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This book describes in depth the fundamental effects of buoyancy, a key force in driving air and transporting heat and pollutants around the interior of a building. It is essential reading for anyone involved in the design and operation of modern sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, whether a student, researcher or practitioner. The book presents new principles in natural ventilation design and addresses surprising, little-known natural ventilation phenomena that are seldom taught in architecture or engineering schools. Despite its scientific and applied mathematics subject, the book is written in simple language and contains no demanding mathematics, while still covering both qualitative and quantitative aspects of ventilation flow analysis. It is therefore suitable for both non-expert readers who just want to develop intuition of natural ventilation design and control (such as architects and students) and for those possessing more expertise whose work involves quantifying flows (such as engineers and building scientists).
This book presents selected papers from the 11th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (ISHVAC 2019), with a focus on HVAC techniques for improving indoor environment quality and the energy efficiency of heating and cooling systems. Presenting inspiration for implementing more efficient and safer HVAC systems, the book is a valuable resource for academic researchers, engineers in industry, and government regulators.
This book is the result of recent research that deals with the built environment and innovative materials, carried out by specialists working in universities and centers of research in different professional fields architecture, engineering, physics and in an area that that spans from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, and from South Eastern Europe to the Middle East. This book takes the necessity of re-shaping the concept of building design in order to transform buildings from large scale energy consumers to energy savers and producers into consideration. The book is organized in two parts: theory and case studies. For the theoretical part, we chose from the wide range of sources that provide energy efficient materials and systems the two that seem to be endless: the sun and vegetation. Their use in building products represents a tool for specialists in the architectural design concept. The case-studies presented analyze different architectural programs, in different climates, from new buildings to rehabilitation approaches and from residential architecture to hospitals and sports arenas; each case emphasizes the interdisciplinarity of the building design activity in order to help readers gain a better understanding of the complex approach needed for energy efficient building design
The second edition of Ventilation Control of the Work Environment
incorporates changes in the field of industrial hygiene since the
first edition was published in 1982. Integrating feedback from
students and professionals, the new edition includes problems sets
for each chapter and updated information on the modeling of exhaust
ventilation systems, and thus assures the continuation of the
book's role as the primary industry textbook.
This book focuses on solar energy conversion systems that can be implemented in the built environment, at building or at community level. The quest for developing a sustainable built environment asks for specific solutions to provide clean energy based on renewable sources, and solar energy is considered one of the cleanest available energy on Earth. The specific issues raised by the implementation location are discussed, including the climatic profile distorted by the buildings, the available surface on the buildings for implementation, etc. This book also discusses the seasonal and diurnal variability of the solar energy resource in parallel with the variability of the electrical and thermal energy demand in the built environment (particularly focusing on the residential buildings). Solutions are proposed to match these variabilities, including the development of energy mixes with other renewables (e.g. geothermal or biomass, for thermal energy production). Specific solutions, including case studies of systems implemented on buildings all over the world, are presented and analyzed for electrical and for thermal energy production and the main differences in the systems design are outlined. The conversion efficiency (thus the output) and the main causes of energy losses are considered in both cases. The architectural constraints are additionally considered and novel solar energy convertors with different shapes and colors are presented and discussed. The durability of the solar energy conversion systems is analyzed considering the specific issues that occur when these systems are implemented in the built environment; based on practical examples, general conclusions are formulated and specific aspects are discussed in relation to experimental results and literature data. With renewables implemented in the built environment likely to expand in the near future, this book represents welcome and timely material for all professionals and researchers that are aiming to provide efficient and feasible solutions for the sustainable built environment.
This book has been written by two experts in ventilation and indoor air quality with vast experience in the field of kitchen ventilation in both Asia and Europe. The authors share their extensive knowledge of the subject and present the results of their research programs as well those of other researchers. Discussing advanced theories of and design approaches for kitchen ventilation, it is a useful reference resource for a wide range of readers, including HVAC researchers, designers and architects.
Overheating in buildings is commonplace. This book describes how we can keep cool without conventional air-conditioning: improving comfort and productivity while reducing energy costs and carbon emissions. It provides architects, engineers and policy makers with a 'how-to' guide to the application of natural cooling in new and existing buildings. It demonstrates, through reference to numerous examples, that natural cooling is viable in most climates around the world. This completely revised and expanded second edition includes: An overview of natural cooling past and present. Guidance on the principles and strategies that can be adopted. A review of the applicability of different strategies. Explanation of simplified tools for performance assessment. A review of components and controls. A detailed evaluation of case studies from the USA, Europe, India and China. This book is not just for the technical specialist, as it also provides a general grounding in how to avoid or minimise air-conditioning. Importantly, it demonstrates that understanding our environment, rather than fighting it, will help us to live sustainably in our rapidly warming world.
Current Standards for Indoor Air Temperature are inappropriate in many regions of the world. This forces designers to use highly serviced buildings to achieve air temperatures that accord with the standards to the detriment of the local and global environment. Standards for Thermal Comfort brings together contributions from around the world, reflecting new approaches to the setting of standards which can apply to all climates and cultures.
Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet effective way of using solar energy for space heating and tempering ventilation air. They offer some unique advantages over solar water systems, can offer improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains than passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated buildings. They can be economical, with short pay-back periods and can act not only as space heating or ventilation air heating but also for water pre-heating, sunshading, electricity generation (with hybrid photovoltaic systems) and can help induce cooling. This design handbook takes architects and building engineers through the process of designing and selecting an active solar system from the six types presented, optimizing the system using nomograms and curves, and finally dimensioning the components of the system. Tips are offered regarding the construction and how to avoid problems. The book will provide essential design information for all architects, building engineers and other building design professionals and all those concerned to reduce the environmental impact of buildings.
Das Lehrbuch bietet eine kompakte und pragnante Darstellung der Mechanik elastischer Korper und Strukturen. Es beschrankt die Stofffulle auf das Wesentliche, schlagt aber auch Brucken zu Spezialdisziplinen Struktur- und Festkorpermechanik und zur immer wichtiger werdenden Computer-orientierten Mechanik. Nach einer Einfuhrung in die Grundlagen werden ebene Probleme, raumliche Probleme, Variations- und Energieprinzipien behandelt. Weitere Kapitel gehen auf die Mechanik von Platten, Rotationsschalen und ebenen Laminaten ein. Ein Buch fur Studenten des Maschinenbaus und Bauingenieurwesens an Universitaten und Fachhochschulen ebenso wie fur Fachleute und Praktiker in Industrie und Forschung.
This book sheds light on environmental control in buildings from the 17th century onwards. Even before building services became a hallmark of buildings, in order to address increasing sanitary and comfort needs, pioneering experiences had contributed to improve design skills of professionals. After long being determined by passive features, indoor climate became influenced by installations and plants, representing the most significant shift of paradigm in the modern age's construction history. This change was not without consequences, and the book presents contributions showing the deep connection between architectural design, comfort requirements and environmental awareness throughout the 19th century. Taking into account the differences between different European countries, the book is a valuable resource for architects, designers and heritage professionals who are interested in environmental design, enabling them to develop a deeper knowledge of heritage in order to address to climate demands, particularly going towards a future in which energy savings and fuel consumption reduction will dictate our behaviour. It includes contributions by leading international experts: Melanie Bauernfeind, Marco Cofani, Lino Vittorio Bozzetto, Emmanuelle Gallo, Alberto Grimoldi, Dean Hawkes, Angelo Giuseppe Landi, Mattias Legner, Oriel Prizeman, and Henrik Schoenefeldt.
This textbook teaches the fundamentals of building energy modeling and analysis using open source example applications built with the US DOE's OpenStudio modeling platform and EnergyPlus simulation engine. Designed by researchers at US National Laboratories to support a new generation of high performance buildings, EnergyPlus and OpenStudio are revolutionizing how building energy modeling is taught in universities and applied by professional architects and engineers around the world. The authors, all researchers at National Renewable Energy Laboratory and members of the OpenStudio software development team, present modeling concepts using open source software that may be generally applied using a variety of software tools commonly used by design professionals. The book also discusses modeling process automation in the context of OpenStudio Measures-small self-contained scripts that can transform energy models and their data-to save time and effort. They illustrate key concepts through a sophisticated example problem that evolves in complexity throughout the book. The text also examines advanced topics including daylighting, parametric analysis, uncertainty analysis, design optimization, and model calibration. Building Energy Modeling with OpenStudio teaches students to become sophisticated modelers rather than simply proficient software users. It supports undergraduate and graduate building energy courses in Architecture, and in Mechanical, Civil, Architectural, and Sustainability Engineering.
This collection focuses on the development of novel approaches to address one of the most pressing challenges of civil engineering, namely the mitigation of natural hazards. Numerous engineering books to date have focused on, and illustrate considerable progress toward, mitigation of individual hazards (earthquakes, wind, and so forth.). The current volume addresses concerns related to overall safety, sustainability and resilience of the built environment when subject to multiple hazards: natural disaster events that are concurrent and either correlated (e.g., wind and surge); uncorrelated (e.g., earthquake and flood); cascading (e.g., fire following earthquake); or uncorrelated and occurring at different times (e.g., wind and earthquake). The authors examine a range of specific topics including methodologies for vulnerability assessment of structures, new techniques to reduce the system demands through control systems; instrumentation, monitoring and condition assessment of structures and foundations; new techniques for repairing structures that have suffered damage during past events, or for structures that have been found in need of strengthening; development of new design provisions that consider multiple hazards, as well as questions from law and the humanities relevant to the management of natural and human-made hazards.
In this book, leading international experts explore the emerging concept of the zero energy mass custom home (ZEMCH) - designed to meet the need for social, economic, and environmental sustainability - and provide all of the knowledge required for the delivery of zero energy mass customized housing and community developments in developed and developing countries. The coverage is wide ranging, progressing from explanation of the meaning of sustainable development to discussion of challenges and trends in mass housing, the advantages and disadvantages of prefabricated methods of construction, and the concepts of mass customization, mass personalization, and inclusive design. A chapter on energy use will aid the reader in designing and retrofitting housing to reduce energy demand and/or improve energy end-use efficiency. Passive design strategies and active technologies (especially solar) are thoroughly reviewed. Application of the ZEMCH construction criteria to new buildings and refurbishment of old houses is explained and the methods and value of building performance simulation, analyzed. The concluding chapter presents examples of ZEMCH projects from around the world, with discussion of marketing strategy, design, quality assurance, and delivery challenges. The book will be invaluable as a training/teaching tool for both students and industry partners.
This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.
This book provides a synthesis of recent developments in Axiomatic Design theory and its application in large complex systems. Introductory chapters provide concise tutorial materials for graduate students and new practitioners, presenting the fundamentals of Axiomatic Design and relating its key concepts to those of model-based systems engineering. A mathematical exposition of design axioms is also provided. The main body of the book, which represents a concentrated treatment of several applications, is divided into three parts covering work on: complex products; buildings; and manufacturing systems. The book shows how design work in these areas can benefit from the scientific and systematic underpinning provided by Axiomatic Design, and in so doing effectively combines the state of the art in design research with practice. All contributions were written by an international group of leading proponents of Axiomatic Design. The book concludes with a call to action motivating further research into the engineering design of large complex systems.
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