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The definitive, dramatic untold story of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, based on original reporting and new archival research.
Early in the morning of April 26, 1986, Reactor Number Four of the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exploded, triggering history’s worst nuclear disaster. In the thirty years since then, Chernobyl has become lodged in the collective nightmares of the world: shorthand for the spectral horrors of radiation poisoning, for a dangerous technology slipping its leash, for ecological fragility, and for what can happen when a dishonest and careless state endangers not only its own citizens, but all of humanity. But the real story of the accident, clouded from the beginning by secrecy, propaganda, and misinformation, has long remained in dispute.
Drawing on hundreds of hours of interviews conducted over the course of more than ten years, as well as letters, unpublished memoirs, and documents from recently-declassified archives, Adam Higginbotham has written a harrowing and compelling narrative which brings the disaster to life through the eyes of the men and women who witnessed it firsthand. The result is a masterful non-fiction thriller, and the definitive account of an event that changed history: a story that is more complex, more human, and more terrifying than the Soviet myth.
Midnight In Chernobyl is an indelible portrait of one of the great disasters of the twentieth century, of human resilience and ingenuity, and the lessons learned when mankind seeks to bend the natural world to his will--lessons which, in the face of climate change and other threats—remain not just vital but necessary.
THE NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER 'Superb, enthralling and necessarily terrifying... every step feels spring-loaded with tension... extraordinary.' The New York Times Early in the morning of April 26, 1986, Reactor Number Four of the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exploded, triggering history's worst nuclear disaster. In the thirty years since then, Chernobyl has become lodged in the collective nightmares of the world: shorthand for the spectral horrors of radiation poisoning, for a dangerous technology slipping its leash, for ecological fragility, and for what can happen when a dishonest and careless state endangers not only its own citizens, but all of humanity. But the real story of the accident, clouded from the beginning by secrecy, propaganda, and misinformation, has long remained in dispute. Drawing on hundreds of hours of interviews conducted over the course of more than ten years, as well as letters, unpublished memoirs, and documents from recently-declassified archives, Adam Higginbotham has written a harrowing and compelling narrative which brings the disaster to life through the eyes of the men and women who witnessed it firsthand. The result is a masterful non-fiction thriller, and the definitive account of an event that changed history: a story that is more complex, more human, and more terrifying than the Soviet myth. Midnight In Chernobyl is an indelible portrait of one of the great disasters of the twentieth century, of human resilience and ingenuity, and the lessons learned when mankind seeks to bend the natural world to his will--lessons which, in the face of climate change and other threats-remain not just vital but necessary.
Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the World are available as a set or individually. Also accessible (as a set and separate volumes) as an eReference on SpringerLink.com. The originally planned fourth volume with Australia, Oceania, and Africa will not be published after the author suddenly deceased.
The 2011 nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the northern hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.
This book provides a concise and up-to-date summary of the essential thermo-hydraulic analyses and design principles of nuclear reactors for electricity generation. Beginning with the basic nuclear physics, it leads through technical and quantitative analyses to descriptions of both the normal operation of the various modern nuclear reactor designs and the analyses of the possible departures from normal operation. It then describes both the postulated accident scenarios and summaries of the causes for the three major nuclear power generation accidents, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima, as well as the major improvements to reactor safety that grew out of those analyses and accidents.
Covering both fundamental and advanced aspects in an accessible way, this textbook begins with an overview of nuclear reactor systems, helping readers to familiarize themselves with the varied designs. Then the readers are introduced to different possibilities for materials applications in the various sections of nuclear energy systems. Materials selection and life prediction methodologies for nuclear reactors are also presented in relation to creep, corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. An appendix compiles useful property data relevant for nuclear reactor applications.
Throughout the book, there is a thorough coverage of various materials science principles, such as physical and mechanical metallurgy, defects and diffusion and radiation effects on materials, with serious efforts made to establish structure-property correlations wherever possible. With its emphasis on the latest developments and outstanding problems in the field, this is both a valuable introduction and a ready reference for beginners and experienced practitioners alike.
Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply. Building structures required for nuclear plants whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overview from approval aspects given by nuclear and construction law, with special attention to the interface between plant and construction engineering, to a building structure classification. All life cycle phases are considered, with the primary focus on execution. Accidental actions on structures, the safety concept and design and fastening systems are exposed to a particular treatment. Selected chapters from the German concrete yearbook are now being published in the new English "Beton-Kalender Series" for the benefit of an international audience. Since it was founded in 1906, the Ernst & Sohn "Beton-Kalender" has been supporting developments in reinforced and prestressed concrete. The aim was to publish a yearbook to reflect progress in "ferro-concrete" structures until - as the book's first editor, Fritz von Emperger (1862-1942), expressed it - the "tempestuous development" in this form of construction came to an end. However, the "Beton-Kalender" quickly became the chosen work of reference for civil and structural engineers, and apart from the years 1945-1950 has been published annually ever since.
Nuclear power is not an option for the future but an absolute necessity. Global threats of climate change and lethal air pollution, killing millions each year, make it clear that nuclear and renewable energy must work together, as non-carbon sources of energy. Fortunately, a new era of growth in this energy source is underway in developing nations, though not yet in the West. Seeing the Light is the first book to clarify these realities and discuss their implications for coming decades. Readers will learn how, why, and where the new nuclear era is happening, what new technologies are involved, and what this means for preventing the proliferation of weapons. This book is the best work available for becoming fully informed about this key subject, for students, the general public, and anyone interested in the future of energy production, and, thus, the future of humanity on planet Earth.
Trained as a physician, and--after four decades of antinuclear activism--thoroughly versed in the science of nuclear energy, the bestselling author of "Nuclear Madness" turns her attention from nuclear bombs to nuclear lightbulbs. As she makes meticulously clear in this work, the world cannot withstand either.
This book fills the need for a coherent work combining carefully
reviewed articles into a comprehensive overview accessible to
research groups and lecturers. Next to fundamental physics,
contributions on topical medical and material science issues are
High Temperature Gas Dynamics is a primer for scientists, engineers, and students who would like to have a basic understanding of the physics and the behavior of high-temperature gases. It is a valuable tool for astrophysicists as well. The first chapters treat the basic principles of quantum and statistical mechanics and how to derive thermophysical properties from them. Special topics are included that are rarely found in other textbooks, such as the thermophysical and transport properties of multi-temperature gases and a novel method to compute radiative transfer. Furthermore, collision processes between different particles are discussed. Separate chapters deal with the production of high-temperature gases and with electrical emission in plasmas, as well as related diagnostic techniques. This new edition adds over 100 pages and includes the following updates: several sections on radiative properties of high temperature gases and various radiation models, a section on shocks in magneto-gas-dynamics, a section on stability of 2D ionized gas flow, and additional practical examples, such as MGD generators, Hall and ion thrusters, and Faraday generators.
This graduate-level text is intended for any student of physics who requires grounding in the quantum theory of nonrelativistic scattering. The time-dependent approach is emphasized, including the use of time-dependent formalism to define all basic concepts and time-independent theory as a tool for computation. 1983 edition.
Intended primarily for undergraduate chemical-engineering students, this book also includes material which bridges the gap between undergraduate and graduate requirements. The introduction contains a listing of the principal types of reactors employed in the chemical industry, with diagrams and examples of their use. There is then a brief exploration of the concepts employed in later sections for modelling and sizing reactors, followed by basic information on stoichiometry and thermodynamics, and the kinetics of homogeneous and catalyzed reactions. Subsequent chapters are devoted to reactor sizing and modelling in some simple situations, and more detailed coverage of the design and operation of the principal reactor types.
This text/reference provides an excellent introduction to fundamental topics in radiation protection, including energetics, kinetics, interaction, external radiation protection, dosimetry, standards, and measurement. Chapters on radioactive waste and radon, topics not normally covered in introductory texts, have been incorporated as well. An extensive glossary of terms, abbreviations, acronyms, physical constants, units, and unit conversions provides a ready source of frequently needed information. Several appendices contain specifications and vendors for commercially available portable radiation survey instruments, personal dosimeters, and radon/radon progeny monitors.
The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear incidents emphasized the need for the world-wide nuclear community to cooperate further and exchange the results of research in this field in the most open and effective manner. Recognizing the roles of heat and mass transfer in all aspects of fission-product behavior in sever reactor accidents, the Executive Committee of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer organized a Seminar on Fission Product Transport Processes in Reactor Accidents. This book contains the eleven of the lectures and all the papers presented at the seminar along with four invited papers that were not presented and a summary of the closing session.
Written by an expert in the field, this book is perfect for those who would like to know what happened at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Part 1 of the book studies how core melts occurred in Fukushima Daiichi units 1, 2, and 3, respectively, based on evidence from the Three-Mile Island core melt accident and fuel behavior experiments performed in the 1970s under the cooperation between the United States, Germany, and Japan. This information explains the accident processes without contradicting data from Fukushima, which was published in the TEPCO report. The hydrogen explosions in units 1, 3, and 4 are also explained logically in conjunction with the above core melt process. Part 2 clarifies how the background radiation level of the site doubled: The first rise was just a leak from small openings in units 1 and 3 associated with fire-pump connection work. The second rise led to direct radioactive material release from unit 2. Evacuation dose adequacy and its timing are discussed with reference to the accident process, and the necessity for embankments surrounding nuclear power plants to increase protection against natural disasters is also discussed. New proposals for safety design and emergency preparedness are suggested based on lessons learned from the accident as well as from new experiences. Finally, a concept for decommissioning the Fukushima site and a recovery plan are introduced.
This volume constitutes the state-of-the-art in active interrogation, widely recognized as indispensable methods for addressing current and future nuclear security needs. Written by a leading group of science and technology experts, this comprehensive reference presents technologies and systems in the context of the fundamental physics challenges and practical requirements. It compares the features, limitations, technologies, and impact of passive and active measurement techniques; describes radiation sources for active interrogation including electron and ion accelerators, intense lasers, and radioisotope-based sources; and it describes radiation detectors used for active interrogation. Entire chapters are devoted to data acquisition and processing systems, modeling and simulation, data interpretation and algorithms, and a survey of working active measurement systems. Active Interrogation in Nuclear Security is structured to appeal to a range of audiences, including graduate students, active researchers in the field, and policy analysts. The first book devoted entirely to active interrogation Presents a focused review of the relevant physics Surveys available technology Analyzes scientific and technology trends Provides historical and policy context Igor Jovanovic is a Professor of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan and has previously also taught at Penn State University and Purdue University. He received his Ph.D. from University of California, Berkeley and worked as physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Dr. Jovanovic has made numerous contributions to the science and technology of radiation detection, as well as the radiation sources for use in active interrogation in nuclear security. He has taught numerous undergraduate and graduate courses in areas that include radiation detection, nuclear physics, and nuclear security. At University of Michigan Dr. Jovanovic is the director of Neutron Science Laboratory and is also associated with the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science. Anna Erickson is an Assistant Professor in the Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program of the G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. Previously, she was a postdoctoral researcher in the Advanced Detectors Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Dr. Erickson received her PhD from Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a focus on radiation detection for active interrogation applications. Her research interests focus on nuclear non-proliferation including antineutrino analysis and non-traditional detector design and characterization. She teaches courses in advanced experimental detection for reactor and nuclear nonproliferation applications, radiation dosimetry and fast reactor analysis.
The third, revised edition of this popular textbook and reference, which has been translated into Russian and Chinese, expands the comprehensive and balanced coverage of nuclear reactor physics to include recent advances in understanding of this topic. The first part of the book covers basic reactor physics, including, but not limited to nuclear reaction data, neutron diffusion theory, reactor criticality and dynamics, neutron energy distribution, fuel burnup, reactor types and reactor safety. The second part then deals with such physically and mathematically more advanced topics as neutron transport theory, neutron slowing down, resonance absorption, neutron thermalization, perturbation and variational methods, homogenization, nodal and synthesis methods, and space-time neutron dynamics. For ease of reference, the detailed appendices contain nuclear data, useful mathematical formulas, an overview of special functions as well as introductions to matrix algebra and Laplace transforms. With its focus on conveying the in-depth knowledge needed by advanced student and professional nuclear engineers, this text is ideal for use in numerous courses and for self-study by professionals in basic nuclear reactor physics, advanced nuclear reactor physics, neutron transport theory, nuclear reactor dynamics and stability, nuclear reactor fuel cycle physics and other important topics in the field of nuclear reactor physics.
This book describes the fast reactor (FR), a type of new reactor for nuclear plants, currently under research and development. The book targets young researchers and engineers who will be charged with commercializing this new type of reactor to lead to the development of new components and systems for improved plant reliability and economy. This volume also helps readers to understand the methods of integrating the power plant in its entirety, from the reactor core to all of the various systems and components, and teaches the way of thinking that forms the background of these methods. This background includes the various organizational and management issues that are encountered as projects move forward and will be explored in great detail based on actual design and construction experience with Japan's prototype FR, Monju.
Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitative database on the solid/liquid distribution behaviour of radionuclides and other elements in hydrated cement systems is established on the basis of a consistent review and re-evaluation of literature data. In addition to recommended values, all underlying original experimental data and key experimental info rmation are provided, which allows users to trace the given recommendations or to develop their own set of key values. This database is closely tied to the safety analysis of near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. It focuses on radioelements, toxic stable elements and heavy metals, which makes it relevant for investigations involving the interaction of radioactive and conventional contaminants with cement-based barriers.
The main focus of this book is on the contribution of Welsh scientists, engineers and facilities in Wales to the British nuclear programme - especially the military programme - from the Second World War through to the present day. After the war, a number of Welsh scientists at Harwell played an important role in the development of civil nuclear power, and subsequently also at Aldermaston where Welsh scientists and engineers were a key part of William Penney's team producing the first UK nuclear device tested at Monte Bello in 1952. This book highlights the scientific and engineering contribution made by Welsh scientists and engineers, and, where possible, it considers their backgrounds, education, personalities and interests. Many, for example, were sons of miners from the Welsh valleys, whose lives were changed by their teachers and education at Wales's university institutions - which responds in part to the question, `Why so many Welshmen?'
This book focuses on radiation applications in various fields such as industry, environmental conservation, analytical sciences, agriculture, medical diagnosis and therapy, and other areas, from laboratory or research scale to practical or commercial scale. The book targets rather beginning or young professionals in radiation chemistry, processing, biology, and medicine, among others, but also introduces the state of the art of the relevant fields. This volume also helps readers to understand the fundamentals of radiation chemistry, physics, and biology that underlie the miscellaneous applications. Readers will understand, for example, that industry utilizes radiation to fabricate water-absorbent materials or semiconductors and also that cancer patients can be cured through radiation without surgery. These and more facts about radiation applications are made available in this valuable book.
This open access book examines key aspects of international cooperation to enhance nuclear safety, security, safeguards, and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in development and maintenance of the verification regime and fostering progress toward a nuclear weapon-free world. The book opens by addressing important political, institutional, and legal dimensions. Current challenges are discussed and attempts made to identify possible solutions and future improvements. Subsequent sections consider scientific developments that have the potential to increase the effectiveness of implementation of international regimes, particularly in critical areas, technology foresight, and the ongoing evaluation of current capabilities. The closing sections examine scientific and technical challenges and discuss the role of international cooperation and actions of the scientific community in leading the world toward peace and security. The book - which celebrates 60 years of IAEA Atoms for Peace and Development and the EURATOM Treaty - comprises contributions presented at the XX Edoardo Amaldi Conference, where eminent scientists, diplomats, and policymakers were able to compare national perspectives and update international collaborations.
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