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For all undergraduate courses in plant propagation at the two-year and four-year colleges and universities. The world standard for plant propagation and horticulture for over 50 years, Hartmann and Kester's Plant Propagation continues to be the field's most complete, up-to-date text on plant propagation. It now contains color figures throughout, promoting learning and making it an even more useful working text and reference. It also contains extensive updates reflecting the latest commercial techniques and understanding of propagation biology. Like previous editions, it is organized into paired chapters on principles and practices, so it can easily be adapted for teaching courses that cover only practical topics, and for courses that also cover conceptual issues.
"Techniques for Pollination Biologists" is the first book to incorporate all techniques published in the pollination literature as well as unpublished methods compiled from practicing pollination biologists. The bibliography includes 1,200 references from more than 200 journals, plus books and previously unpublished materials.
Appendices list sources for all the equipment and chemicals needed.
This book presents the newest techniques such as fluorescence microscopy to examine pollen tubes, high-pressure liquid chromatography for nectar analysis, and using particle counters to count pollen grains and nuclear magnetic resonance for floral odor analysis. In addition to these sophisticated methods, basic techniques are described for labeling plants, manipulating flowers, marking or excluding, and designing simple but elegant experiments with small budgets. The book also examines potential pitfalls for pollination studies and offers cautionary advice about designing and implementing different types of pollination experiments.
This books presents an updated compilation on fundamental interaction mechanisms of microbial communities with the plant roots and rhizosphere (belowground) and leaves and aerial parts (aboveground). Plant rhizopshere recruits its own microbial composition that survive there and help plants grow and develop better under biotic and abiotic conditions. Similar is the case with the beneficial microorganisms which are applied as inoculants with characteristic functions. The mechanism of plant-microbe interactions is interesting phenomenon in biological perspectives with numerous implications in the fields. The First volume focuses on the basic and fundamental mechanisms that have been worked out by the scientific communities taking into account different plant-microbe systems. This includes methods that decipher mechanisms at cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels and the functions that are the final outcome of any beneficial or non-beneficial interactions in crop plants and microbes. Recent advances in this research area is covered in different book chapters that reflect the impact of microbial interactions on soil and plant health, dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities, interaction mechanisms of microbes with multiple functional attributes, microbiome of contrasting crop production systems (organic vs conventional), mechanisms behind symbiotic and pathogenic interactions, endophytic (bacterial and fungal) interaction and benefits, rhizoplane and endosphere associations, signalling cascades and determinants in rhizosphere, quorum sensing in bacteria and impact on interaction, mycorrhizal interaction mechanisms, induced disease resistance and plant immunization, interaction mechanisms that suppress disease and belowground microbial crosstalk with plant rhizosphere. Methods based on multiphasic and multi-omics approaches were discussed in detail by the authors. Content-wise, the book offers an advanced account on various aspects of plant-microbe interactions and valuable implications in agro-ecological perspectives.
This book focuses on the basic science recently produced in Brazil for the improvement of sugarcane as a bioenergy crop and as a raw material for 2nd generation bioethanol production. It reports achievements that have been advancing the science of cell walls, enzymes, genetics, and sustainability related to sugarcane technologies and give continuity to the research reported in the "Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol", from Springer. The Introduction (Chapter I) explains how the National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioethanol, founded in 2008 in Brazil, became part of the main international initiatives that started to search for forms to use biomass for bioethanol production in Brazil, US and Europe. Part I reports the advances in plant cell wall composition, structure and architecture, and physical characteristics of sugarcane biomass. These discoveries are opening the way to increased efficiency of pretreatments and hydrolysis, being therefore important information for 2nd generation processes as well as for biorefinery initiatives. Part II focuses on the discovery and characterization of hydrolases from microorganisms that could be used in industrial processes. Recent advances in the search for hydrolases using metagenomics is reported. A great number of genes and enzymes from microorganisms have been discovered, affording improvement of enzyme cocktails better adapted to sugarcane biomass. Part III reports two key issues in the process of 2G ethanol, pentose fermentation and sugarcane genetics. These are the discoveries of new yeast species capable of producing ethanol more efficiently from xylose and the advances made on the sugarcane genetics, a key issue to design varieties adapted to 2G ethanol production.Part IV approaches sustainability through two chapters, one discussing the sustainability of the sugarcane agricultural and environmental system and another discussing how national and mainly international policies of Brazil regarding 2G ethanol production affected the country's strategies to establish itself as an international player in renewable energy area.
This book is a ready reference on recent innovations in dryland agriculture and reinforces the understanding for its utilization to develop environmentally sustainable and profitable food production systems. It covers the basic concepts and history, components and elements, breeding and modelling efforts, and potential benefits, experiences, challenges and innovations relevant to agriculture in dryland areas around world.
Soil is the most important natural non-renewable resource developed over a longer period of time due to weathering of rocks and subsequently enrichment of organic matter. Soil provides habitat for numerous microorganisms and serves as a natural medium for plant growth, thereby providing the plants with anchorage, nutrients and water to sustain the growth. Soil also serves as a universal sink for all types of pollutants, purifies ground water and is a major reserve of carbon in the universe. The role of soils to provide ecosystem services, maintenance of environmental/human health and ensuring the food security makes it as the most important and basic natural resource. Soil Science helps us to elaborate and understand how the soils provide all these services. Soil Science also provides us the basic knowledge dealing with the origin of the soil parent material, weathering of parent material and the formation of soils, morphological, physico-chemical and biological features of soils, classification of soils and role of soils in the provision and maintenance of ecosystem services, food security and environmental quality. This book encompasses the various processes, functions and behaviour of soils very comprehensively to acquaint the students of soil, plant and environmental sciences about their role to perform different agricultural and environmental functions.
With exponentially increasing population across the globe and shrinking resources, the concern of food security is looming large over the world community. To catch up with the fierce pace of growth in all the sectors of development, ensuring uninhibited availability of food resources is a prime agenda. The growing global demand for food, feed, fiber and bio-based renewable materials, such as bio-fuels, is changing the conditions for genetic resources development and bio-resource production worldwide. The crucial role in ensuring food security is played by the agro-based industries and enterprises. Advances in plant genetic resources coupled with traditional knowledge of the local tribes and native practices facilitate achievement of food security.
The basic concept of this book is to examine the use of innovative methods augmenting traditional plant breeding towards the development of new crop varieties under different environmental conditions to achieve sustainable food production. This book consists of two volumes: Volume 1 subtitled Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools and Volume 2 subtitled Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. This is Volume 1 which consists of 21 chapters covering domestication and germplasm utilization, conventional breeding techniques and the role of biotechnology. In addition to various biotechnological applications in plant breeding, it includes functional genomics, mutations and methods of detection, and molecular markers. In vitro techniques and their applications in plant breeding are discussed with an emphasis on embryo rescue, somatic cell hybridization and somaclonal variation. Other chapters cover haploid breeding, transgenics, cryogenics and bioinformatics.
Microbial biotechnology is an emerging field with applications in a broad range of sectors involving food security, human nutrition, plant protection and overall basic research in the agricultural sciences. The environment has been sustaining the burden of mankind from time immemorial, and our indiscriminate use of its resources has led to the degradation of the climate, loss of soil fertility, and the need for sustainable strategies. The major focus in the coming decades will be on achieving a green and clean environment by utilizing soil and plant-associated beneficial microbial communities. Plant-microbe interactions include the association of microbes with plant systems: epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric. The microbes associated with plant ecosystems play an important role in plant growth, development, and soil health. Moreover, soil and plant microbiomes help to promote plant growth, either directly or indirectly by means of plant growth-promoting mechanisms, e.g. the release of plant growth regulators; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium and zinc; biological nitrogen fixation; or by producing siderophores, ammonia, HCN and other secondary metabolites. These beneficial microbial communities represent a novel and promising solution for agro-environmental sustainability by providing biofertilizers, bioprotectants, and biostimulants, in addition to mitigating various types of abiotic stress in plants. This book focuses on plant-microbe interactions; the biodiversity of soil and plant microbiomes; and their role in plant growth and soil health. Accordingly, it will be immensely useful to readers working in the biological sciences, especially microbiologists, biochemists and microbial biotechnologists.
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of life, it is the way life persists across the ages. This book offers new, wider vistas on this fundamental biological phenomenon, exploring how it works through the whole tree of life. It explores facets such as asexual reproduction, parthenogenesis, sex determination and reproductive investment, with a taxonomic coverage extended over all the main groups - animals, plants including 'algae', fungi, protists and bacteria. It collates into one volume perspectives from varied disciplines - including zoology, botany, microbiology, genetics, cell biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, animal and plant physiology, and ethology - integrating information into a common language. Crucially, the book aims to identify the commonalties among reproductive phenomena, while demonstrating the diversity even amongst closely related taxa. Its integrated approach makes this a valuable reference book for students and researchers, as well as an effective entry point for deeper study on specific topics.
This book presents biotechnological advances and approaches to improving the nutritional value of agri-foods. The respective chapters explore how biotechnology is being used to enhance food production, nutritional quality, food safety and food packaging, and to address postharvest issues. Written and prepared by eminent scientists working in the field of food biotechnology, the book offers authentic, reliable and detailed information on technological advances, fundamental principles, and the applications of recent innovations. Accordingly, it offers a valuable guide for researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of biotechnology, agriculture and food technology.
From their ability to use energy from sunlight to make their own food, to combating attacks from diseases and predators, plants have evolved an amazing range of life-sustaining strategies. Written with the non-specialist in mind, John King's lively natural history explains how plants function, from how they gain energy and nutrition to how they grow, develop and ultimately die. New to this edition is a section devoted to plants and the environment, exploring how problems created by human activities, such as global warming, pollution of land, water and air, and increasing ocean acidity, are impacting on the lives of plants. King's narrative provides a simple, highly readable introduction, with boxes in each chapter offering additional or more advanced material for readers seeking more detail. He concludes that despite the challenges posed by growing environmental perils, plants will continue to dominate our planet.
This book presents an overview of the latest advances and developments in plant biotechnology. The respective chapters explore emerging areas of plant biotechnology such as RNAi technology, fermentation technology, genetic engineering, nanoparticles and their applications, climate resilient crops, bio-films, bio-plastic, bio-remediation, flavonoids, antioxidants etc. All chapters were written by respected experts and address the latest developments in plant biotechnology that are of industrial importance, especially with regard to crop yields and post-harvest strategies. As such, the book offers a valuable guide for students, educators and researchers in all disciplines of the life sciences, agricultural sciences, medicine, and biotechnology at universities, research institutions and biotechnology companies.
This book summarizes the development of highly tolerant cultivars via plant breeding, genomics, and proteomic approaches. This book could supplement data for budding researchers by providing extensive ongoing measures to improve the detoxification competence of appropriate species via wide range of plant improvement approaches. It also offers insights into heavy metal signalling,metal chelation by organic acids, amino acids, and phosphate derivatives, and illustrates other strategies that have been extensively investigated, such as genetic engineering, ecological improvement of the rhizosphere using mycorrhiza and chelator enhanced phytoremediation technology. This book could provide simple anthology for undergraduate and postgraduate students to understand fundamentals of heavy metal pollution in the environment. The book closes with a prelude to an inclusive study of biodiversity that could provide new biofilters for metal detoxification.
This book explores the impact of climate change on agriculture and our future ability to produce the crops which are the foundation of the human diet. Specifically, individual chapters explore the potential for genomics assisted breeding of improved crops with greater yield and tolerance to the stresses associated with predicted climate change scenarios. Given the clear and unmet challenge to mitigate climate changing events, this book will be of wide interest from plant breeders and environmental scientists, government bodies through to a more general audience who are interested in the likely impact of climate change on agriculture.
The book illustrates the use of putative microbial agents which provide good protection to the plant from biotic pathogens attack. An up to date knowledge on plant-microbiome interaction strategies in terms of improved sustainability has been discussed. Information from experts across the globe on the application of microbes for providing amicable solution in sustainable agriculture has been gathered. In addition, information related to microbes mediated resistance levels leading to enhanced plant health has been well presented. The chapters have emphasised the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and other potential biocontrol agents/antagonists in the management of plant diseases which provide extensive information to the readers. Literature on microbial root colonization, plant growth promotions, and also on the protection of plants from attack of various soil borne pathogens have been presented in a coherent way. Information on the application of potential strain of the bio-control fungi, endophytes, actinomycetes strengthening the plants ability which rescue the plant from pathogens attack leading to improved plant health has also been underpinned.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
Genetic transformation is a key technology, in which genes are transferred from one organism to another in order to improve agronomic traits and ultimately help humans. However, there is concern in some quarters that genetically modified crops may disturb the ecosystem. A number of non-governmental organizations continue to protest against GM crops and foods, despite the fact that many organisms are genetically modified naturally in the course of evolution. In this context, there is a need to educate the public about the importance of GM crops in terms of food and nutritional security. This book provides an overview of various crop plants where genetic transformation has been successfully implemented to improve their agronomically useful traits. It includes information on the gene(s) transferred, the method of gene transfer and the beneficial effects of these gene transfers and the agronomic improvements compared to the wild plants. Further, it discusses the commercial prospects of these GM crops as well as the associated challenges. Given its scope, this book is a valuable resource for agricultural and horticultural scientists/experts wanting to explain to the public, politicians and non-governmental organizations the details of GM crops and how they can improve crops and the lives of farmers. It also appeals to researchers and postgraduate students. This volume focuses on the transgenics of mungbean, cowpea, chickpea, cotton, mulberrry, Jatropha, fingermillet, papaya, citrus plants and cassava. It also discusses CRISPR edited lines.
This book is a review of the recent literature on the key scientific and technical subjects of fertilization management in vegetable crops. In the last decades, research on fertilization management in vegetables was aimed at producing economical yields with reduced fertilizer inputs by the development and implementation of cropping systems, nutrient management approaches and crop varieties. Examples of the interventions in cropping systems included adequate crop rotations, inter-cropping, double cropping, and other strategies for a better soil organic matter management; nutrient management approaches included modelling, Decision Support Systems, crop nutritional status testing and precision agriculture technologies; amelioration of crop varieties has been directed toward higher nutrient/fertilizer use efficiency.
How do plants, even if still buried underground, know that it's their time to bloom? What signals them to begin the challenging task of making flowers, and how do they make the variety of flower shapes, colours, and scents? What kind of instructions does the plant carry? Flowers enrich the beauty of meadows and gardens, but of course, they are not there simply to please us. Biologically, blossoms form a critical aspect of the reproductive cycle of many plants. In this book, the distinguished scientist Maxine Singer explains what we have pieced together about the genetics behind flowering. She describes in a clear and accessible account the key genes which, regulated by other genes, modulated by epigenetic effects, and responding to environmental cues, cause plants to flower at a particular time, and define the variety of flowers. The remarkably intricate processes involved in making flowers have evolved in nature alongside the pollinating birds and insects that the flowers must attract if there is to be another generation. The processes involved in flowering have only been unravelled in the past twenty years, and the implications for ensuring production of food, including fruits and seeds, are profound. This is cutting-edge science, and we have much still to learn, but the story being revealed that lies behind the flowers in our gardens, parks, and fields is proving astonishing.
Genetic transformation is a key technology, in which genes are transferred from one organism to another in order to improve agronomic traits and ultimately help humans. However, there is apprehension in some quarters that genetically modified crops may disturb the ecosystem. A number of non-governmental organizations continue to protest against GM crops and foods, despite the fact that many organisms are genetically modified naturally in the course of evolution. In this context, there is a need to educate the public about the importance of GM crops in terms of food and nutritional security. This book provides an overview of various crop plants where genetic transformation has been successfully implemented to improve their agronomically useful traits. It includes information on the gene(s) transferred, the method of gene transfer and the beneficial effects of these gene transfers and agronomic improvements compared to the wild plants. Further, it discusses the commercial prospects of these GM crops as well as the associated challenges. Given its scope, this book is a valuable resource for agricultural and horticultural scientists/experts wanting to explain to the public, politicians and non-governmental organizations the details of GM crops and how they can improve crops and the lives of farmers.
This book provides a comprehensive update on the recent developments concerning the role of plant neurotransmitters in signaling and communication. Physiological investigations over the past few decades have demonstrated that plants employ neurotransmitters in various signaling pathways. Plant-based neurotransmitters (serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and GABA) share biochemical similarities with those in animal systems in terms of their chemical nature and biochemical pathways. Plant-environment interaction associated with abiotic stress management, growth modulation, flowering, circadian rhythm, fruit ripening, and allelopathic interactions are a major focus of research in the field, and recent advances in genomic, trascriptomic, and metabolomic approaches have resulted in the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms associated with various neurotransmitters in plants. Other current and potential areas of investigation include the putative phytohormone phytomelatonin, and receptor-mediated signaling in plant neurotransmitters. Providing an up-to-date overview of molecular crosstalk mechanisms between various neurotransmitters, the book offers essential insights to help readers gain a better understanding of the physiology of plant signaling and communication with the environment.
This book represents an original research contribution in the area of aroma volatile biochemistry and the molecular analysis of basmati and non-basmati rice cultivars of India. It demonstrates the utility of headspace-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method, an approach that can help to understand not only the different volatiles contributing to pleasant aroma but also the volatile profile that generates the characteristic cultivar-specific aroma. In addition, the book provides detailed information on diversity, grain morphology, physico-chemical and cooking quality assessment, genetic diversity assessment and marker validation for important quality parameters. As such, it offers a valuable ready reference for agriculture scientists, biochemists, researchers and students involved in quality parameters of rice at the regional and global level.
This book reviews and synthesizes the recent advances in exploiting host plant resistance to insects, highlighting the role of molecular techniques in breeding insect resistant crops. It also provides an overview of the fascinating field of insect-plant relationships, which is fundamental to the study of host-plant resistance to insects. Further, it discusses the conventional and molecular techniques utilized/useful in breeding for resistance to insect-pests including back-cross breeding, modified population improvement methods for insect resistance, marker-assisted backcrossing to expedite the breeding process, identification and validation of new insect-resistance genes and their potential for utilization, genomics, metabolomics, transgenesis and RNAi. Lastly, it analyzes the successes, limitations and prospects for the development of insect-resistant cultivars of rice, maize, sorghum and millet, cotton, rapeseed, legumes and fruit crops, and highlights strategies for management of insect biotypes that limit the success and durability of insect-resistant cultivators in the field. Arthropod pests act as major constraints in the agro-ecosystem. It has been estimated that arthropod pests may be destroying around one-fifth of the global agricultural production/potential production every year. Further, the losses are considerably higher in the developing tropics of Asia and Africa, which are already battling severe food shortage. Integrated pest management (IPM) has emerged as the dominant paradigm for minimizing damage by the insects and non-insect pests over the last 50 years. Pest resistant cultivars represent one of the most environmentally benign, economically viable and ecologically sustainable options for utilization in IPM programs. Hundreds of insect-resistant cultivars of rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, cotton, sugarcane and other crops have been developed worldwide and are extensively grown for increasing and/or stabilizing crop productivity. The annual economic value of arthropod resistance genes developed in global agriculture has been estimated to be greater than US$ 2 billion Despite the impressive achievements and even greater potential in minimizing pest- related losses, only a handful of books have been published on the topic of host-plant resistance to insects. This book fills this wide gap in the literature on breeding insect- resistant crops. It is aimed at plant breeders, entomologists, plant biotechnologists and IPM experts, as well as those working on sustainable agriculture and food security.
"Global Tea Breeding: Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives" provides a global review on biodiversity and biotechnology issues in tea breeding and selection. The contributions are written by experts from China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Indonesia, Japan, Bangladesh, Korea, Nigeria, and etc., which countries amount to 90% of the world tea production. This book focuses on the germplasm, breeding and selection of tea cultivars for the production of black, green and Oolong teas from the tea plant, "Camellia sinensis "(L.) O. Kuntze. It can benefit the tea breeders in the global tea industry, as well as the breeders of other woody cash crops like coffee and other sub-tropical fruit trees.
Liang Chen is a Professor and Associate Director at National Center for Tea Improvement, Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (TRICAAS), Hangzhou, China.
Zeno Apostolides is a Professor at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Zong-Mao Chen is the Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a Professor at the Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.
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