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The book is written for students of business economics and tax law. It focuses on investment and financing decisions in cross-border situations.
In particular, the book deals with: Legal structures of international company taxation, International double taxation, Source-based and residence-based income taxation, International investment and profit shifting, International corporate tax planning, International tax planning and European law, Harmonization of corporate taxation in the European Union, International tax planning and tax accounting.
International tax law is designed to avoid international double taxation and to combat international tax avoidance. Nevertheless, companies investing in foreign countries may suffer from international double taxation of profits. On the other hand, these companies may also be able to exploit an international tax rate differential by means of cross-border tax planning.
Ulrich Schreiber holds the chair of Business Administration and Business Taxation at the University of Mannheim. He serves as co-editor of Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift fur betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (zfbf) and Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr) and is affiliated with the Centrefor European Economic Research (ZEW) as a research associate. Ulrich Schreiber is a member of the Academic Advisory Board of the Federal Ministry of Finance.
Amidst the debates about 'austerity' a number of vital debates in public finance have been sidelined. Because the reductions in government spending - small though they have been so far- have been designed to reduce the government's borrowing requirement, there has been little discussion of whether the size of the state should be reduced in order to facilitate long-run reductions in the burden of taxation. This book traces the history of the growth of the size of the state over the last 100 years whilst also making international comparisons. There is a particular focus on recent and projected future developments which shows that, though the total level of government spending has not decreased significantly in recent years, there has been a big redirection of spending from some areas to others. The authors then examine the evidence on the relationship between taxation and economic growth. As well as reviewing recent literature, they also undertake new modelling that higher taxes are detrimental for growth. In the final part of the book, the whole UK tax system is reconsidered in a proper economic framework.The UK has one of the world's most complex tax systems and its incoherence has increased over the last five years. Sweeping reforms are proposed to the system which would involve abolishing around 20 taxes and the development of a simple, predictable tax system based on principles that should gain wide acceptance.
In today's social climate of acknowledged and growing inequality, why are there not greater efforts to tax the rich? In this wide-ranging and provocative book, Kenneth Scheve and David Stasavage ask when and why countries tax their wealthiest citizens--and their answers may surprise you. Taxing the Rich draws on unparalleled evidence from twenty countries over the last two centuries to provide the broadest and most in-depth history of progressive taxation available. Scheve and Stasavage explore the intellectual and political debates surrounding the taxation of the wealthy while also providing the most detailed examination to date of when taxes have been levied against the rich and when they haven't. Fairness in debates about taxing the rich has depended on different views of what it means to treat people as equals and whether taxing the rich advances or undermines this norm. Scheve and Stasavage argue that governments don't tax the rich just because inequality is high or rising--they do it when people believe that such taxes compensate for the state unfairly privileging the wealthy. Progressive taxation saw its heyday in the twentieth century, when compensatory arguments for taxing the rich focused on unequal sacrifice in mass warfare. Today, as technology gives rise to wars of more limited mobilization, such arguments are no longer persuasive. Taxing the Rich shows how the future of tax reform will depend on whether political and economic conditions allow for new compensatory arguments to be made.
Passcards provide all the knowledge required for the Personal Tax unit. Passcards are A6, spiral bound revision aids which students can carry to revise wherever, whenever. Features include: topics presented in the same order as the Course Book, ability to focus on tricky syllabus areas, aid revision by giving clear, visual emphasis to key points, suitable for both paper and computer based exams. Our materials and online equivalents will help ensure you are ready for your assessments and prepared for your career in accounting.
The prospect of simultaneously achieving a 'greener' environment, increased tax revenues and lower levels of unemployment has made ecological taxes an increasingly popular proposition. This volume examines the possibility of ecological tax reform in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The potential for ecological tax reform is investigated on a theoretical and an empirical level. The social costs associated with environmental taxes are analysed and the impacts of a Swedish carbon tax are calculated by means of a static numerical model. Taxes on carbon, nitrogen and fertilisers are also examined. The authors find that the level of unemployment cannot be decreased by revenue neutral environmental taxes without any social costs and conclude that there are no easy ways to achieve full employment, a budget surplus and environmental sustainability. They conclude that further understanding of the functioning of the labour market, household decisions and the link between change in pollutant emissions and environmental damage is needed in order to make more concrete suggestions concerning ecological tax reforms. Green Taxes will be of immense use to academics and practitioners in the field of environmental economics.
This yearbook includes a description of the work of the Nordic Tax Research Council, as well as papers and reports presented and discussed on the yearly council seminars. The 2012 seminar addressed the topic of "Tax Expenditures."
On July 22, 2014, the Senate Committee on Finance held a public hearing on the taxation of cross-border income. This book, prepared by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation for the hearing, includes a description of present law, background on recent global activity related to the taxation of cross-border income, and descriptions and a comparison of recent proposals to reform the U.S. international tax system.
More than a half-million new businesses are started every year by creative, energetic people looking to capitalize on their ideas and ingenuity. Unfortunately, only about 3 out of 10 last more than two years, and only about 50% those make it five years. A key reason small businesses fail is because of IRS problems. The tax code heaps a mountain of reporting, payment, and compliance obligations on small businesses that most business owners don't know anything about. In fact, the Government Accountability Office once counted more than 200 distinct obligations placed on the shoulders of businesses. Can you name all 200? Can you name even 20? If not, you need this book. And since the tax code was changed more than 5,900 times just since 2001, you need this book now more than ever. In the Small Business Tax Guide, Dan covers important topics, including:; Identifying the 15 most common mistakes small business make, and how to avoid them --; Whether an LLC, Subchapter S corporation or partnership is best for you --; Everything you need to know about hiring employees and using independent contractors --; How to properly set up and use an office in your home --; How to avoid the IRS's costly "hobby loss" rules --; How to avoid tax penalties that can kill your business --; How to properly deduct business travel and mileage expenses --; Understanding the complex new rules for business meals and entertainment expenses --; Dan's fool-proof record-keeping system to keep you out of trouble with the IRS --; Plus much, much more! It's not enough to be the creative genius behind your company. You also have to keep your company out of trouble with the IRS. Don't get clobbered for violating tax rules you never knew existed. If you currently operate or intend to operate your own small business, you need this important new book right now.
Business and investment operations of individuals and companies are becoming increasingly international in scope in the wake of current wave of globalisation and openness sweeping across the countries of the world. Income tax systems of different countries differ in terms of definition of income and expenses, exemptions and concessions, rates and collection procedures. Varying tax practices of different countries complicate decision-making by individuals and corporates. Hence a comparative study of taxation of income becomes relevant. This book attempts to provide a detailed analysis of income tax provisions of six countries -- three of them developed, namely, the U.K., the U.S., and Australia and three developing, Malaysis, Pakistan and India. The book makes a detailed analysis of the tax rate structure and explains the model of the computation of the taxable income of the individual and the corporate taxpayer. The work will be most useful for a cross-section of readers including researchers, teachers and students of economics, commerce, law and management. The analysis of the income tax systems of chosen countries would also be beneficial for policy makers, legislators, tax consultants, executives and enterprises having multinational operations.
We are well aware of the rise of the 1% as the rapid growth of economic inequality has put the majority of the world's wealth in the pockets of fewer and fewer. One much-discussed solution to this imbalance is to significantly increase the rate at which we tax the wealthy. But with an enormous amount of the world's wealth hidden in tax havens in countries like Switzerland, Luxembourg, and the Cayman Islands this wealth cannot be fully accounted for and taxed fairly. No one, from economists to bankers to politicians, has been able to quantify exactly how much of the world's assets are currently hidden until now. Gabriel Zucman is the first economist to offer reliable insight into the actual extent of the world's money held in tax havens. And it's staggering. In The Hidden Wealth of Nations, Zucman offers an inventive and sophisticated approach to quantifying how big the problem is, how tax havens work and are organized, and how we can begin to approach a solution. His research reveals that tax havens are a quickly growing danger to the world economy. In the past five years, the amount of wealth in tax havens has increased over 25% there has never been as much money held offshore as there is today. This hidden wealth accounts for at least $7.6 trillion, equivalent to 8% of the global financial assets of households. Fighting the notion that any attempts to vanquish tax havens are futile, since some countries will always offer more advantageous tax rates than others, as well the counter-argument that since the financial crisis tax havens have disappeared, Zucman shows how both sides are actually very wrong. In The Hidden Wealth of Nations he offers an ambitious agenda for reform, focused on ways in which countries can change the incentives of tax havens. Only by first understanding the enormity of the secret wealth can we begin to estimate the kind of actions that would force tax havens to give up their practices. Zucman's work has quickly become the gold standard for quantifying the amount of the world's assets held in havens. In this concise book, he lays out in approachable language how the international banking system works and the dangerous extent to which the large-scale evasion of taxes is undermining the global market as a whole. If we are to find a way to solve the problem of increasing inequality, The Hidden Wealth of Nations is essential reading.
President Trump's tax cut reduced taxes by $5 trillion. Now The Trump Tax Cut shows how you can benefit from hundreds of deductions, loopholes and tax secrets. You'll also read about the "Trump Tax Loophole" that can slash your personal taxes by an additional 20% instantly! That's if you qualify - and many Americans do. Find more than 200 deductions, write-offs and legal loopholes, including: The ALL-NEW change that will instantly help 70% of Americans! Chapter 1 explains how easy it is to cash in. Buy a new car up to $40,000 and write it off immediately! See Chapter 2. All NEW! Big changes for medical expenses! 3 deductions that usually slip right past the IRS. This is Tip #1 for a reason! Get the government to help pay your energy bill. Tip #30 is HUGE! The most overlooked tax deduction - many accountants don't even know Tip #5. How you can still deduct the mortgage interest on TWO homes! Tip #12. ALL NEW! Take $10,000 of distributions from 529s to help cover the cost of home schooling. Tip 184 is a godsend. A better way to save for college. Tip #168 could help millions. 13 tax no-nos that could trigger an audit. The full list and explanations are yours in chapter 12. And 200+ more tips, loopholes and deductions! PLUS: 5 Best States to Live in Under the New Law! Newsmax says "If you want to pay zero taxes, get The Trump Tax Cut. It's possible!"
This book examines tax incentives for investors in start-up companies through a critical analysis of Australia's early-stage investors (ESI) program, and a comparison of that program with the United Kingdom's Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) upon which it is loosely modelled. It discusses the importance of innovation and the special role that venture capital plays in supporting start-ups, and explains the policy rationale for introducing the ESI program as well as dissecting its technical requirements in detail. Special attention is devoted to the program's 'early stage' and 'innovation' requirements, which are crucial for determining whether a start-up qualifies for the tax incentives. The book is the first in-depth scholarly legal analysis of the ESI program and the first occasion it has been compared and contrasted with a foreign program. The comparative discussion of the ESI program with the SEIS program enables the authors to make suggestions for reforms to the ESI program so that it can better achieve its policy objectives. The fact that the book includes reform suggestions makes it particularly interesting for policy makers. It is also of broad relevance to legal and finance scholars and students as well as entrepreneurs, angels, venture capitalists and their advisors.
Protect your clients' assets and shield their estates from increased taxation brought about by changing tax laws. This book can help you to understand the tax obligations of trusts and estates and how these obligations affect beneficiaries. It provides exercises and examples that reflect the calculation and allocation of taxable income and its presentation on the appropriate forms. In addition, you will also learn how to prepare federal Form 1041, US Income Tax Return for Estates and Trusts. Key topics covered include: How are trusts and estates taxed under the internal revenue code? What is a trust? What is a "simple trust?" What is a "complex trust?" How is the "income" of a trust or estate defined for tax purposes? What are the ordinary deductions and credits allowed? How is the "deduction for distributions" to beneficiaries determined? How are trust and estate beneficiaries taxed? What is a "grantor trust" and how is it taxed? How to prepare Form 1041.
This volume presents five new studies on current topics in taxation and government spending. Mark Shepard, Katherine Baicker, and Jonathan Skinner explore implementation aspects of a Medicare-for-All program, which provides a uniform health insurance benefit to everyone, and contrast it with a program providing a basic benefit that can be supplemented voluntarily. John Beshears, James Choi, Mark Iwry, David John, David Laibson, and Brigitte Madrian examine the design and feasibility of firm-sponsored "rainy day funds," short-term savings accounts for employees that can be used when faced with temporary periods of high expenditure. Robert Barro and Brian Wheaton investigate the impact of taxation on choice of corporate form, on the formation and legal structure of new businesses, and indirectly on productivity in the economy. Jonathan Meer and Benjamin Priday examine the impact of the 2017 federal income tax reform, which reduced marginal tax rates and the incentive for charitable giving, on such giving. Finally, Casey Mulligan analyzes the impact of the Affordable Care Act on whether firms employ fewer than 50 employees, the employment threshold below which they are exempt from the requirement to provide health insurance to their employees.
The research papers in Volume 30 of Tax Policy and the Economy make significant contributions to the academic literature in public finance and provide important conceptual and empirical input to policy design. In the first paper, Gerald Carlino and Robert Inman consider whether state-level fiscal policies create spillovers for neighboring states and how federal stimulus can internalize these externalities. The second paper, by Nathan Hendren, presents a new framework for evaluating the welfare consequences of tax policy changes and explains how the key parameters needed to implement this framework can be estimated. The third paper, a collaborative effort by several academic and US Treasury economists, documents the dramatic increase in pass-through businesses, including partnerships and S-corporations, over the last thirty years. It notes that these entities now generate more than half of all US business income. The fourth paper examines property tax compliance using a pseudo-randomized experiment in Philadelphia, in which those who owed taxes received supplemental letters regarding their tax delinquency. The research explores what types of communication lead to higher rates of tax payment. In the fifth paper, Jeffrey Clemens discusses cross-program budgetary spillovers of minimum wage regulations. Severin Borenstein and Lucas Davis, the authors of the sixth paper, study the distributional effects of income tax credits for clean energy.
Why have Americans severely limited the estate and gift tax - ostensibly targeted at only the very wealthy - but greatly expanded the subsidies to low-wage workers through the Earned Income Tax Credit, now the single largest poverty program in the country? Why do people hate the property tax so much, yet seemingly revolt against it only during periods of economic change? Why are some groups of taxpayers more obedient to the tax authorities than others, even when they face the same enforcement regime? These puzzling questions all revolve around perceptions of tax fairness. Is the public simply inconsistent? A sympathetic and unified explanation for these attitudes is based on understanding the everyday psychology of fairness and how it comes to be applied in taxation. This book demonstrates how a serious consideration of 'folk justice' can deepen our understanding of how tax systems actually function and how they can perhaps be reformed.
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