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This book provides an overdue critical re-engagement with the analytical approach exemplified by the work of Harold Wolpe, who was a key theorist within the liberation movement. It probes the following broad questions: how do we understand the trajectory of the post-apartheid period, how did the current situation come about
in the transformation, how does the current situation relate to how a post-apartheid society was conceived in anticipation, and what are the implications of what have been failed ambitions for progressives?
Solidarity Road tells the story of Jan Theron’s involvement in the Food and Canning Workers Union (FCWU) during apartheid South Africa. Part memoir, part history this fascinating tale will reveal what working conditions were like in the 1970’s. It outlines the very beginnings of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU).
Theron states, ‘Solidarity in a trade union does not simply mean standing by your members, or by organised workers. It means solidarity with your class. At the time, in 1976, the working class was fragmented. Working for a trade union was part of a project to unite a fragmented class, and to give it a voice. This was the historical project to which a number of people from a certain intellectual background were drawn. This would be our contribution to the struggle: what we did to end apartheid. It was a struggle for democracy, but democracy did not just mean everyone getting to vote every so often in national elections. People also had to eat.
The most obvious way in which the working class was then fragmented was in terms of race. The Union put its commitment to solidarity into practice by uniting workers of different races in factories manufacturing food. To do so it had to overcome divisions among workers created by the ways in which government had structured employment, in terms of the law, which the bosses were able to exploit. Nowadays ‘bosses’ seems like a dated term, yet this is the term workers used to refer to the people for whom they actually worked. It is also no less important today than it was then to differentiate between those who control the factories and mines and those who operate at their behest.
Although South Africa’s informal sector is small compared to other developing countries, it nevertheless provides livelihoods, employment and income for millions of workers and business owners. Almost half of informal-sector workers work in firms with employees. The annual entry of new enterprises is quite high, as is the number of informal enterprises that grow their employment. There is no shortage of entrepreneurship and desire to grow.
However, obstacles and constraints cause hardship and failure, pointing to the need for well-designed policies to enable and support the sector, rather than suppress it. The same goes for formalisation. Recognising the informal sector as an integral part of the economy, rather than ignoring it, is a crucial first step towards instituting a ‘smart’ policy approach.
The South African Informal Sector is strongly evidence- and data-driven, with substantial quantitative contributions combined with qualitative findings – suitable for an era of increased pressure for evidence-based policy-making – and utilises several disciplinary perspectives.
If you have an interest in law and politics, South Africa’s political economy and the processes of policy-making in a parliamentary context, this is an essential read.
The advancement of black South Africans in ownership and management in the private sector is growing steadily. This growth is aided by government scorecard that penalise corporations that fail to include black people in senior positions and management. Some claim that this process will lead to a more fair, less racially biased economy. But will this transform the basic structure of the economy to benefit the people as a whole? Changing The Colour Of Capital unpacks the fundamental character of the South African economy and examines the relationship between the political system and the economy.
Contributors include Trevor Manuel, Rob Davies, Jeremy Cronin, Ben Turok, Philisiwe Buthelezi, Adekeye Adebajo, Enver Daniels, Cassius Lubisi and Richard Levin.
During the Zimbabwean crisis, millions crossed through the apartheidera border fence, searching for ways to make ends meet. Maxim Bolt explores the lives of Zimbabwean migrant labourers, of settled black farm workers and their dependants, and of white farmers and managers, as they intersect on the border between Zimbabwe and South Africa. Focusing on one farm, this book investigates the role of a hub of wage labour in a place of crisis. A close ethnographic study, it addresses the complex, shifting labour and life conditions in northern South Africa's agricultural borderlands. Underlying these challenges are the Zimbabwean political and economic crisis of the 2000s and the intensifi ed pressures on commercial agriculture in South Africa following market liberalization and post-apartheid land reform. But, amidst uncertainty, farmers and farm workers strive for stability. The farms on South Africa's margins are centers of gravity, islands of residential labour in a sea of informal arrangements.
Human Resource Management in Government: A South African Perspective On Theories, Politics And Processes explores the many facets of the employment relationship within government institutions.
These activities include strategic employment processes, such as talent management, trade union interactions, compensation, human resource governance (metrics) and the future of human resource management.
South Africa's pioneer and foremost thinker and voice on Black Economic Advancement, Phinda Mzwakhe Madi, is back with a bang. His first book, Affirmative Action in Corporate South Africa, triggered the first wave of Affirmative Action programmes in the country. His follow up book, Black Economic Empowerment in the New South Africa, led to the formation of the BEE Commission and eventually the creation of the country's policy and codes of good practice. Now his third book in the trilogy, BEE 20 years later - The Baby and the Bathwater, evaluates progress so far and startles with its fresh perspective on the way forward.
Twenty years after the introduction of BEE, Madi’s view is that the time for follow-up and reflection has come. Clear trends and lessons can now be discerned and learned from. He contends that there is an unfortunate narrative that is gaining currency in South Africa generally and the corporate world in particular, as well as numerous sections of civil society, that BEE has been nothing but a smoke and mirrors initiative towards oligarchy, hence his chosen title: BEE 20 years later - The Baby and The Bathwater.
He believes that, having been the first black author to have written on this subject, he has a unique view of the evolution of the process. As a black entrepreneur himself and a director of various top listed companies with a total combined turnover of more than R90bn, he not only has a conceptual and academic understanding of the subject matter, but also has an insider’s view and experience.
As the title suggests, there is now a tendency to want to ‘throw the baby out with the bathwater’. His book argues that we need to make a very clear distinction between the bouncing baby and the (at times) dirty bathwater. The book analyses both the bouncing baby and the unfortunate dirt and grime that covers the bathwater. It makes a very frank, clinical and yet balanced argument on how this distinction needs to be made, as well as why and how we should all ensure that the baby both survives and thrives going forward, whilst getting rid of the ugly side of BEE - the dirty bathwater. But more importantly, he examines how to restore the credibility of this process so that it truly and genuinely moves away from just being seen as the enrichment of the few and lives true to its promise: the economic empowerment of the many.
Featuring conversations with prominent Entrepreneurs, Business People and Thought Leaders: Herman Mashaba; Peter Vundla; Richard Maponya; Gaby Magomola; Thami Mazwai; Leon Louw; Joe Hlongwane; Vusi Thembekwayo; Sandile Zungu; Koko Khumalo; Mandla Malinga; Themba Dlamini; Lawrence Mavundla; Khanyi Kweyama.
The overwhelming challenge that South Africa faces, and has to date failed to address, is unemployment, which falls especially on African youths who were promised a better future after 1994. If the unemployment challenge is not addressed, it will be impossible to sustainably lift many millions of people out of poverty.
How South Africa Works reviews the country’s major economic achievements over the past two decades. Through numerous interviews with politicians, business leaders and analysts, it examines the challenges and opportunities across key productive sectors – including agriculture, manufacturing, services and mining – illustrative of the policy challenges that leaders face. It scrutinises the social grant and education systems to understand if South Africa has established mechanisms for people not only to escape destitution but be ready to be employed, and identifies steps that some of South Africa’s most notable entrepreneurs have taken to build world-class enterprises.
Recognising the essential challenge to cultivate more employers to employ people, How South Africa Works concludes by offering an agenda and active steps for greater competitiveness for government, business and labour.
Labour Relations in Practice deals with the core labour and employment relations matters regularly encountered by Labour Relations and Human Resources officers, managers, union representatives, bargaining council functionaries and people in advisory services.
Now in its third edition, it contains actual cases heard by the CCMA and Labour Court; legislation updated to the end of 2018; skills development and the new emphasis on trades and occupations.
The topics covered include:
Work: love it or hate it, it's an all-consuming part of our society, it's changing fast, and the impact on our working lives will be extraordinary. We are now facing a revolution in the way we work. Low carbon economies, new technology and globalisation are fundamentally transforming much of what we take for granted. Middle managers are disappearing. The working week is collapsing. And now more than ever, our careers are governed by global forces. Why will things change so quickly? What will these changes look like? Who will benefit and who will suffer? How do we navigate our career through these times? In `The Shift', Professor at London Business School Lynda Gratton takes a look ground-breaking look at the five forces that will fundamentally change the way we work in the next ten to fifteen years. Having collaborated with companies around the world for the past three years, she has drawn up a guidebook for the future of work, instructing you how to harness specialisation, connections, enthusiasm and make the three key shifts essential for survival.
Labour Relations: A southern African perspective is the seventh edition of a text first published in 1989 under the title Labour Relations in South Africa. At that time, it was the first comprehensive textbook of its kind and was hailed as having reached the finishing line when others were still at the starting block.
Since then continuous social, political and legislative developments, and the ever-changing labour relations scenario, have necessitated regular updates, as well as the more recent change to its title.
Like its predecessors, this edition uses the labour ‘relationship’ as its starting point, guiding readers through the establishment of labour relations systems, the key participants and interactions involved and the legislation governing these interactions. It does this by using detailed practical examples, explanations and real-life cases where applicable.
In various parts of this latest edition, the text touches on the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the nature of changes to come and the implications for the world of work.
The 4th edition of CCMA: A Commentary on the Rules updates the CCMA Rules and Guidelines, which were amended with effect from 1 April 2015. A body of Labour Court jurisprudence is finally emerging on the interpretation of the CCMA rules, which has required some of the amendments. Others arise from recent amendments to the Labour Relations Act, and the rest are aimed at greater efficiency.The upcoming edition sees this work becoming more of a legal text for practitioners, with reference to legal precedents. At the same time it sticks to its original intent, to be a handbook for the person in the street who wants to use the CCMA. Originally published in 2001, CCMA: A Commentary on the Rules was updated and revised in 2005 and 2012 as CCMA Rules and Guidelines were amended. This is the fourth edition of the title. This title is published in a handy pocket-size to have it on hand for quick reference and for easy use in CCMA hearings.
The hope and despair surrounding the Afro-Arab spring in North African countries have only just begun to be played out in regional and global politics. Similarly, the call for an African renaissance that followed what has been called a `miraculous' negotiated political transition in South Africa is, 20 years later, viewed with ambiguity. It is clear that current developments in Africa - North and South - promise something markedly different to what has prevailed at any point since the dawn of the African independence movements in the 1950s. This inspires the suggestion that these developments are reminiscent of the `European moment' in 1989 that saw the fall of the Berlin Wall. Countries such as Mali, the Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Somalia and Zimbabwe are experiencing turbulence every bit as challenging as that in the Afro-Arab countries and South Africa. This book specifically identifies and assesses lessons learned and insights gained from the South African transition and considers whether these lessons and insights have any significance for Arab Spring countries. In turn, current protests and emerging threats to democracy in the Arab spring countries are highlighted as realities which South Africa would do well to ponder.
The challenge of including youth in the labour market is a problem which many European countries are facing. Examining the transition from education to employment, Youth, Diversity and Employment combines insights from law and the social sciences to link the challenges and specific barriers facing young and vulnerable people today. Based on original research, this book presents ways in which social protection policies in Europe can utilise the synergy between redistribution and regulations to combat economic inactivity and exclusion of young people. Drawing on the experiences of Nordic countries, which represent cases of high theoretical and political relevance, and systematically examining the significance of social regulation on the employment opportunities for young adults, this book develops an original approach to social protection policies. This book focuses on ways to strengthen the demand for the work capacity of European youth, identifying principles which will make the best progress in policy making to assist youth transitions into work. Arguing that gender, ethnicity, and disability are increasingly important factors to consider, chapters reveal how to ensure that the full use of skills that young adults have can be brought to the workforce effectively. This book will be a valuable tool for students and scholars of social policy, sociology, employment and human rights law, and cultural studies, as well as for researchers, who will find the analytical framework and new data useful for future research into youth transitions, policy, and social protection policies.
Even in the midst of runaway economic inequality and dangerous social division, it remains an axiom of modern life that meritocracy reigns supreme and promises to open opportunity to all. The idea that reward should follow ability and effort is so entrenched in our psyche that, even as society divides itself at almost every turn, all sides can be heard repeating meritocratic notions. Meritocracy cuts to the heart of who we think we are. But what if, both up and down the social ladder, meritocracy is a sham? Today, meritocracy has become exactly what it was conceived to resist: a mechanism for the concentration and dynastic transmission of wealth and privilege across generations. Upward mobility has become a fantasy, and the embattled middle classes are now more likely to sink into the working poor than to rise into the professional elite. At the same time, meritocracy now ensnares even those who manage to claw their way to the top, requiring rich adults to work with crushing intensity, exploiting their expensive educations in order to extract a return. All this is not the result of deviations or retreats from meritocracy but rather stems directly from meritocracy's successes. This is the radical argument that The Meritocracy Trap prosecutes with rare force, comprehensive research, and devastating persuasion. Daniel Markovits, a law professor trained in philosophy and economics, is better placed than most to puncture one of the dominant ideas of our age. Having spent his life at elite universities, he knows from the inside the corrosive system we are trapped within, as well as how we can take the first steps towards a world that might afford us both prosperity and dignity.
The book provides a thorough but concise exposure to macroeconomics to post school students as well as those studying economics for the first time. Following an introduction that gives an overview of macroeconomics as well as a brief discussion of the main macroeconomic problems that societies face, the book then looks at national income accounting and economic performance. The book looks at the unemployment problem. There is also a discussion of aggregate supply and demand theory, and the role of that theory in explaining the determinants of aggregate economic output and employment. The problem of inflation and is also discussed. The reality that the economies of most countries are interconnected with that of the rest of the world is discussed under open-economy. The book then discusses economic growth in both the short-run and the long run.
Guardian's Best Non-Fiction, 2019 The Tablet's Highlights of 2019 Personality tests. Team-building exercises. Forced Fun. Desktop surveillance. Open-plan offices. Acronyms. Diminishing job security. Hot desking. Pointless perks. Hackathons. If any of the above sound familiar, welcome to the modern economy. In this hilarious, but deadly serious book, bestselling author Dan Lyons looks at how the world of work has slowly morphed from one of unions and steady career progression to a dystopia made of bean bags and unpaid internships. And that's the 'good' jobs... With the same wit that made Disrupted an international bestseller, Lyons shows how the hypocrisy of Silicon Valley has now been exported globally to a job near you. Even low-grade employees are now expected to view their jobs with a cult-like fervour, despite diminishing prospects of promotion. From the gig economy to the new digital oligarchs, Lyons deliciously roasts the new work climate, while asking what can be done to recoup some sanity and dignity for the expanding class of middle-class serfs.
Sociopolitical occurrences in recent years have, if anything,
brought to the fore the close relationship between developments in
the labour market and progress on the socio-econo-political
terrain. The ideological divides in South Africa are especially
apparent in the labour market, and these compound the basic
conflict between the objectives of protecting basic worker rights
on the one hand, and increasing economic growth on the other. The
South African labour market contains an abundance of information
about labour markets in general and the South African labour market
This book offers a critical reflection on the operation and effects of labour regulation. It articulates the broad goals and extensive potential for it to contribute to inclusive development, while also considering the limits of some areas of regulation and governance. Drawing on both field studies and innovative theoretical perspectives, the contributors reveal an emerging consensus that labour regulation is neither negative nor positive for economic and social outcomes. By comparing the concerns and methodologies of various disciplines, they argue that balanced regulation is essential. Following analysis of how the global financial crisis has increased labour market segmentation, the book addresses the needs of key groups often at the periphery, including young women, workers in the informal economy, migrants and home-care workers. The book argues that effective and efficient labour market regulation can contribute to achieving key policy goals of the formalization of employment and inclusive labour markets, while also pursuing equitable distribution. An important comparative work, academics and students - particularly those studying law, economics, political science, international relations and development studies - will find this book to be of exceptional value. Practitioners and policy-makers from both developed and developing countries will also benefit from the wide range of perspectives.
A candid assessment of why the job market is not as healthy as we think Don't trust low unemployment numbers as proof that the labor market is doing fine "it isn't. Not Working is about those who can (TM)t find full-time work at a decent wage "the underemployed "and how their plight is contributing to widespread despair, a worsening drug epidemic, and the unchecked rise of right-wing populism. In this revelatory and outspoken book, David Blanchflower draws on his acclaimed work in the economics of labor and well-being to explain why today's postrecession economy is vastly different from what came before. He calls out our leaders and policymakers for failing to see the Great Recession coming, and for their continued failure to address one of the most unacknowledged social catastrophes of our time. Blanchflower shows how many workers are underemployed or have simply given up trying to find a well-paying job, how wage growth has not returned to prerecession levels despite rosy employment indicators, and how general prosperity has not returned since the crash of 2008. Standard economic measures are often blind to these forgotten workers, which is why Blanchflower practices the "economics of walking about" "seeing for himself how ordinary people are faring under the recovery, and taking seriously what they say and do. Not Working is his candid report on how the young and the less skilled are among the worst casualties of underemployment, how immigrants are taking the blame, and how the epidemic of unhappiness and self-destruction will continue to spread unless we deal with it.
China has grown rapidly since the reform initiation of the 1970s. China's Economic Growth Prospects narrates the contribution of demographic transition to recent economic growth in China, and provides suggestions for ways in which it can sustain growth over the next few decades. The expert author provides reasons for the economic slowdown since the second decade of the twenty-first century; explores the challenges facing China's long-term sustainability of growth with the disappearance of demographic dividend; and proposes policy suggestions. He concludes that, in order to avoid the middle-income trap, economic growth in China must transform from an inputs-driven pattern, to a productivity-driven pattern. Academics, researchers and students of economics and business, particularly those specialising in China, will find this book to be a useful resource. Investment bankers, journalists, politicians and policy makers will find the discussions of past experience and the future potential of the Chinese economy to be of interest.
This book brings together two leading researchers in the field to provide a comprehensive overview of the shadow economy from a global perspective. Reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different ways of measuring the informal sector, the authors evaluate its size and key determinants across the world. Williams and Schneider clearly establish the persistence and prevalence of the shadow economy, analysing the narrowness of existing policy approaches and explaining how these fail to address the key factors for its existence and may even exacerbate the problem. Proposing an alternative way forward, the authors argue that little headway will ever be made in reducing the shadow economy until there are changes not only to the character of formal institutions but also informal institutions (the values, beliefs and norms of citizens) through the introduction of macro-level structural changes. This timely, cutting-edge review of the global shadow economy and how it can be measured and tackled is an invaluable resource for postgraduate students, researchers and policy-makers, particularly those with a interest in tax evasion and informal labour.
Employment relations, traditionally known as industrial or labour
relations, forms an integral part of the activities of labour,
employers and the government in business. It centres on balancing,
integrating and reconciling the partly common and partly divergent
interests of these parties. South African employment relations has
reached the milestone of having been available for more than a
quarter of a century and is the longest running book in this field
in South Africa.
Highly valued by its citizens, the European social model is a defining feature of Europe and the European Union yet is under threat from the effects of both globalisation and the aftermath of the financial crisis. The Sustainability of the European Social Model addresses this issue in light of the current crisis that changed the landscape. It examines how social Europe responds to uncertainties that affect its development from a range of different disciplinary perspectives. The book begins by analysing interactions between EU law and national policies from a comparative perspective, highlighting the legal, social and institutional complexities that constrain the development of `social Europe' It assesses the sustainablibity of EU law and policies in the areas of pensions and employment policy and then focuses on two crucial areas of EU social policy: the regulations on working time and the provisions of social services of general interest. The expert contributors compare the experiences of a range of Member States (and also bring in external comparison) to explore topics such as ageing, job quality, social protection and employment policies, social dialogue and the relationship between the various methods of European policymaking such as the 'community method' and the Open Method of Co-ordination. The analyses show that sustainability of the European social model will depend heavily on addressing failings in European governance. Insightful and comprehensive, this book is a detailed and timely resource for academic researchers. Its practical, policy-oriented insights into important issues in social and employment policy, as well as into European policymaking itself, will also be of great interest to practitioners and policymakers.
Spectacular and terrifyingly true' - Owen Jones
'Thought-provoking and funny' - The Times
Be honest: if your job didn't exist, would anybody miss it? Have you ever wondered why not? Up to 40% of us secretly believe our jobs probably aren't necessary. In other words: they are bullshit jobs. This book shows why, and what we can do about it.
In the early twentieth century, people prophesied that technology would see us all working fifteen-hour weeks and driving flying cars. Instead, something curious happened. Not only have the flying cars not materialised, but average working hours have increased rather than decreased. And now, across the developed world, three-quarters of all jobs are in services, finance or admin: jobs that don't seem to contribute anything to society. In Bullshit Jobs, David Graeber explores how this phenomenon - one more associated with the Soviet Union, but which capitalism was supposed to eliminate - has happened. In doing so, he looks at how, rather than producing anything, work has become an end in itself; the way such work maintains the current broken system of finance capital; and, finally, how we can get out of it.
This book is for anyone whose heart has sunk at the sight of a whiteboard, who believes 'workshops' should only be for making things, or who just suspects that there might be a better way to run our world.
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