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This new edition of A Guide to Energy Management in Buildings begins by asking why we need to control energy use in buildings and proceeds to discuss how the energy consumption of a building can be assessed or estimated through an energy audit. It then details a range of interventions to reduce energy use and outlines methods of assessing the cost-effectiveness of such measures. Topics covered include: where and how energy is used in buildings energy audits measuring and monitoring energy use techniques for reducing energy use in buildings legislative issues. And new in this edition: the cooling of buildings fuel costs and smart metering and education and professional recognition. It provides a template for instigating the energy-management process within an organization, as well as guidance on management issues such as employee motivation, and gives practical details on how to carry the process through. This book should appeal to building and facilities managers and also to students of energy management modules in FE and HE courses.
The Practice Of Producing Solar Energy Using Photovoltaics Has Become A Thriving Industry World-Wide, But Finding Trained Individuals To Safely Install These Complex Systems Can Be A Challenge. Introduction To Photovoltaic Installations Provides Readers With The Knowledge Needed To Install Major PV Components, Including Sections On System Safety, Installation Criteria, Installation Of Different Systems Types, And More. Readers Will Also Learn How To Mechanically Integrate And Label Components, As Well As Review Completed Installations. Introduction To Photovoltaic Installations Provides Readers With A Solid Foundation For Continuing Their PV Installation Career. About The Series: The Photovoltaics (PV) Industry Stands On The Brink Of A Revolution. The Appeal Of A New And Growing Industry Has Brought An Influx Of New PV Professionals To The Market, But The Availability Of Educational Resources Has Not Kept Pace With Market Demands. This Gap Has Led To Serious Quality And Performance Issues That The Industry Will Need To Face In The Decades Ahead. The Art And Science Of Photovoltaics Series Was Developed To Fill This Education Gap. Each Book In The Series Goes Beyond Simple Systematic Processes By Tackling Performance Challenges Using A Systems Perspective. Readers Do Not Learn PV Design And Installation Steps In A Vacuum; Instead They Gain The Knowledge And Expertise To Understand Interrelationships And Discover New Ways To Improve Their Own Systems And Positively Contribute To The Industry.
Air Distribution in Buildings is a concise and practical guide to air distribution system design and managing air conditioning systems in buildings. Making use of 40 years of experience in the design of air conditioning and ventilations systems, and other electromechanical services, this structured reference for built environment engineering offers in-depth coverage of air distribution technology. The text brings together a wide range of information and offers technical guidance on the design, calculation, and efficient operation of air distribution in buildings. The text highlights the special characteristics of air distribution in individual spaces. It presents the basic and fundamental concepts of air distribution as it relates to grilles and outlets, room space, and buildings. It focuses on air distribution systems in large buildings, starting with simple rooms and then moving on to more complex configurations. It also sums up the latest standards and best practices in air conditioning engineering. Includes knowledge of the new trends in buildings' air distribution Provides systematic analyses of the air flow regimes, heat transfer, and relative humidity in a collection of special built environments Presents energy analyses of the air conditioning systems for operating theaters and sporting facilities in unusual and severe climatic conditions Offers a description of flow characteristics in archeological monuments with emphasis on combating excessive moisture Introduces examples of very dense occupancy built environments, moisture sensitive environments, and open space air conditioning Details advanced treatment of flow characterization in large public buildings This text serves as an ideal resource for air conditioning engineers, contractors, and consultants. It also benefits mechanical and architectural engineering students.
In recent years, the sustainability and safety of perishable foods has become a major consumer concern, and refrigeration systems play an important role in the processing, distribution, and storage of such foods. To improve the efficiency of food preservation technologies, it is necessary to explore new technological and scientific advances both in materials and processes. The Handbook of Research on Advances and Applications in Refrigeration Systems and Technologies gathers state-of-the-art research related to thermal performance and energy-efficiency. Covering a diverse array of subjects-from the challenges of surface-area frost-formation on evaporators to the carbon footprint of refrigerant chemicals-this publication provides a broad insight into the optimization of cold-supply chains and serves as an essential reference text for undergraduate students, practicing engineers, researchers, educators, and policymakers.
With so many new lighting technologies available for a wide range of visual environments, how do you choose the options that best address the needs and improve the quality of life for various groups? Focusing on applications and everyday use of light sources, The Right Light: Matching Technologies to Needs and Applications provides a comprehensive explanation of all light sources to be used as a guide to choosing the right lighting technology. The book supplies a quick overview of the main characteristics of the existing technologies in the market and suggestions for appropriate technologies for a range of applications from health related issues to safety and security. The author characterizes different lamp technologies based on the large number of parameters required when choosing a light source. He makes suggestions based mainly on the qualities of the light such as color/wavelength of the light, color rendering index of the source, and, in the case of white light, the color temperature. Other parameters such as the luminous flux or the lifetime may play a role in some cases. From the improvement of the quality of life of people in their working and living spaces, to road safety or treatment of medical conditions and from managing cancer rates to improving the lives of vision impaired people, the correct choice of light sources and the appropriate lighting design can indeed make the difference between comfortable and problematic everyday life or indeed life and death. Whether you design work spaces, public spaces, or living spaces, this book examines the different technologies and their properties in a way that allows you to find the correct lighting solutions and light related answers for any space.
Intended for energy managers, electrical engineers, building managers, lighting designers, consultants, and other electrical professionals, this book provides a practical description of major lighting controls types and how to apply them. It's a comprehensive step-by-step educational tour of lighting automation technology and its practical design and application, with useful discussion about the purpose and benefits of lighting controls, emphasizing the achieving of relevant energy savings, as well as support of occupant visual needs and preferences. The book shows readers how to take advantage of the many benefits of today's sophisticated controls, including expanded energy saving opportunities, and increased flexibility, reliability and interoperability.
Heat pipes today find many applications, in areas such as electronics cooling, diecasting and injection moulding, heat recovery and energy conservation, de-icing, and manufacturing process temperature control.Heat Pipe Technology: Theory, Applications and Prospects contains the proceedings of an important international gathering of those at the cutting edge of research in the field, with representatives of more than 20 countries. In addition to the finest technical papers, a particularly valuable feature is the inclusion of a series of regional surveys portraying the latest developments worldwide.The inherent characteristics of heat pipes (passiveness, absence of moving parts, high thermal efficiency) suggest for them an increasingly major role in the evolution of new thermal engineering systems in the years ahead. This volume will undoubtedly be an important resource for researchers worldwide in heat pipe technology.
Control Harmful Emissions and Improve Work Conditions Local Exhaust Ventilation: Aerodynamic Processes and Calculations of Dust Emissions examines how emissions inherent to production processes in the metal, mining, chemical, and other industries can adversely affect the workplace by compromising a worker's health and/or contributing to the deterioration of equipment quality and performance. Professionals concerned with the aerodynamics of dust control ventilation, particularly at industrial plants, can greatly benefit from this book. This text considers the impact of emissions exposure to occupational safety and health and the environment, explores the practical purposes of industrial ventilation, and outlines how local exhaust ventilation can help control the emission of harmful substances in industry. The book outlines methods used for surveying currents in local exhaust ventilation systems and deals with the aerodynamics of loose-matter handling in porous ducts and the identification of regularities in air circulation patterns in bypass ducts. Topics covered include the determination of vortex field boundaries, development dynamics of vortex flow patterns, and interaction between the exhaust plume and inflow jets. Divided into two sections, this text: Examines the computations of gas-borne dust flows in local exhaust ventilation systems Provides practical recommendations for the energy-efficient containment of dust emissions Discusses basic approaches to operational energy savings for local exhaust ventilation systems Uses color photos throughout to illustrate dust behavior, flow lines, and patterns Local Exhaust Ventilation: Aerodynamic Processes and Calculations of Dust Emissions establishes local exhaust ventilation as the most reliable way to control the emission of harmful substances. This text incorporates solutions that reduce material carryover rates and decrease the volume of air evacuated by suction, adequately reducing the dust level in an industrial work area, and can help solve a number of problems related to industrial ventilation.
Develop a Complete and Thorough Understanding of Industrial Steam Systems Industrial Steam Systems: Fundamentals and Best Design Practices is a complete, concise user's guide for plant designers, operators, and other industry professionals involved with such systems. Focused on the proper safety design and setup of industrial steam systems, this text aligns essential principles with applicable regulations and codes. Incorporating design and operation guidelines from the latest available literature, it describes the industrial steam system equipment and its operation, outlines the requirements of a functioning boiler room, and explains how to design and engineer an industrial steam system properly. From Beginner to Advanced-All within a Single Volume Industrial steam systems are one of the main utility support systems used for almost all manufacturing. This text describes the design and operation of industrial steam systems in simple steps that are extremely beneficial for engineers, architects, and operators. The book help readers with the information needed for the steam systems professional engineering test and boiler operator's certificate. The text includes a sample project, executed in detail, to explain the system. It also presents relevant examples throughout the text to aid in faster learning. This author covers: Industrial steam system fundamentals and elementary information System setup and required equipment Applicable codes and regulations Equipment operation principals Best design practices for system setup, piping and instrumentation, equipment and pipe sizing, and equipment selection Execution of a sample project Industrial Steam Systems: Fundamentals and Best Design Practices presents an overview of the design, installation, and operation of industrial steam systems. Understanding the system setup, controls, and equipment, and their effect on each other enables readers to learn how to troubleshoot, maintain, and operate an industrial steam system that provides high quality steam efficiently.
In recent years, a great deal of attention and emphasis has been placed on the quality and safety of indoor air environments and what is commonly referred as "Sick Building Syndrome". This book has been developed by the recognized leaders in this field, The Environmental Protection Agency and The National Institute for Safety and Health. This manual is specifically for all Building Owners, Facility Managers and employers and is the ultimate resource on this topic.
The primary emphasis is on resolving existing indoor quality problems. Additional topics include air quality measurements, HVAC systems, molds, asbestos and radon. A complete section of evaluation forms allows you to evaluate existing conditions.
Climate change is one of the most important environmental problems faced by Planet Earth. The majority of CO2 emissions come from burning fossil fuels for energy production and improvements in energy efficiency shows the greatest potential for any single strategy to abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy sector. Energy related emissions account for almost 80% of the EU's total greenhouse gas emissions. The building sector is the largest energy user responsible for about 40% of the EU's total final energy consumption. In Europe the number of installed air conditioning systems has increased 500% over the last 20 years, but in that same period energy cooling needs have increased more than 20 times. The increase in energy cooling needs relates to the current higher living and working standards. In urban environments with low outdoor air quality (the general case) this means that in summer-time one cannot count on natural ventilation to reduce cooling needs. Do not forget the synergistic effect between heat waves and air pollution which means that outdoor air quality is worse in the summer aggravating cooling needs. Over the next few years this phenomenon will become much worse because more people will live in cities, more than 2 billion by 2050 and global warming will aggravate cooling needs.
Passive solar heating and passive cooling-approaches known as natural conditioning-provide comfort throughout the year by reducing, or eliminating, the need for fossil fuel. Yet while heat from sunlight and ventilation from breezes is free for the taking, few modern architects or builders really understand the principles involved. Now Dan Chiras, author of the popular book The Natural House, brings those principles up to date for a new generation of solar enthusiasts. The techniques required to heat and cool a building passively have been used for thousands of years. Early societies such as the Native American Anasazis and the ancient Greeks perfected designs that effectively exploited these natural processes. The Greeks considered anyone who didn't use passive solar to heat a home to be a barbarian! In the United States, passive solar architecture experienced a major resurgence of interest in the 1970s in response to crippling oil embargoes. With grand enthusiasm but with scant knowledge (and sometimes little common sense), architects and builders created a wide variety of solar homes. Some worked pretty well, but looked more like laboratories than houses. Others performed poorly, overheating in the summer because of excessive or misplaced windows and skylights, and growing chilly in the colder months because of insufficient thermal mass and insulation and poor siting. In The Solar House, Dan Chiras sets the record straight on the vast potential for passive heating and cooling. Acknowledging the good intentions of misguided solar designers in the past, he highlights certain egregious-and entirely avoidable-errors. More importantly, Chiras explains in methodical detail how today's home builders can succeed with solar designs. Now that energy efficiency measures including higher levels of insulation and multi-layered glazing have become standard, it is easier than ever before to create a comfortable and affordable passive solar house that will provide year-round comfort in any climate. Moreover, since modern building materials and airtight construction methods sometimes result in air-quality and even toxicity problems, Chiras explains state-of-the-art ventilation and filtering techniques that complement the ancient solar strategies of thermal mass and daylighting. Chiras also explains the new diagnostic aids available in printed worksheet or software formats, allowing readers to generate their own design schemes.
This is the first of three essential reference volumes for those concerned with the installation and servicing of domestic and industrial gas equipment. This volume explains the basic principles underlying the practical and theoretical aspects of installing and servicing gas appliances and associated equipment, from the basics of combustion, to burners, pressure and flow, transfer of heat, controls, as well as materials and processes, electrical aspects, and metering and measuring devices. The revised fifth edition is brought fully up to date with current Standards and legislation to reflect recent developments in industry, in line with requirements of the ACS Certificates of Competence and NVQs. Covering both natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, the many illustrations and worked examples included throughout the text will help the reader to understand the principles under discussion. Volume 1 of the Gas Service Technology Series will enable the reader to put into practice the safe installation and servicing procedures described in the companion volumes: Domestic Gas Installation Practice (Volume 2), and Industrial and Commercial Gas Installation Practice (Volume 3). Combining a comprehensive reference with practical application in real-world engineering contexts, Volume 1 provides an essential handbook for all aspects of fundamental gas servicing technology, ideal for both students new to the field as well as professionals and noneoperational professionals (e.g. specifiers, managers, supervisors) as an ongoing source of reference.
All new buildings, extensions and refurbishment work must comply with Building Regulations in order to protect the health and safety of building occupants. In recent years the regulations have become increasingly complex, making the process of demonstrating compliance more arduous. This well-established guide provides the construction industry with concise, clear guidance on the essentials of the Building Regulations, setting out the key compliance requirements to help designers and other construction professionals produce safe, attractive buildings. The third edition has been fully revised and updated to incorporate the 2015 amendments to the Building Regulations, including: * An optional higher standard of water efficiency for Requirement G2 (Water efficiency), which may be required as a planning condition. * A new fittings approach to water efficiency as an alternative to the Water Efficiency Calculator. * Amendment to guidance on solid waste storage in Part H (Drainage and waste disposal), which now requires consideration of local amenity when designing bin storage. * Division of Approved Document M into two volumes addressing dwellings and non-dwellings respectively. * Expansion of Requirement M4 (Access to and use of dwellings) to include three different accessibility categories for dwellings. Categories 2 and 3 are optional standards, which may be required as a planning condition. * The introduction of brand new Part Q (Security) with new provisions for domestic doors and windows in order to prevent unauthorised access. * Updating of references to standards and other documents. Fully updated and written to save time for hard-pressed users, the 3rd edition of Guide to the Building Regulations is the essential companion for architects, construction professionals and building control officers alike.
The Electrician's Guide to Emergency Lighting, 2nd Edition has been updated to take into account changes to the Code of Practice for the Emergency Escape Lighting of Premises in BS 5266:2011. The Code of Practice has undergone extensive changes to assist those engineers wishing to protect occupants from the hazards identified by risk assessments and also to evaluate existing premises to decide if they need to be upgraded to meet current requirements. The standard has also been expanded to give guidance to protect occupants from a sudden loss of the normal lighting supply. This guide is one of a number of publications prepared by the IET to provide guidance on specific areas of electrical installations in buildings. It takes into account the relevant parts of BS 7671 and BS 5266. This guide is essential for all electricians, electrical contractors and their managers, installation designers, and students in further education and professional training.
This good practice Guide supports informed customers and users of exterior lighting systems, providing a basis for evaluation of technical issues and decision-making on technology adoption, in order to achieve functional, budgetary and compliance requirements. It provides recommendations for decision making and appropriate approaches to the specification and procurement of energy efficient exterior lighting systems. The target audience for the guide includes those responsible for managing the specification, procurement and implementation of exterior lighting systems.
Our pocket reference books provide a wealth of practical information at your fingertips, whenever you need it. Rich in background detail, at-a-glance tables and diagrams, equations, and more, the Passive Solar Architecture Pocket Reference is a handy resource for architects, engineers and students.
The use of solar collectors for domestic hot water over the past 20 years has demonstrated that solar heating systems are now founded on a reliable and mature technology. However, the development of similar, but more complex, systems to provide both domestic hot water and space heating (solar combisystems) resulted in a diverse range of different designs that were not carefully optimized to reflect local climate and practice. Application of energy-efficient building strategies such as improved thermal insulation and use of low temperature heat supply systems is becoming increasingly common. This trend, combined with growing environmental awareness and the subsidies available in certain countries, favours an increase in market share for solar combisystems. The need for guidelines in selecting the appropriate system and designing this system according to the specific needs of the building and the local environment is therefore now increasingly pressing. This book fills that need.
Throughout the world, there is an increasing interest in ecological design of buildings, and natural ventilation has proved to be the most efficient low-energy cooling technique. Its practical application, however, is hindered by the lack of information on the complex relationship between the building and its urban environment. In this book, a team of experts provide first-hand information and tools on the efficient use of natural ventilation in urban buildings. Key design principles are explained, enabling readers to decide on the best solution for natural ventilation of buildings, taking into account climate and urban context. In the initial sketches, architects need answers to open problems such as 'what kind of solution to adopt' and 'how to modify existing strategies to exploit the potential of the site'. This book formalizes the multi-criteria analysis of candidate solutions based on quantitative and qualitative estimation of the driving forces (wind and buoyancy), as well as of the barriers induced by the urban environment (wind speed reduction, noise and pollution) and gives a methodology for optimal design of openings. The book is accompanied by a FREE CD, containing software for assessing the potential of a given site, estimating wind speed and dimensioning the openings for natural ventilation. The methodologies and tools are tested, self-contained and user friendly. About the editors The editors, Cristian Ghiaus and Francis Allard, are affiliated with the University of La Rochelle, France. The authors and reviewers combine expertise from universities, research institutions and industry in Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece, Portugal and Switzerland.
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