological evolution over the past
several billion years.
Treaties on Geophysics: Core Dynamics, Volume 8, provides a comprehensive review of the current state of understanding of core dynamics. The book begins by analyzing a subject of long-standing and on-going controversy: the gross energetics of the core. It then explains the important elements of dynamo theory; actual fluid motions in the core; the basic physical principles involved in thermochemical convection in the core and the basic equations governing the convection; and turbulence and the small-scale dynamics of the core. This is followed by discussions of the state of knowledge on rotation-induced core flows; the use of first-principles numerical models of self-sustaining fluid dynamos; and the behavior of polarity reversals in numerical dynamo models. The remaining chapters cover the various roles the inner core plays in core dynamics and the geodynamo; experiments that have shaped knowledge about the flows in the core that produce the geodynamo and govern its evolution; and ways the mantle can affect core dynamics, and corresponding ways the core can affect the mantle.
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