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Combustion is very much an interdisciplinary topic, drawing together elements of chemistry, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. It is an ingredient in many undergraduate degree programmes, ranging from a pivotal role in fuel science through to a component part of courses in chemical, process and building services engineering. For many students in those disciplines where combustion in heating plant is an important part of their studies, there are often problems in coming to grips with the basic principles underlying the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, the concepts of chemical and related thermodynamic changes can prove difficult to assimilate. The scientific literature dealing with combustion tends to be rather polarised, with a wealth of literature aimed at the specialist reader, but at a basic level the fundamentals of this important process are often treated rather tersely in textbooks on thermodynamics. The objective of this book is to provide an introduction to the basic principles of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in heating plant for buildings and industrial processes. In those chapters where practice in problem solving can make a positive contribution to understanding, some numerical problems have been included. Acknowledging the ever-widening use of computers in technical education, a number of algorithms which can be easily coded up for solving numerical problems have been incorporated in the text. These can prove particularly useful in, for example, the calculation of certain fluid properties, either for use in hand calculation or for incorporation into larger programs.
Completely revised and updated, this Second Edition of the critically acclaimed referenceprovides the very latest theoretical and practical data on filtration of gases and liquids.Filtration: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded features severalall-new chapters which detail filtration in the mineral industry, high-efficiency air filtration,cartridge filters, and ultrafiltration.The most authoritative and comprehensive guide to essential, state-of-the-art data, Filtration:Principles and Practices, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded is an indispensable referencefor industrial process and chemical engineers and scientists engaged in research, development,and production in the chemical, mineral, food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. Itis also a valuable reference for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in chemicalengineering courses in unit operations.
Featuring over 250 lab exercises, this lab manual is designed to provide practice for all activities performed in the refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning industry, with exercises correlated to the following solutions: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology,7e, 8e, 9e; Electricity for Refrigeration, Heating and Air Conditioning, 8e, 9e, 10e; Heat Pumps, 2e and RCA: HVAC, 2e.
Heat exchangers are essential in a wide range of engineering applications, including power plants, automobiles, airplanes, process and chemical industries, and heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems. Revised and fully updated with new problem sets, Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating, and Thermal Design, Fourth Edition presents a systematic treatment of heat exchangers, focusing on selection, thermal-hydraulic design, and rating. Topics discussed include Classification of heat exchangers Basic design methods of heat exchangers for sizing and rating problems Single-phase forced convection correlations for heat exchangers Pressure drop and pumping power for heat exchangers and piping circuits Design methods of heat exchangers subject to fouling Thermal design methods and processes for double-pipe, shell-and-tube, gasketed-plate, compact, and polymer heat exchangers Two-phase convection correlations for heat exchangers Thermal design of condensers and evaporators Micro/nanoheat transfer The Fourth Edition contains updated information about microscale heat exchangers and the enhancement heat transfer for applications to heat exchanger design and experiment with nanofluids. The Fourth Edition is designed for courses/modules in process heat transfer, thermal systems design, and heat exchanger technology. This text includes full coverage of all widely used heat exchanger types. A complete solutions manual and figure slides of the text's illustrations are available for qualified adopting instructors.
This text provides background information, description, and analysis of four major cooling system technologies-vapor compression cooling, evaporative cooling, absorption cooling, and gas cooling. Vapor compression systems are currently the primary technology used in most standard domestic, commercial, and industrial cooling applications, as they have both performance and economic advantages over the other competing cooling systems. However, there are many other applications in which evaporative cooling, absorption cooling, or gas cooling technologies are a preferred choice. The main focus of the text is on the application of the thermal sciences to refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The goals are to familiarize the reader with cooling technology nomenclature, and provide insight into how refrigeration and air conditioning systems can be modeled and analyzed.Cooling systems are inherently complex, as the second law of thermodynamics does not allow thermal energy to be transferred directly from a lower temperature to a higher temperature, so the heat transfer is done indirectly through a thermodynamic cycle. Emphasis is placed on constructing idealized thermodynamic cycles to represent actual physical situations in cooling systems. The text also contains numerous practical examples to show how one can calculate the performance of cooling system components. By becoming familiar with the analyses presented in the examples, one can gain a feel for the the representative values of the various thermal and mechanical parameters that characterize cooling systems.
Introduction to Plant Automation and Controls addresses all aspects of modern central plant control systems, including instrumentation, control theory, plant systems, VFDs, PLCs, and supervisory systems. Design concepts and operational behavior of various plants are linked to their control philosophies in a manner that helps new or experienced engineers understand the process behind controls, installation, programming, and troubleshooting of automated systems. This groundbreaking book ties modern electronic-based automation and control systems to the special needs of plants and equipment. It applies practical plant operating experience, electronic-equipment design, and plant engineering to bring a unique approach to aspects of plant controls including security, programming languages, and digital theory. The multidimensional content, supported with 500 illustrations, ties together all aspects of plant controls into a single-source reference of otherwise difficult-to-find information. The increasing complexity of plant control systems requires engineers who can relate plant operations and behaviors to their control requirements. This book is ideal for readers with limited electrical and electronic experience, particularly those looking for a multidisciplinary approach for obtaining a practical understanding of control systems related to the best operating practices of large or small plants. It is an invaluable resource for becoming an expert in this field or as a single-source reference for plant control systems. Author Raymond F. Gardner is a professor of engineering at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York, and has been a practicing engineer for more than 40 years.
This guide will keep you cool
Solar technologies are emerging as the sustainable technology of choice for those commissioning new buildings. Integrated photovoltaics offer huge potential for delivering renewable energy without generating harmful pollutants.
Discussing current market conditions and the economics of this technology, the author balances the physics and engineering background of solar heating, cooling and building integrated photovoltaics with practical applications.
A complete overview of solar technologies relevant to the built environment, this book
Solar Technologies for Buildings is an excellent reference for scientists, engineers, planners, researchers and students, involved in developing solar energy systems. Architects integrating solar technologies in building design will find this application-orientated approach useful.
The hands-on daylighting resource to solve a variety of design issues
From evaluation to implementation, Daylighting Performance and Design is a veritable catalog of daylighting strategies, building materials, and methods of construction. This Second Edition offers up-to-date case studies, the latest glazing techniques, new discussions on productivity and human performance, and valuable knowledge on the impact of daylighting on interior spaces. With hands-on guidance, step-by-step instructions, and concise information, this resource stands alone in the field of architectural design.
Real-world execution of design concepts are illustrated by a wide range of case studies that include such structures as:
United Gulf Bank
Newport Coast Elementary School
Nike European Headquarters
Unlike other books that get bogged down in overly complex detail and laborious language, Daylighting Performance and Design is a highly visual resource with clear information and straight-to-the-solution examples. From saving energy and money to increasing productivity in schools and offices, all aspects of the latest advances in theory, calculations, and execution techniques are available here. Busy professionals can find explanations at a glance with more than 175 striking illustrations and many visual examples.
Complete with extensive appendices featuring invaluable data, worksheets, and forms, Daylighting Performance and Design, Second Edition is an essential volume for everyone interested in architectural design that is sensitive to the environment.
This book, based on the research experience and outcomes of a group of international contributors, addresses a range of advanced energy efficiency technologies and their applications in solar heating, cooling and power generation, while also providing solutions for tackling recurring low efficiency problems in today's systems. It highlights the latest technologies and methods, which can significantly improve the performance of solar systems, enabling readers to design, construct and apply high-performance solar systems in or for their own projects. The contributors provide a systematic introduction to state-of-the-art energy efficiency technologies that demonstrates how to implement innovative solar systems. These technologies include: * heat pipes and loop heat pipes; * phase change materials (PCMs) and PCM slurries; * micro-channel panels; * desiccant/adsorption cycling; * ejector cooling and heat pumps; and * solar concentration and thermoelectric units. The book shows how innovative solar systems applicable to rural and urban buildings can be analysed and demonstrates the successful implementation of these advanced technologies. It delivers the design principles and associated energy performance assessment methods for a range of selected solar heating, cooling and power generation projects. This book offers a valuable source of information for final-year undergraduate students, as well as graduate students and academic lecturers, as it promotes the widespread deployment of advanced solar heating, cooling and power generation technologies applicable for buildings across the globe. The book is also a good point of reference for design engineers and energy consultants who wish to extend their knowledge of advanced technologies used to achieve energy efficiency.
This report summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, whether in the public or private sector.
This textbook covers fundamental and advanced concepts of computational fluid dynamics, a powerful and essential tool for fluid flow analysis. It discusses various governing equations used in the field, their derivations, and the physical and mathematical significance of partial differential equations and the boundary conditions. It covers fundamental concepts of finite difference and finite volume methods for diffusion, convection-diffusion problems both for cartesian and non-orthogonal grids. The solution of algebraic equations arising due to finite difference and finite volume discretization are highlighted using direct and iterative methods. Pedagogical features including solved problems and unsolved exercises are interspersed throughout the text for better understanding. The textbook is primarily written for senior undergraduate and graduate students in the field of mechanical engineering and aerospace engineering, for a course on computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The textbook will be accompanied by teaching resources including a solution manual for the instructors. Written clearly and with sufficient foundational background to strengthen fundamental knowledge of the topic. Offers a detailed discussion of both finite difference and finite volume methods. Discusses various higher-order bounded convective schemes, TVD discretisation schemes based on the flux limiter essential for a general purpose CFD computation. Discusses algorithms connected with pressure-linked equations for incompressible flow. Covers turbulence modelling like k- , k- , SST k- , Reynolds Stress Transport models. A separate chapter on best practice guidelines is included to help CFD practitioners.
The definitive M&E price book with additions to the measured works, updates to approximate estimating and new engineering features. Spon's Mechanical and Electrical Services Price Book 2021 continues to be the most comprehensive and best annual services engineering price book currently available, providing detailed pricing information across the full range of mechanical and electrical services, together with higher-level costs for a diverse range of systems and different building applications. Use the access code inside the front cover of the book to get set up with an ebook of this 2021 edition on the VitalSource (R) Bookshelf platform, available for access and use until the end of December 2021. In this year's book: * An overhaul of the uninterruptible power supply section, and revised costs for air source heat pumps * new items including: - HDPE pipe for above ground drainage systems - fire protection mist systems - electric vehicle chargers * new engineering features: data centre cooling, later living developments, residential heat pumps, large scale heat pumps, and local energy networks * Articles on intelligent buildings to boost productivity efficiency and well being, ways data analytics is transforming BIM, digital delivery and the design process, and coronavirus and the future of work All the standard features you have come to expect from Spon's Mechanical and Electrical Services Price Book are also included, considered essential for today's services cost professional: * detailed materials prices, labour constants, labour costs and measured work prices for mechanical and electrical works, from above ground drainage to automatic transfer switches, and circuit breakers to sprinkler systems * an extensive Approximate Estimating section for quick, rule-of-thumb pricing of mechanical or electrical installations, together with elemental services costs for different types and standard of buildings * full details of wage rates, daywork and cost indices on a national and Central London basis. * an overhauled index and guidance notes * updates, free of charge, twice a year - see inside for registration details. Updates are available online at www.pricebooks.co.uk
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources.
This comprehensive handbook and essential reference provides instant access to all the data, calculations, and equations needed for modern HVAC design. It details up-to-the-minute design methods, operation and maintenance procedures, and energy conservation and efficiency tools; and provides a single volume solution to a myriad of HVAC design needs.
This book presents the comprehensive results of experimental and numerical investigations of glass facade breakage behavior under fire conditions. First of all, full-scale frame and point-supported glass facades, incorporating single, double and coated glazing, were tested under pool fire conductions. The results determined the effects of different glass frames, types of glass, and thermal shocks on breakage behavior. Small-scale tests, using the Material Testing System (MTS) 810, Netzsch Dilatometer and FE-SEM, were also performed at different temperatures to determine the basic mechanical properties of glazing. In addition, a three-dimensional dynamic model was developed to predict stress distribution, crack initiation and propagation, and has since been employed to identify the breakage mechanisms of different types of glass facade. The numerical results showed very good agreement with the experimental results and verified the model's ability to accurately predict breakage. Lastly, a theoretical model based on incident heat flux was developed to predict the breakage time and heat transfer in glazing, which served to reveal the nature of interactions between fire and glass.
The fully revised and restructured two-volume 2nd edition of the Industrial Ventilation Design Guidebook develops a systematic approach to the engineering design of industrial ventilation systems and provides engineers guidance on how to implement this state-of-the-art ventilation technology on a global basis. Volume 1: Fundamentals features the latest research technology in the broad field of ventilation for contaminant control including extensive updates of the foundational chapters from the previous edition. With major contributions by experts from Asia, Europe and North America in the global industrial ventilation field, this new edition is a valuable reference for consulting engineers working in the design of air pollution and sustainability for their industrial clients (processing and manufacturing), as well as mechanical, process and plant engineers looking for design methodologies and advice on sensors and control algorithms for specific industrial operations so they can meet challenging targets in the low carbon economy.
Fundamentals of Building Performance Simulation pares the theory and practice of a multi-disciplinary field to the essentials for classroom learning and real-world applications. Authored by a veteran educator and researcher, this textbook equips graduate students and emerging and established professionals in engineering and architecture to predict and optimize buildings' energy use. It employs an innovative pedagogical approach, introducing new concepts and skills through previously mastered ones and deepening understanding of familiar themes by means of new material. Covering topics from indoor airflow to the effects of the weather, the book's 19 chapters empower learners to: Understand the models and assumptions underlying popular BPS tools Compare models, simulations, and modelling tools and make appropriate selections Recognize the effects of modelling choices and input data on simulation predictions And more. Each subject is introduced without reference to particular modelling tools, while practice problems at the end of each chapter provide hands-on experience with the tools of the reader's choice. Curated reading lists orient beginners in a vast, cross-disciplinary literature, and the critical thinking skills stressed throughout prepare them to make contributions of their own. Fundamentals of Building Performance Simulation provides a much-needed resource for new and aspiring members of the building science community.
Experimental Methods in Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics focuses on how to analyze and solve the classic heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurement problems in one book. This work serves the need of graduate students and researchers looking for advanced measurement techniques for thermal, flow, and heat transfer engineering applications. The text focuses on analyzing and solving classic heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurement problems, emphasizing fundamental principles, measurement techniques, data presentation, and uncertainty analysis. Overall, the text builds a strong and practical background for solving complex engineering heat transfer and fluid flow problems. Features Provides students with an understandable introduction to thermal-fluid measurement Covers heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurements from basic to advanced methods Explains and compares various thermal-fluid experimental and measurement techniques Uses a step-by-step approach to explaining key measurement principles Gives measurement procedures that readers can easily follow and apply in the lab
The ultimate guide to the retrofitting of lighting for greater efficiency and performance
Retrofitting outdated energy-guzzling lighting components with green energy-saving alternatives is a process that promotes sustainability and offers significant benefits for businesses, contractors, and the community at large. Not only can retrofitting improve the overall quality and functionality of light, it also can make spaces safer, easier and less costly to maintain, and more comfortable to inhabit. From lighting technology to retrofit financial analysis, Lighting Retrofit and Relighting evaluates the latest lighting system types, then demonstrates how to apply them for the greatest functional and cost-saving benefit. This book:
Discusses the recent advances in lighting equipment and retrofittable controls, for both interior and outdoor use
Explains how to do a lighting audit to identify and evaluate logical retrofit choices
Includes case studies of retrofits, illustrating improvements in the quality and efficacy of new lighting
Demonstrates how cost savings realized over time can not only pay for new equipment but produce a return on the investment
"Lighting Retrofit and Relighting" serves as an ideal reference for students or professionals--whether they are energy auditors, designers, installers, facilities managers, or manufacturers--by taking a close look at the most current lighting technology illuminating pathways toward a brighter future.
Today's buildings consume more energy than any other sector of the U.S. economy, including transportation and industry. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that energy consumption in buildings will exceed 50 quads in the next two decades. Investment in energy efficiency research and development (R&D) within the buildings sector could significantly reduce energy consumption. This book discusses the building technologies program, as well as technologies and products supported by them.
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