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*THE INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER AND WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM BOOK
A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and the Internet, 4e is ideal for courses in Computer Ethics and Computers and Society. Sara Baase explores the social, legal, philosophical, ethical, political, constitutional, and economic implications of computing and the controversies they raise. With a computer scientist's perspective, and with historical context for many issues, she covers the issues students will face both as members of a technological society and as professionals in computer-related fields. A primary goal is to develop computer professionals who understand the implications of what they create and how it fits into society at large.
How the history of technological revolutions can help us better understand economic and political polarization in the age of automation The Technology Trap is a sweeping account of the history of technological progress and how it has radically shifted the distribution of economic and political power among society's members. As Carl Benedikt Frey shows, the Industrial Revolution created unprecedented wealth and prosperity over the long run, but the immediate consequences of mechanization were devastating. Middle-income jobs withered, wages stagnated, the labor share of income fell, profits surged, and economic inequality skyrocketed. These trends broadly mirror those in our current age of automation. But, just as the Industrial Revolution eventually brought about extraordinary benefits for society, artificial intelligence systems have the potential to do the same. The Technology Trap demonstrates that in the midst of another technological revolution, the lessons of the past can help us to more effectively face the present.
Today's "machine-learning" systems, trained by data, are so effective that we've invited them to see and hear for us-and to make decisions on our behalf. But alarm bells are ringing. Recent years have seen an eruption of concern as the field of machine learning advances. When the systems we attempt to teach will not, in the end, do what we want or what we expect, ethical and potentially existential risks emerge. Researchers call this the alignment problem. Systems cull resumes until, years later, we discover that they have inherent gender biases. Algorithms decide bail and parole-and appear to assess Black and White defendants differently. We can no longer assume that our mortgage application, or even our medical tests, will be seen by human eyes. And as autonomous vehicles share our streets, we are increasingly putting our lives in their hands. The mathematical and computational models driving these changes range in complexity from something that can fit on a spreadsheet to a complex system that might credibly be called "artificial intelligence." They are steadily replacing both human judgment and explicitly programmed software. In best-selling author Brian Christian's riveting account, we meet the alignment problem's "first-responders," and learn their ambitious plan to solve it before our hands are completely off the wheel. In a masterful blend of history and on-the ground reporting, Christian traces the explosive growth in the field of machine learning and surveys its current, sprawling frontier. Readers encounter a discipline finding its legs amid exhilarating and sometimes terrifying progress. Whether they-and we-succeed or fail in solving the alignment problem will be a defining human story. The Alignment Problem offers an unflinching reckoning with humanity's biases and blind spots, our own unstated assumptions and often contradictory goals. A dazzlingly interdisciplinary work, it takes a hard look not only at our technology but at our culture-and finds a story by turns harrowing and hopeful.
In this explosive memoir, a political consultant and technology whistleblower reveals the disturbing truth about the multi-billion-dollar data industry, revealing to the public how companies are getting richer using our personal information and exposing how Cambridge Analytica exploited weaknesses in privacy laws to help elect Donald Trump. When Brittany Kaiser joined Cambridge Analytica - the UK-based political consulting firm funded by conservative billionaire and Donald Trump patron Robert Mercer - she was an idealistic young professional working on her fourth degree in human rights law and international relations. A veteran of Barack Obama's 2008 campaign, Kaiser's goal was to utilize data for humanitarian purposes, most notably to prevent genocide and human rights abuses. But her experience inside Cambridge Analytica opened her eyes to the tremendous risks that this unregulated industry poses to privacy and democracy. Targeted is Kaiser's eyewitness chronicle of the dramatic and disturbing story of the rise and fall of Cambridge Analytica. She reveals to the public how Facebook's lax policies and lack of sufficient national laws allowed voters to be manipulated in both Britain and the United States, where personal data was weaponised to spread fake news and racist messaging during the Brexit vote and the 2016 election. But the damage isn't done Kaiser warns; the 2020 election can be compromised as well if we continue to do nothing. In the aftermath of the U.S. election, as she became aware of the horrifying reality of what Cambridge Analytica had done in support of Donald Trump, Kaiser made the difficult choice to expose the truth. Risking her career, relationships, and personal safety, she told authorities about the data industry's unethical business practices, eventually testifying before Parliament. Packed with never-before-publicly-told stories, Targeted goes inside the secretive meetings with Trump campaign personnel and details the promises Cambridge Analytica made to win. Throughout, Kaiser makes the case for regulation, arguing that legal oversight of the data industry is not only justifiable but essential to ensuring the long-term safety of our democracy.
This book explores cognitive behavior among Internet of Things. Using a series of current and futuristic examples - appliances, personal assistants, robots, driverless cars, customer care, engineering, monetization, and many more - the book covers use cases, technology and communication aspects of how machines will support individuals and organizations. This book examines the Cognitive Things covering a number of important questions: * What are Cognitive Things? * What applications can be driven from Cognitive Things - today and tomorrow? * How will these Cognitive Things collaborate with each and other, with individuals and with organizations? * What is the cognitive era? How is it different from the automation era? * How will the Cognitive Things support or accelerate human problem solving? * Which technical components make up cognitive behavior? * How does it redistribute the work-load between humans and machines? * What types of data can be collected from them and shared with external organizations? * How do they recognize and authenticate authorized users? How is the data safeguarded from potential theft? Who owns the data and how are the data ownership rights enforced? Overall, Sathi explores ways in which Cognitive Things bring value to individuals as well as organizations and how to integrate the use of the devices into changing organizational structures. Case studies are used throughout to illustrate how innovators are already benefiting from the initial explosion of devices and data. Business executives, operational managers, and IT professionals will understand the fundamental changes required to fully benefit from cognitive technologies and how to utilize them for their own success.
In the digital age you can get into serious legal trouble at the click of a button.
The shift from passive Internet user to active digital citizen has brought about unprecedented levels of online interaction, creation and connecting. But as people begin to share more and more about themselves and their lives on social media, they are finding themselves getting into trouble for what they say and do online.
Emma Sadleir and Tamsyn de Beer, who together run one of South Africa’s leading social media law consultancies, point out the social traps and legal tangles that you could find yourself facing as you navigate the murky waters of the digital age. In a fun, witty and easily accessible way, this ground-breaking book details the legal, disciplinary and reputational risks that you, your company and your children face online.
By outlining the laws and rules applicable to what you do and say on social media, and providing practical and common sense advice, Don’t Film Yourself Having Sex ultimately shows you that in order to reap the extraordinary benefits of digital technology without succumbing to its risks, you need to start practising responsible digital citizenship.
In Blockchain Regulation and Governance in Europe, Michele Finck examines the relationship between blockchain technology and EU law and introduces the theme of blockchain governance. The book provides a general introduction to blockchains as both a regulatable and a regulatory technology and outlines the interaction between distributed ledger technology and specific areas of EU law, such as the General Data Protection Regulation. It should be read by anyone interested in EU law, the relationship between law, innovation and technology, and technology governance.
This volume presents the proceedings of ECSCW 2015, the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, organized by the University of Oslo, Norway. The conference provides a venue for exploring novel, open and critical approaches to the multidisciplinary nature of social and collaborative technologies and work practices, critically reviewing new and established theories and research, forever committed to high scientific standards, both theoretical and methodological. These proceedings consist of 14 full and 3 exploratory papers, which reflect the lively debate currently ongoing within the CSCW field, focusing on work and enterprise and the challenges of involving various types of people like citizens, patients and software developers into collaborative settings. The blurring boundaries between home and work are explored and recent and emergent new technologies supporting collaborative work are introduced. With contributions from all over the world, the chapters provide interesting perspectives, helping to focus the European perspective within the CSCW community. This collection will be of interest to researchers and practitioners alike as it combines an understanding of the nature of technology within both the workplace and wider society
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the IFIP WG 8.2 Working Conference on Information Systems and Organizations, IS&O 2014, held in Auckland, New Zealand, in December 2014. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 28 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: IS/IT implementation and appropriation; ethnographic account of IS use; structures and networks; health care IS, social media; and IS design.
A Financial Times 'Best Thing I Read This Year' LONGLISTED FOR THE FT & MCKINSEY BUSINESS BOOK OF THE YEAR AWARD Google. Amazon. Facebook. The modern world is defined by vast digital monopolies turning ever-larger profits. Those of us who consume the content that feeds them are farmed for the purposes of being sold ever more products and advertising. Those that create the content - the artists, writers and musicians - are finding they can no longer survive in this unforgiving economic landscape. But it didn't have to be this way. In Move Fast and Break Things, Jonathan Taplin offers a succinct and powerful history of how online life began to be shaped around the values of the entrepreneurs like Peter Thiel and Larry Page who founded these all-powerful companies. Their unprecedented growth came at the heavy cost of tolerating piracy of books, music and film, while at the same time promoting opaque business practices and subordinating the privacy of individual users to create the surveillance marketing monoculture in which we now live. It is the story of a massive reallocation of revenue in which $50 billion a year has moved from the creators and owners of content to the monopoly platforms. With this reallocation of money comes a shift in power. Google, Facebook and Amazon now enjoy political power on par with Big Oil and Big Pharma, which in part explains how such a tremendous shift in revenues from creators to platforms could have been achieved and why it has gone unchallenged for so long. And if you think that's got nothing to do with you, their next move is to come after your jobs. Move Fast and Break Things is a call to arms, to say that is enough is enough and to demand that we do everything in our power to create a different future.
Communications technology is advancing at such speed, heralding a world of choice and opportunity, that we sometimes struggle to navigate each new turn. And yet, with technology, as with life, we need to equip our children to make good choices and to deal with all the hidden dangers, as well as to take hold of the positive opportunities. Fully revised and updated to keep pace with this quickly changing digital world, Katharine Hill's clear, informative book explores the impact of the digital world on teenagers and younger children. Offering encouragement, wisdom and practical advice on topics such as screen time, social media and consumer culture, as well as how to tackle some of the more serious issues of online bullying, grooming and pornography, this book is a lifeline for parents, carers and teachers in an age of digital confusion. Whether you are a new parent or living with teenagers, a stranger to Snapchat or have 500 followers on Twitter, this book is for mums and dads who want to confidently parent in a world of screens.
From acclaimed Financial Times columnist and CNN analyst Rana Foroohar, comes this penetrating indictment of how today's biggest tech companies are hijacking our data, our livelihoods, and our minds.
Today Google and Facebook receive 90% of the world's news ad-spending. Amazon takes half of all e-commerce in the US. Google and Apple operating systems run on all but 1% of cell phones globally. And 80% of corporate wealth is now held by 10% of companies - not the GEs and Toyotas of this world, but the digital titans. How did we get here? How did the tech industry get to dominate our world so completely? How did once-idealistic and innovative companies come to manipulate elections, violate our privacy, and pose a threat to the fabric of our democracy? In Don't Be Evil, Financial Times global business columnist Rana Foroohar documents how Big Tech lost its soul - and became the new Wall Street.
Through her skilled reporting and unparalleled access - won through nearly 30 years covering business and technology - she shows the true extent to which the 'Faang's (Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix and Google) crush or absorb any potential competitors, hijack our personal data and mental space and offshore their exorbitant profits. What's more, she reveals how these threats to our democracies, our livelihoods and our minds are all intertwined. Yet Foroohar also lays out a plan for how we can resist, creating a framework that fosters innovation while also protecting us from the dark side of digital technology.
How the history of technological revolutions can help us better understand economic and political polarization in the age of automation From the Industrial Revolution to the age of artificial intelligence, The Technology Trap takes a sweeping look at the history of technological progress and how it has radically shifted the distribution of economic and political power among society's members. As Carl Benedikt Frey shows, the Industrial Revolution created unprecedented wealth and prosperity over the long run, but the immediate consequences of mechanization were devastating for large swaths of the population. Middle-income jobs withered, wages stagnated, the labor share of income fell, profits surged, and economic inequality skyrocketed. These trends, Frey documents, broadly mirror those in our current age of automation, which began with the Computer Revolution. Just as the Industrial Revolution eventually brought about extraordinary benefits for society, artificial intelligence systems have the potential to do the same. But Frey argues that this depends on how the short term is managed. In the nineteenth century, workers violently expressed their concerns over machines taking their jobs. The Luddite uprisings joined a long wave of machinery riots that swept across Europe and China. Today's despairing middle class has not resorted to physical force, but their frustration has led to rising populism and the increasing fragmentation of society. As middle-class jobs continue to come under pressure, there's no assurance that positive attitudes to technology will persist. The Industrial Revolution was a defining moment in history, but few grasped its enormous consequences at the time. The Technology Trap demonstrates that in the midst of another technological revolution, the lessons of the past can help us to more effectively face the present.
Donald Trump, the Arab Spring, Brexit: digital media have provided political actors and citizens with new tools to engage in politics. These tools are now routinely used by activists, candidates, non-governmental organizations, and parties to inform, mobilize, and persuade people. But what are the effects of this retooling of politics? Do digital media empower the powerless or are they breaking democracy? Have these new tools and practices fundamentally changed politics or is their impact just a matter of degree? This clear-eyed guide steps back from hyperbolic hopes and fears to offer a balanced account of what aspects of politics are being shaped by digital media and what remains unchanged. The authors discuss data-driven politics, the flow and reach of political information, the effects of communication interventions through digital tools, their use by citizens in coordinating political action, and what their impact is on political organizations and on democracy at large.
Cyber security has become a focal point for conflicting domestic and international interests, and increasingly for the projection of state power. The military utility of the cyber domain is linked to the economic and social potential of information and communications technologies (ICTs), while technologies with military and national-security applications have become essential to the conduct of modern life. In light of this, Evolution of the Cyber Domain provides a holistic review of the strategic, operational and technical issues at the centre of the international cyber-security debate. The Dossier charts and contextualises the key developments and trends that have shaped the cyber domain since the 1950s. As well as tracking the events and decisions underlying the military potential of ICTs, it examines the issues and policies that affect global governance of the internet. The Dossier analyses: * The geopolitics of international cyber security and technological development. * The challenges of creating methods for managing conflict within the cyber domain based on international law. * The tension between issues of privacy, freedom of information and national security. * Intelligence as a state practice in peace and war. * The development and use of cyber military capabilities. The Dossier is an important point of reference for further research and analysis on complex cyber-security issues, and it provides a series of insights into national positions, as well as regional and global agreements and policies. Evolution of the Cyber Domain is a useful resource for readers who seek a comprehensive picture of cyber affairs, and who wish to understand the social, economic and politico-military challenges that have guided the development and use of ICTs in the past six decades. By summarising the ways in which governments are addressing these challenges at the strategic level, it helps prepare decision-makers and researchers involved in the formulation of cyber-security policy, strategy and analysis. The Dossier also contains a glossary of the key terms and concepts in the cyber-security dialogue.
This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhao do Conhecimento/Ciencia Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: * Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close human-robot interactions in everyday households; robots for education and entertainment; and robots employed in elderly and other care applications * Mobile Robots: Self-driving vehicles, autonomous aircraft, trains, cars and drones * Robots used in medicine and for therapeutic purposes * Robots used in surveillance and military functions
Digital technologies should be making life easier. And to a large degree they are, transforming everyday tasks of work, consumption, communication, travel and play. But they are also accelerating and fragmenting our lives affecting our well-being and exposing us to extensive data extraction and profiling that helps determine our life chances. Initially, the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown seemed to create new opportunities for people to practice 'slow computing', but it quickly became clear that it was as difficult, if not more so, than during normal times. Is it then possible to experience the joy and benefits of computing, but to do so in a way that asserts individual and collective autonomy over our time and data? Drawing on the ideas of the 'slow movement', Slow Computing sets out numerous practical and political means to take back control and counter the more pernicious effects of living digital lives.
On publication of the previous edition of Computers and the Law, developments such as the Internet and electronic commerce were as yet unthought of. The second edition strives to bring the reader up to date with such developments. It also attempts to gauge the law's reaction, or lack of it, to these developments.
This unique text/reference advocates a novel forgetful approach to dealing with personal multimedia content in the long run, which is inspired by the effectiveness of human forgetting as a mechanism for helping us to stay focused on important things. The text presents theoretical foundations, technologies, applications, and case study results that help the reader to understand the problems and challenges associated with personal digital preservation, and the solutions that can be developed in response to these challenges. Topics and features: Highlights the value of an intelligent and selective approach to personal multimedia preservation, involving managed forgetting and contextualized remembering; considers how a conceptual understanding of human memory function can be used to inspire the design of digital managed preservation and forgetting; discusses methods that endow computers with capabilities to understand digital content, in order to support intelligent preservation decisions; examines the assessment of the importance of information items, introducing the concepts of memory buoyancy and preservation value; reviews methods for preserving the context associated with a digital item, and for assessing how this context evolves over time; proposes a reference model for the Preserve-or-Forget (PoF) approach which is integrative, value-driven, brain-inspired, forgetful, and evolution-aware; describes the integration of preservation functionalities in a Personal Information Management (PIM) application; presents a user study on a photo selection task, using the results to design methods for automatically selecting important photos from personal collections. This interdisciplinary volume provides significant insights from computer science, engineering and psychology that will be of great interest to researchers involved in multimedia and software engineering, multimedia preservation, cultural informatics, digital heritage, and the digital humanities.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 4th IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2015, held in London, UK, in June 2015. The 15 revised full papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, focusing on the integration of work analysis and interaction design methods for pervasive and smart workplaces. They are organized in the following sections: methodologies; environment, and specific contexts.
As inherently spatial beings, our sense of space in cyberspace
challenges all that is familiar in terms of our ability to define,
organize, govern, and map social places. In "The Political Mapping
of Cyberspace, " Jeremy Crampton shows that cyberspace is not the
virtual reality we think it to be, but instead a rich geography of
political practices and power relations.
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