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Although South Africa’s informal sector is small compared to other developing countries, it nevertheless provides livelihoods, employment and income for millions of workers and business owners. Almost half of informal-sector workers work in firms with employees. The annual entry of new enterprises is quite high, as is the number of informal enterprises that grow their employment. There is no shortage of entrepreneurship and desire to grow.
However, obstacles and constraints cause hardship and failure, pointing to the need for well-designed policies to enable and support the sector, rather than suppress it. The same goes for formalisation. Recognising the informal sector as an integral part of the economy, rather than ignoring it, is a crucial first step towards instituting a ‘smart’ policy approach.
The South African Informal Sector is strongly evidence- and data-driven, with substantial quantitative contributions combined with qualitative findings – suitable for an era of increased pressure for evidence-based policy-making – and utilises several disciplinary perspectives.
In How to Make the World Add Up, Tim Harford draws on his experience as both an economist and presenter of the BBC's radio show 'More or Less' to take us deep into the world of disinformation and obfuscation, bad research and misplaced motivation to find those priceless jewels of data and analysis that make communicating with numbers so rewarding. Through vivid storytelling he reveals how we can evaluate the claims that surround us with confidence, curiosity and a healthy level of scepticism. It is a must-read for anyone who cares about understanding the world around them.
Appropriate for one or two term courses in introductory Business Statistics. With Statistics for Management, Levin and Rubin have provided a non-intimidating business statistics textbook that students can easily read and understand. Like its predecessors, the Seventh Edition includes the absolute minimum of mathematical/statistical notation necessary to teach the material. Concepts are fully explained in simple, easy-to-understand language as they are presented, making the text an excellent source from which to learn and teach. After each discussion, readers are guided through real-world examples to show how textbook principles work in professional practice.
Welcome to Economics Express - a series of short books to help you: * take exams with confidence * prepare and deliver successful assignments * understand quickly * revise and prepare effectively. As you embark on your economic journey, this series of books will be your helpful companion. They are not meant to replace your lectures, textbooks, seminars or any other sources suggested by your lecturers. Rather, as you come to an exam or an assignment, they will help you to revise and prepare effectively. Whatever form your assessment might take, each book in the series will help you to build up the skills and knowledge you will need to maximise your performance. Each topic-based chapter will outline the key information and analysis, provide sample questions with responses, and give you the assessment advice and exam tips you will need to produce effective assessments based on these core topics. A companion website provides supporting resources for self testing, assessment, exam practice and answers to questions in the book. Ian Jacques was formerly a senior lecturer at Coventry University. He has considerable experience teaching mathematical methods to students studying economics, business and accounting.
'If you aren't in love with stats before reading this book, you will be by the time you're done. Powerful, persuasive, and in these truth-defying times, indispensable' Caroline Criado Perez, author of Invisible Women 'Fabulously readable, lucid, witty and authoritative . . . Every politician and journalist should be made to read this book, but everyone else will get so much pleasure and draw so much strength from the joyful way it dispels the clouds of deceit and delusion' Stephen Fry When was the last time you read a grand statement, accompanied by a large number, and wondered whether it could really be true? Statistics are vital in helping us tell stories - we see them in the papers, on social media, and we hear them used in everyday conversation - and yet we doubt them more than ever. But numbers - in the right hands - have the power to change the world for the better. Contrary to popular belief, good statistics are not a trick, although they are a kind of magic. Good statistics are not smoke and mirrors; in fact, they help us see more clearly. Good statistics are like a telescope for an astronomer, a microscope for a bacteriologist, or an X-ray for a radiologist. If we are willing to let them, good statistics help us see things about the world around us and about ourselves - both large and small - that we would not be able to see in any other way. In How to Make the World Add Up, Tim Harford draws on his experience as both an economist and presenter of the BBC's radio show 'More or Less'. He takes us deep into the world of disinformation and obfuscation, bad research and misplaced motivation to find those priceless jewels of data and analysis that make communicating with numbers worthwhile. Harford's characters range from the art forger who conned the Nazis to the stripper who fell in love with the most powerful congressman in Washington, to famous data detectives such as John Maynard Keynes, Daniel Kahneman and Florence Nightingale. He reveals how we can evaluate the claims that surround us with confidence, curiosity and a healthy level of scepticism. Using ten simple rules for understanding numbers - plus one golden rule - this extraordinarily insightful book shows how if we keep our wits about us, thinking carefully about the way numbers are sourced and presented, we can look around us and see with crystal clarity how the world adds up.
Economic theories can be expressed in words, numbers, graphs and symbols. The existing traditional economics textbooks cover all four methods, but the general focus is often more on writing about the theory and methods, with few practical examples. With an increasing number of universities having introduced mathematical economics at undergraduate level, Basic mathematics for economics students aims to fill this gap in the field. Basic mathematics for economics students begins with a comprehensive chapter on basic mathematical concepts and methods (suitable for self-study, revision or tutorial purposes) to ensure that students have the necessary foundation. The book is written in an accessible style and is extremely practical. Numerous mathematical economics examples and exercises are provided as well as fully worked solutions using numbers, graphs and symbols. Basic mathematics for economics students is aimed at all economics students. It focuses on quantitative aspects and especially complements the three highly popular theoretical economics textbooks, Understanding microeconomics, Understanding macroeconomics and Economics for South African students, all written by Philip Mohr and published by Van Schaik Publishers.
This textbook provides future data analysts with the tools, methods, and skills needed to answer data-focused, real-life questions; to carry out data analysis; and to visualize and interpret results to support better decisions in business, economics, and public policy. Data wrangling and exploration, regression analysis, machine learning, and causal analysis are comprehensively covered, as well as when, why, and how the methods work, and how they relate to each other. As the most effective way to communicate data analysis, running case studies play a central role in this textbook. Each case starts with an industry-relevant question and answers it by using real-world data and applying the tools and methods covered in the textbook. Learning is then consolidated by over 420 practice questions and 117 data exercises. Extensive online resources, including raw and cleaned data and codes for all analysis in Stata, R, and Python, can be found at www.gabors-data-analysis.com.
Economic theories can be expressed in words, numbers, graphs and symbols. The existing traditional economics textbooks cover all four methods, but the general focus is often more on writing about the theory and methods, with few practical examples. With an increasing number of universities having introduced mathematical economics at undergraduate level, Basic mathematics for economic students aims to fill this gap in the field. Basic mathematics for economic students begins with a comprehensive chapter on basic mathematical concepts and methods (suitable for self-study, revision or tutorial purposes) to ensure that students have the necessary foundation. The book is written in an accessible style and is extremely practical. Numerous mathematical economics examples and exercises are provided as well as fully worked solutions using numbers, graphs and symbols. Basic mathematics for economic students is aimed at all economics students. It focuses on quantitative aspects and especially complements the two highly popular theoretical economics textbooks Understanding microeconomics and Understanding macroeconomics, both written by Philip Mohr and published by Van Schaik.
Doubt over the trustworthiness of published empirical results is not unwarranted and is often a result of statistical mis-specification: invalid probabilistic assumptions imposed on data. Now in its second edition, this bestselling textbook offers a comprehensive course in empirical research methods, teaching the probabilistic and statistical foundations that enable the specification and validation of statistical models, providing the basis for an informed implementation of statistical procedure to secure the trustworthiness of evidence. Each chapter has been thoroughly updated, accounting for developments in the field and the author's own research. The comprehensive scope of the textbook has been expanded by the addition of a new chapter on the Linear Regression and related statistical models. This new edition is now more accessible to students of disciplines beyond economics and includes more pedagogical features, with an increased number of examples as well as review questions and exercises at the end of each chapter.
Are you innately curious about dynamically inter-operating financial markets? Since the crisis of 2008, there is a need for professionals with more understanding about statistics and data analysis, who can discuss the various risk metrics, particularly those involving extreme events. By providing a resource for training students and professionals in basic and sophisticated analytics, this book meets that need. It offers both the intuition and basic vocabulary as a step towards the financial, statistical, and algorithmic knowledge required to resolve the industry problems, and it depicts a systematic way of developing analytical programs for finance in the statistical language R. Build a hands-on laboratory and run many simulations. Explore the analytical fringes of investments and risk management. Bennett and Hugen help profit-seeking investors and data science students sharpen their skills in many areas, including time-series, forecasting, portfolio selection, covariance clustering, prediction, and derivative securities.
Kwantitatiewe tegnieke vorm die ruggraat van alle statistiese, ekonomiese en bestuursmodelle ingevolge waarvan vooruitskattings gemaak en bestuursbesluite geneem word. Die doel van Kwantitatiewe statistiese tegnieke is om die rol van hierdie tegnieke aan lesers te verduidelik en hulle in staat te stel om dit te bemeester. Die kwantitatiewe beginsels word eenvoudig uiteengesit en is veral gemik op eerstejaarstudente wat 'n loopbaan in die sakesektor beplan. Die onderwerpe wat behandel word, sluit direk aan by die kwantitatiewe agtergrond wat vir bepaalde beroepe in die sakewereld vereis word.
The epic successor to one of the most important books of the century: at once a retelling of global history, a scathing critique of contemporary politics, and a bold proposal for a new and fairer economic system.
Thomas Piketty’s bestselling Capital in the Twenty-First Century galvanized global debate about inequality. In this audacious follow-up, Piketty challenges us to revolutionize how we think about politics, ideology, and history. He exposes the ideas that have sustained inequality for the past millennium, reveals why the shallow politics of right and left are failing us today, and outlines the structure of a fairer economic system.
Our economy, Piketty observes, is not a natural fact. Markets, profits, and capital are all historical constructs that depend on choices. Piketty explores the material and ideological interactions of conflicting social groups that have given us slavery, serfdom, colonialism, communism, and hypercapitalism, shaping the lives of billions. He concludes that the great driver of human progress over the centuries has been the struggle for equality and education and not, as often argued, the assertion of property rights or the pursuit of stability. The new era of extreme inequality that has derailed that progress since the 1980s, he shows, is partly a reaction against communism, but it is also the fruit of ignorance, intellectual specialization, and our drift toward the dead-end politics of identity.
Once we understand this, we can begin to envision a more balanced approach to economics and politics. Piketty argues for a new “participatory” socialism, a system founded on an ideology of equality, social property, education, and the sharing of knowledge and power. Capital and Ideology is destined to be one of the indispensable books of our time, a work that will not only help us understand the world, but that will change it.
This volume offers extensive coverage of current political, economic and social affairs of the region. It provides an impartial perspective on all the countries and territores of Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia. With easy-to-use data, it contains almost 600 pages of analysis by acknowledged experts, recent statistics and useful directory material.
Recent years have witnessed an explosion in the volume and variety of data collected in all scientific disciplines and industrial settings. Such massive data sets present a number of challenges to researchers in statistics and machine learning. This book provides a self-contained introduction to the area of high-dimensional statistics, aimed at the first-year graduate level. It includes chapters that are focused on core methodology and theory - including tail bounds, concentration inequalities, uniform laws and empirical process, and random matrices - as well as chapters devoted to in-depth exploration of particular model classes - including sparse linear models, matrix models with rank constraints, graphical models, and various types of non-parametric models. With hundreds of worked examples and exercises, this text is intended both for courses and for self-study by graduate students and researchers in statistics, machine learning, and related fields who must understand, apply, and adapt modern statistical methods suited to large-scale data.
Using Continuous Delivery, you can bring software into production more rapidly, with greater reliability. A Practical Guide to Continuous Delivery is a 100% practical guide to building Continuous Delivery pipelines that automate rollouts, improve reproducibility, and dramatically reduce risk. Eberhard Wolff introduces a proven Continuous Delivery technology stack, including Docker, Chef, Vagrant, Jenkins, Graphite, the ELK stack, JBehave, and Gatling. He guides you through applying these technologies throughout build, continuous integration, load testing, acceptance testing, and monitoring. Wolff's start-to-finish example projects offer the basis for your own experimentation, pilot programs, and full-fledged deployments. A Practical Guide to Continuous Delivery is for everyone who wants to introduce Continuous Delivery, with or without DevOps. For managers, it introduces core processes, requirements, benefits, and technical consequences. Developers, administrators, and architects will gain essential skills for implementing and managing pipelines, and for integrating Continuous Delivery smoothly into software architectures and IT organizations. Understand the problems that Continuous Delivery solves, and how it solves them Establish an infrastructure for maximum software automation Leverage virtualization and Platform as a Service (PAAS) cloud solutions Implement build automation and continuous integration with Gradle, Maven, and Jenkins Perform static code reviews with SonarQube and repositories to store build artifacts Establish automated GUI and textual acceptance testing with behavior-driven design Ensure appropriate performance via capacity testing Check new features and problems with exploratory testing Minimize risk throughout automated production software rollouts Gather and analyze metrics and logs with Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana (ELK), and Graphite Manage the introduction of Continuous Delivery into your enterprise Architect software to facilitate Continuous Delivery of new capabilities
Trust the market-leading ESSENTIALS OF STATISTICS FOR BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS, 8E to give you the foundation in statistics for an edge in today's competitive business world. The book's signature problem-scenario approach and reader-friendly writing provide proven methods, hands-on exercises, and real examples to take you deep into business problems and help you solve them from an intelligent, quantitative perspective. Streamlined to focus on core topics, this new edition offers new case problems, applications, and self-test exercises to help you master key formulas and apply the statistical methods you learn. Comprehensive online support provides MindTap and CengageNOW digital solutions that help you make the most of the course. An online homework tool now includes "Post-Submission Feedback" or step-by-step calculations that walk you through solutions. Optional chapter appendices provide in-depth coverage of popular statistical software -- Excel (R) 2016 and Minitab (R) 17.
Today, public conversations are increasingly driven by numbers. Although charts, infographics, and diagrams can make us wiser, they can also deceive-intentionally or unintentionally. To be informed citizens, we must all be able to decode and use the visual information that politicians, journalists and even our employers present to us each day. How Charts Lie examines contemporary examples ranging from election result infographics to global GDP maps and box office record charts, demystifying an essential new literacy for our data-driven world. * With a new afterword on the reporting of the Covid-19 statistics.
In a world where we are constantly being asked to make decisions based on incomplete information, facility with basic probability is an essential skill. This book provides a solid foundation in basic probability theory designed for intellectually curious readers and those new to the subject. Through its conversational tone and careful pacing of mathematical development, the book balances a charming style with informative discussion. This text will immerse the reader in a mathematical view of the world, giving them a glimpse into what attracts mathematicians to the subject in the first place. Rather than simply writing out and memorizing formulas, the reader will come out with an understanding of what those formulas mean, and how and when to use them. Readers will also encounter settings where probabilistic reasoning does not apply or where intuition can be misleading. This book establishes simple principles of counting collections and sequences of alternatives, and elaborates on these techniques to solve real world problems both inside and outside the casino. Pair this book with the HarvardX online course for great videos and interactive learning: https://harvardx.link/fat-chance.
These days, practically anyone may need to stand before an audience and deliver a great presentation. You're not a professional designer, but you want your slides to look great, persuade your audience, and help you achieve your goals. Do what more than a million people have already done: get start-to-finish help from Robin Williams, the beloved, best-selling "non-designer's designer" who's taught an entire generation the basics of design and typography.
In The Non-Designer's Presentation Book, Second Edition, Williams introduces four fundamental, easy-to-use principles for designing great presentation visuals, and four more principles specific to crystal-clear communication with slides. Whether you work with a Mac or PC, PowerPoint, Keynote, or some other tool, Robin guide you -- in her signature, light-hearted style -- through the entire process of creating an inspiring, visually powerful presentation that works. She'll show you:
* Exactly what makes a good presentation -- or a bad one
* How to plan, organize, and outline your presentation more effectively
* Four principles of designing effective presentations
* Four principles for designing beautiful slides that communicate clearly
* An exhaustive list of timeless presentation rules...that you should totally ignore!
This Second Edition has been expanded and updated with new examples reflecting modern design, plus new quizzes and projects to give you even more hands-on practice. It's all you need to succeed -- even if you've never designed or delivered a presentation before!
Cluster analysis finds groups in data automatically. Most methods have been heuristic and leave open such central questions as: how many clusters are there? Which method should I use? How should I handle outliers? Classification assigns new observations to groups given previously classified observations, and also has open questions about parameter tuning, robustness and uncertainty assessment. This book frames cluster analysis and classification in terms of statistical models, thus yielding principled estimation, testing and prediction methods, and sound answers to the central questions. It builds the basic ideas in an accessible but rigorous way, with extensive data examples and R code; describes modern approaches to high-dimensional data and networks; and explains such recent advances as Bayesian regularization, non-Gaussian model-based clustering, cluster merging, variable selection, semi-supervised and robust classification, clustering of functional data, text and images, and co-clustering. Written for advanced undergraduates in data science, as well as researchers and practitioners, it assumes basic knowledge of multivariate calculus, linear algebra, probability and statistics.
Most academic and policy commentary represents adverse selection as a severe problem in insurance, which should always be deprecated, avoided or minimised. This book gives a contrary view. It details the exaggeration of adverse selection in insurers' rhetoric and insurance economics, and presents evidence that in many insurance markets, adverse selection is weaker than most commentators suggest. A novel arithmetical argument shows that from a public policy perspective, 'weak' adverse selection can be a good thing. This is because a degree of adverse selection is needed to maximise 'loss coverage', the expected fraction of the population's losses which is compensated by insurance. This book will be valuable for those interested in public policy arguments about insurance and discrimination: academics (in economics, law and social policy), policymakers, actuaries, underwriters, disability activists, geneticists and other medical professionals.
Chris Albright's VBA FOR MODELERS, 4E, International Edition is an essential tool for helping students learn to use Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as a means to automate common spreadsheet tasks, as well as to create sophisticated management science applications. VBA is the programming language for Microsoft (R) Office. VBA FOR MODELERS, 4E, International Edition contains two parts. The first part teaches students the essentials of VBA for Excel. The second part illustrates how a number of management science models can be automated with VBA. From a user's standpoint, these applications hide the details of the management science techniques and instead present a simple user interface for inputs and results.
World Statistics on Mining and Utilities 2018 provides a unique biennial overview of the role of mining and utility activities in the world economy. This extensive resource from UNIDO provides detailed time series data on the level, structure and growth of international mining and utility activities by country and sector. Country level data is clearly presented on the number of establishments, employment and output of activities such as coal, iron ore and crude petroleum mining as well as the production and supply of electricity, natural gas and water. This unique and comprehensive source of information meets the growing demand of data users who require detailed and reliable statistical information on the primary industry and energy producing sectors. The publication provides internationally comparable data for economic researchers, development strategists and business communities who influence the policy of industrial development and its environmental sustainability.
Apply statistics in business to achieve performance improvement Statistical Thinking: Improving Business Performance, 3rd Edition helps managers understand the role of statistics in implementing business improvements. It guides professionals who are learning statistics in order to improve performance in business and industry. It also helps graduate and undergraduate students understand the strategic value of data and statistics in arriving at real business solutions. Instruction in the book is based on principles of effective learning, established by educational and behavioral research. The authors cover both practical examples and underlying theory, both the big picture and necessary details. Readers gain a conceptual understanding and the ability to perform actionable analyses. They are introduced to data skills to improve business processes, including collecting the appropriate data, identifying existing data limitations, and analyzing data graphically. The authors also provide an in-depth look at JMP software, including its purpose, capabilities, and techniques for use. Updates to this edition include: A new chapter on data, assessing data pedigree (quality), and acquisition tools Discussion of the relationship between statistical thinking and data science Explanation of the proper role and interpretation of p-values (understanding of the dangers of "p-hacking") Differentiation between practical and statistical significance Introduction of the emerging discipline of statistical engineering Explanation of the proper role of subject matter theory in order to identify causal relationships A holistic framework for variation that includes outliers, in addition to systematic and random variation Revised chapters based on significant teaching experience Content enhancements based on student input This book helps readers understand the role of statistics in business before they embark on learning statistical techniques.
Random set theory is a fascinating branch of mathematics that amalgamates techniques from topology, convex geometry, and probability theory. Social scientists routinely conduct empirical work with data and modelling assumptions that reveal a set to which the parameter of interest belongs, but not its exact value. Random set theory provides a coherent mathematical framework to conduct identification analysis and statistical inference in this setting and has become a fundamental tool in econometrics and finance. This is the first book dedicated to the use of the theory in econometrics, written to be accessible for readers without a background in pure mathematics. Molchanov and Molinari define the basics of the theory and illustrate the mathematical concepts by their application in the analysis of econometric models. The book includes sets of exercises to accompany each chapter as well as examples to help readers apply the theory effectively.
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