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In Namibia the 1980s were a dark decade of human rights abuses by South African security forces. Judge David Smuts, then a young Windhoek lawyer, felt compelled to take on the system.
His gripping memoir details several dramatic cases, including the freeing of detainees that had been held secretly for six years, proving that torture was used to extract ‘confessions’ and that Koevoet knowingly killed civilians. Working with the likes of Sydney Kentridge, Geoff Budlender and Arthur Chaskalson, Smuts won legal victories and established a legal centre in the far North, where many misdeeds had taken place. Smuts also takes a fresh look at the assassination of Anton Lubowski, anti-apartheid activist and his close friend.
This highly readable real-life thriller about standing up for what is right sheds light on a shocking, largely untold part of our recent history.
In the Shade of an African Baobab: Tom Bennett's Legacy is a collection of essays published to honour and thank Tom Bennett for his generous contribution to scholarly work over the years in the field of legal pluralism and African jurisprudence, as well as for his mentorship and friendship. The book brings together a collection of work by esteemed scholars from multidisciplinary fields, though the work is focused on aspects of law, culture and religion. The common thread through all the contributions is Tom. His scholarly influence, visible in each of the contributions, can be compared to the mighty Baobab tree: a large iconic, culturally important and majestic tree indigenous to Africa.
There is already ample evidence that the new constitutional order has triggered an unprecedented flowering of South African jurisprudential debate. The aim of this book is to provide a sensitive and intuitive understanding of these debates. In addition, lecturers will be given an innovative approach to what has been previously regarded as a difficult, boring and irrelevant subject.
Inspired by Antonio Truyol y Serra's classic work, Doctrines sur le fondement du Droit des gens, this book offers a fully revised and updated examination and discussion of the various doctrines forming the foundations of international law. It offers an accessible insight into the theoretical background of the various legal constructions that characterize the relationship between both international and national legal orders. Written in a clear style, the book's structured chapters provide a comprehensive analysis of the various foundations of obligation in international law: natural law, positivism and sociologism. Through this study, Robert Kolb illustrates how international law has been conceived and shaped over time in relation to its evolving historical and legal-political environment. Split into seven substantive parts, this text is one of the most detailed expositions of the doctrines of international law in the English language to date. Astute and engaging, Robert Kolb's take on Truyol y Serra's Doctrines sur le fondement du Droit des gens will appeal to students and scholars of international law, as well as to practitioners interested in gaining a further grounding with regards to the basis of obligation in international law.
Legal academics in Europe publish a wide variety of materials including books, articles and essays, in an assortment of languages, and for a diverse readership. As a consequence, this variety can pose a problem for the evaluation of academic legal research. This thought-provoking book offers an overview of the legal and policy norms, methods and criteria applied in the evaluation of academic legal research, from a comparative perspective. The expert contributions explore developments relating to professional versus academic publications, editorial review versus peer review, rankings of journals and law schools versus other reputation mechanisms and a range of other evaluation practices and their intended and unintended effects. Analysing research evaluation practices across more than ten jurisdictions and multiple contexts, this insightful book reveals how evaluation practices differ across Europe. Through this analysis, the book exposes a range of possibilities for further debate and study. Engaging and topical, Evaluating Academic Legal Research in Europe will be valuable reading for legal academics, university and faculty managers, higher education policy makers and administrators as well as editors of law journals, legal publishers and research foundation and funding bodies.
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H.L.A. Hart is among the most important philosophers of the twentieth century, with an especially great influence on the philosophy of law. His 1961 book The Concept of Law has become an enduring classic of legal philosophy, and has also left a significant imprint on moral and political philosophy. In this volume, leading contemporary legal and political philosopher Matthew H. Kramer provides a crystal-clear analysis of Hart's contributions to our understanding of the nature of law. He elucidates and scrutinizes every major aspect of Hart's jurisprudential thinking, ranging from his general methodology to his defense of legal positivism. He shows how Hart's achievement in The Concept of Law, despite the evolution of debates in subsequent decades, remains central to contemporary legal philosophy because it lends itself to being reinterpreted in light of new concerns and interests. Kramer therefore pays particular attention to the strength of Hart's insights in the context of present-day disputes among philosophers over the reality of normative entities and properties and over the semantics of normative statements. This book is an invaluable guide to Hart's thought for students and scholars of legal philosophy and jurisprudence, as well as moral and political philosophy.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), established in South Africa after the collapse of apartheid, was the bold creation of a people committed to the task of rebuilding a nation and establishing a society founded upon justice, equality and respect for the rule of law. As part of its historic, cathartic mission, the TRC held a special hearing, calling to account the lawyers - judges, academics and members of the bar - who had been crucial participants in the apartheid legal order. This book is an account of those hearings, and an attempt to evaluate, in the light of the theories of adjudication, the historical role of the judiciary and bar in the apartheid years. It argues, often in the words of those who testified, how the judges failed in their duty to uphold the rule of law. For the most part, the lawyers of apartheid are found to have deserted its victims.;The few notable exceptions both illustrate the potential for lawyers to have done more and lay the basis for the respect the rule of law still enjoys in South Africa despite apartheid. Yet, the author argues, many continue to commit a more serious "crime". Failing to confront the past, and in many cases refusing even to attend TRC hearings, the lawyers who could have helped to resist the worst excesses of apartheid remain accomplices to its evil deeds. This book offers us the spectacle of an entire legal system on trial. The echoes from this process are captured here in a way that will appeal to all readers - lawyers and non-lawyers alike - interested in the relationship between law and justice, as it is exposed during a period of transition to democracy.
Does the competitive process constitute an autonomous societal value, or is it a means for achieving more reliable and measurable goals such as welfare, growth, integration, and innovation? This insightful book addresses this question from philosophical, legal and economic perspectives and demonstrates exactly why the competitive process is a value independent from other legitimate antitrust goals. Oles Andriychuk consolidates the normative theories surrounding freedom, market and competition by assessing their effective use within the matrix of EU competition policy. He outlines the broader context of the phenomenon of competition such as its pivotal role in the electoral system and its implications for free speech, and then goes on to investigate its relationship with the proponents of various antitrust-related goals. Further to this, some relevant solutions to persistent regulatory problems of antitrust are discussed. Timely and thought provoking, this book will be of interest to both students and scholars of European competition law, as well as those who are curious about its philosophical foundations. Offering deep insights into the nature of the competitive process, it will also appeal to judges and politicians weighing up antitrust goals.
Terrorism, the use of military force in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, and the fatal police shootings of unarmed persons have all contributed to renewed interest in the ethics of police and military use of lethal force and its moral justification. In this book, philosopher Seumas Miller analyzes the various moral justifications and moral responsibilities involved in the use of lethal force by police and military combatants, relying on a distinctive normative teleological account of institutional roles. His conception constitutes a novel alternative to prevailing reductive individualist and collectivist accounts. As Miller argues, police and military uses of lethal force are morally justified in part by recourse to fundamental natural moral rights and obligations, especially the right to personal self-defense and the moral obligation to defend the lives of innocent others. Yet the moral justification for police and military use of lethal force is to some extent role-specific. Both police officers and military combatants evidently have an institutionally-based moral duty to put themselves in harm's way to protect others. Under some circumstances, however, police have an institutionally based moral duty to use lethal force to uphold the law; and military combatants have an institutionally based moral duty to use lethal force to win wars. Two key notions in play are joint action and the natural right to self-defense. Miller uses a relational individualist theory of joint actions to construct the notion of multi-layered structures of joint action in order to explicate organizational action. He also provides a novel theory of justifiable killing in self-defense. Over the course of his book, Miller covers a variety of urgent topics, such as police shootings of armed offenders, police shooting of suicide-bombers, targeted killing, autonomous weapons, humanitarian armed intervention, and civilian immunity.
A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence is the first-ever multivolume treatment of the issues in legal philosophy and general jurisprudence, from both a theoretical and a historical perspective. The work is aimed at jurists as well as legal and practical philosophers. Edited by the renowned theorist Enrico Pattaro and his team, this book is a classical reference work that would be of great interest to legal and practical philosophers as well as to jurists and legal scholar at all levels. Thework is divided The theoretical part (published in 2005), consisting of five volumes, covers the main topics of the contemporary debate; the historical part, consisting of six volumes (Volumes 6-8 published in 2007; Volumes 9 and 10, published in 2009; Volume 11 published in 2011 and volume 12 forthcoming in 2012/2013), accounts for the development of legal thought from ancient Greek times through the twentieth century. The entire set will be completed with an index. Volume 12 Legal Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: The Civil Law World Volume 12 of A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence, titled Legal Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: The Civil-Law World, functions as a complement to Gerald Postema s volume 11 (titled Legal Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: The Common Law World), and it offers the first comprehensive account of the complex development that legal philosophy has undergone in continental Europe and Latin America since 1900. In this volume, leading international scholars from the different language areas making up the civil-law world give an account of the way legal philosophy has evolved in these areas in the 20th century, the outcome being an overall mosaic of civil-law legal philosophy in this arc of time. Further, specialists in the field describe the development that legal philosophy has undergone in the 20th century by focusing on three of its main subjects namely, legal positivism, natural-law theory, and the theory of legal reasoning and discussing the different conceptions that have been put forward under these labels. The layout of the volume is meant to frame historical analysis with a view to the contemporary theoretical debate, thus completing the Treatise in keeping with its overall methodological aim, namely, that of combining history and theory as a necessary means by which to provide a comprehensive account of jurisprudential thinking.
Legal Philosophy offers an engaging introduction to the most important themes shared by law and philosophy. It examines the key concepts that characterise what law tries, or ought to try to do, providing analysis of what leading thinkers and theorists from varying, often conflicting, schools of thought have contributed to our understanding of them. It examines concepts central to law, such as "person," "good," "right," "rules," and "justice" and, by taking this approach, aims to develop your students' skills around questioning and reasoning.
Important and original, this book presents an entirely new way of understanding Technology - as the successor to the dominant ideologies that have underpinned the thought and practices of the West. Like Deity, State and Market, Technology displays the features of a modern myth, promising to deal with our existential concerns by creating a fully empowered sense of the individual on condition of our subjection to it. David Grant and Lyria Bennett Moses examine the dynamics of each of these ideologies, showing how Technology shares their mythological characteristics. They argue that this new myth has not only dominated science to establish its credentials but, utilising robust empirical evidence, they show how law has been imbued with mythological thinking. Demonstrating that law adopts a mythological approach in attempting to regulate technology, they argue that the pathway out of this mythological maze is to establish a new sense of political, corporate and personal self-responsibility. Students and scholars working in the field of emerging technologies and their relationship to politics, corporations, science, law, ethics, and any combination thereof, will find herein a wealth of new directions for their studies. Legal theorists and legal philosophers in particular will find much food for thought in the presentation of this new paradigm.
Europe has reached a crisis point, with the call for self-determination and more autonomy stronger than it ever has been. In this book, renowned international lawyers give a detailed account of the present state of international law regarding self-determination and autonomy. Autonomy and Self-determination offers readers both an overview of the status quo of legal discussions on the topic and an identification of the most important elements of discussion that could direct future legal developments in this field. This is done through the examination of key issues in abstract and in relation to specific cases such as Catalonia, Italy and Scotland. The book extends past a simple assessment of issues of autonomy and self-determination according to a traditional legal viewpoint, and rather argues that utopian international law ideas are the breeding ground for norms and legal institutions of the future. This insightful book will be an invaluable read for international lawyers and political science scholars. It provides a clear, yet detailed, analysis of the issues Europe is facing regarding autonomy and self-determination in the face of historical context, also making it a useful tool for European history scholars.
This book has two aims. First, to provide a critical legal examination of the liberal state and liberal rights in the law, and secondly, to present a systematic alternative to liberal approaches to both the law and rights, grounded in a left wing conception of human dignity. At the opening of the 21st century a remarkable thing happened. Liberalism, once considered the only doctrine left standing at the end of history, began to face renewed competition from both the political left and the post-modern conservative right. This book argues that the way forward is not to abandon, but to radicalize, the potential of the liberal project. Analysing major theoretical positions in order to build a critical genealogy of liberal rights, McManus lucidly develops a left wing alternative to the classic liberal approach to rights drawing on the traditions of liberal egalitarians and deliberative democracy theory. Societies, he argues, should be committed to advancing the human dignity of all through the enshrinement of certain rights into positive state law, the expansion of democracy and a resolute commitment to economic equality.
Presenting a critique of conventional methods in comparative law, this book argues that, for comparative law to qualify as a discipline, comparatists must reflect on how and why they make comparisons. Gunter Frankenberg discusses not only methods and theories, but also the ethical implications and the politics of comparative law in bringing out the different dimensions of the discipline. Comparative Law as Critique offers various approaches that turn against the academic discourse of comparative law, including analysis of a widespread spirit of innocence in terms of method, and critique of human rights narratives. It also examines how courts negotiate differences between cases regarding Muslim veiling. The incisive critiques and comparisons in this book will be of essential reading for comparatists working in legal education and research, as well as students of comparative law and scholars in comparative anthropology and social sciences.
This book sets out a possible trajectory for the co-development of legal responsibility on the one hand and artificial intelligence and the machines and systems driven by it on the other. As autonomous technologies become more sophisticated it will be harder to attribute harms caused by them to the humans who design or work with them. This will put pressure on legal responsibility and autonomous technologies to co-evolve. Mark Chinen illustrates how these factors strengthen incentives to develop even more advanced systems, which in turn inspire nascent calls to grant legal and moral status to autonomous machines. This book is a valuable resource for scholars and practitioners of legal doctrine, ethics and autonomous technologies, as well as legislators and policy makers, and engineers and designers who are interested in the broader implications of their work.
Providing an accessible introduction to the application of multi-criteria analysis in law, this book illustrates how simple additive weighing, a well known method in decision theory, can be used in problem structuring, analysis and decision support for overall assessments and balancing of interests in the context of law. Through clear illustrations and a variety of concrete examples, this book shows how simple additive weighing can be applied in any situation in which there are one or more objectives, multiple options and multiple decision criteria. Further demonstrating the use of fuzzy logic in conjunction with this method, Bengt Lindell adeptly shows the reader how extra-disciplinary methods have much to contribute in a legal decision-making context. The methods covered in this book help to balance the issues of intuition versus structural analysis, risk and uncertainty, and the merging of probability and utility in the context of law. Practical and engaging, this book will prove an indispensible guide for academics and scholars across many legal disciplines. Public and private decision-makers will also benefit from its clear and concise approach, affording them new insights into the application of multi-criteria analysis in law.
First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
From two legal luminaries, a highly original framework for restoring confidence in a government bureaucracy increasingly derided as "the deep state." Is the modern administrative state illegitimate? Unconstitutional? Unaccountable? Dangerous? Intolerable? American public law has long been riven by a persistent, serious conflict, a kind of low-grade cold war, over these questions. Cass Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule argue that the administrative state can be redeemed, as long as public officials are constrained by what they call the morality of administrative law. Law and Leviathan elaborates a number of principles that underlie this moral regime. Officials who respect that morality never fail to make rules in the first place. They ensure transparency, so that people are made aware of the rules with which they must comply. They never abuse retroactivity, so that people can rely on current rules, which are not under constant threat of change. They make rules that are understandable and avoid issuing rules that contradict each other. These principles may seem simple, but they have a great deal of power. Already, without explicit enunciation, they limit the activities of administrative agencies every day. But we can aspire for better. In more robust form, these principles could address many of the concerns that have critics of the administrative state mourning what they see as the demise of the rule of law. The bureaucratic Leviathan may be an inescapable reality of complex modern democracies, but Sunstein and Vermeule show how we can at last make peace between those who accept its necessity and those who yearn for its downfall.
Polls suggest up to twenty percent of Americans describe their beliefs as 'libertarian', but libertarians are often derided as heartless Social Darwinists or naive idealists. This illuminating handbook brings together scholars from a range of fields (from law to philosophy to politics to economics) and political perspectives (right, left, and center) to consider how classical liberal principles can help us understand and potentially address a variety of pressing social problems including immigration, climate change, the growth of the prison population, and a host of others. Anyone interested in political theory or practical law and politics will find this book an essential resource for understanding this major strand of American politics.
Malcolm Feeley, one of the founding giants of the law and society field, is also one of its most exciting, diverse, and contemporary scholars. His works have examined criminal courts, prison reform, the legal profession, legal professionalism, and a variety of other important topics of enduring theoretical interest with a keen eye for the practical implications. In this volume, The Legal Process and the Promise of Justice, an eminent group of contemporary law and society scholars offer fresh and original analyzes of his work. They asses the legacy of Feeley's theoretical innovations, put his findings to the test of time, and provide provocative historical and international perspectives for his insights. This collection of original essays not only draws attention to Professor Feeley's seminal writings but also to the theories and ideas of others who, inspired by Feeley, have explored how courts and the legal process really work to provide a promise of justice.
This Short Introduction looks at judging and reasoning from three perspectives: what legal reasoning has been; what legal reasoning is from the view of judges and jurists; and what legal reasoning is from the view of a social science epistemologist or humanities specialist. Geoffrey Samuel begins by identifying the main institutional focal points of legal reasoning (ius, regula iuris, Interpretatio, utilitas and actiones). While examining legal reasoning from both an internal and external viewpoint, the book simultaneously incorporates theory and scholarship from a range of other disciplines including social science and film studies. The author also includes a discussion of fiction theory, schemes of intelligibility, and other epistemological issues as well as standard reasoning devices such as induction, deduction and analogy. Combining cases and materials with original text, this unique, concise format is designed to be accessible for students who are starting out on their law programmes, as well as providing insights for students and researchers who would like to examine judging and legal reasoning in more depth.
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