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Paul de Man - literary critic, literary philosopher, "American deconstructionist" - changed the landscape of criticism through his rigorous theories and writings. Upon its original publication in 1988, Christopher Norris' book was the first full-length introduction to de Man, a reading that offers a much-needed corrective to the pattern of extreme antithetical response which marked the initial reception to de Man's writings.
Norris addresses de Man's relationship to philosophical thinking in the post-Kantian tradition, his concern with "aesthetic ideology" as a potent force of mystification within and beyond that tradition, and the vexed issue of de Man's politics. Norris brings out the marked shift of allegiance in de Man's thinking, from the thinly veiled conservative implications of the early essays to the engagement with Marx and Foucault on matters of language and politics in the late, posthumous writing. At each stage, Norris raises these questions through a detailed close reading of individual texts which will be welcomed by those who lack any specialised knowledge of de Man's work.
This critical exposition of Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, first published in 1971, gives an appreciation of Smith's conception of scientific method as applied to the study of social phenomena. The work is placed in the context of Smith's other writings including of course The Wealth of Nations, but making special use of the theory of scientific development contained in his posthumous work, Essays on Philosophical Subjects.
By concentrating on Smith's methodological approach to the study of society, this book provides an illuminating interpretation of his moral theory and defends it against any mistaken criticisms. It also includes a much needed analysis of the important differences between Smith's ?impartial spectator? and the ?ideal observer? of modern ethical society. The result is a pointed study, bringing out the close connection between his moral, legal and ethical theories, which will be welcomed by all students of 18th century thought, specialists in moral theory, and the interested lay-reader.
Providing a detailed and in depth analysis of one of the most important sociologists of the twentieth century, this Routledge Library Edition brings together some of the most significant and insightful scholarship on Michel Foucault published in the past quarter of a century. These five volumes, first published between 1984 and 1991, offer an extremely valuable study of this influential figure, covering a wide variety of themes, which range from Foucault's views on education and society through to his thoughts on ethics sexuality, Marxism and power. Not only does the collection offer a detailed analysis of Foucault's social and philosophical theories, it also seeks to assess the continuing influence and significance of Foucault in the decade immediately following his death in 1984.
Each of us, right now, is having a unique conscious experience. Nothing is more basic to our lives as thinking beings and nothing, it seems, is better known to us. But the ever-expanding reach of natural science suggests that everything in our world is ultimately physical. The challenge of fitting consciousness into our modern scientific worldview, of taking the subjective feel of conscious experience and showing that it is just neural activity in the brain, is among the most intriguing explanatory problems of our times. In this book, Josh Weisberg presents the range of contemporary responses to the philosophical problem of consciousness. The basic philosophical tools of the trade are introduced, including thought experiments featuring Mary the color-deprived super scientist and fearsome philosophical zombies . The book then systematically considers the space of philosophical theories of consciousness. Dualist and other non-reductive accounts of consciousness hold that we must expand our basic physical ontology to include the intrinsic features of consciousness. Functionalist and identity theories, by contrast, hold that with the right philosophical stage-setting, we can fit consciousness into the standard scientific picture. And mysterians hold that any solution to the problem is beyond such small-minded creatures as us. Throughout the book, the complexity of current debates on consciousness is handled in a clear and concise way, providing the reader with a fine introductory guide to the rich philosophical terrain. The work makes an excellent entry point to one of the most exciting areas of study in philosophy and science today.
Emile Durkheim: Selected Writings in Social Theory includes reissues of three seminal works by eminent French thinker Emile Durkheim, one of the founding father s of Sociology. This collection brings together the following import sociological works: Sociology and Philosophy, which first appeared in English in 1953; the hugely influential Socialism and Saint-Simon, first published in English in 1959; and Durkheim 's book with Marcel Mauss on sociological classification, entitled Primitive Classification, whose first English publication was in 1969.
Friendship, Altruism, and Morality, originally published in 1980, gives an account of "altruistic emotions" (compassion, sympathy, concern) and friendship that brings out their moral value. Blum argues that moral theories centered on rationality, universal principle, obligation, and impersonality cannot capture this moral importance. This was one of the first books in contemporary moral philosophy to emphasize the moral significance of emotions, to deal with friendship as a moral phenomenon, and to challenge the rationalism of standard interpretations of Kant, although Blum's "sentimentalism" owes more to Schopenhauer than to Hume. It was a forerunner to care ethics, and feminist ethics more generally; to virtue ethics; and to subsequent influential interpretations of Kant that attempted to room for altruistic emotion and friendship, and other forms of particularism and partialism. In addition, the work has been widely influential in religious studies, political theory, bioethics, and feminist ethics.
In this work, originally published in 1986, Victor Seidler explores the different notions of respect, equality and dependency in Kanta (TM)s moral writings. He illuminates central tensions and contradictions not only within Kanta (TM)s moral philosophy, but within the thinking and feeling about human dignity and social inequality which we take very much for granted within a liberal moral culture.
In challenging our assumption of the autonomy of morality,
Seidler also questions our understanding of what it means for
someone to live as a person in his or her own right. The autonomy
of individuals cannot be assumed but has to be reasserted against
relationships of subordination. This involves a break with a
rationalist morality, so that respect for others involves respect
for emotions, feelings, desires and needs, and establishes a fuller
autonomy as a basis for freedom and justice.
Liberalisms, a work first published in 1989, provides a coherent and comprehensive analytical guide to liberal thinking over the past century and considers the dominance of liberal thought in Anglo-American political philosophy over the past 20 years. John Gray assesses the work of all the major liberal political philosophers including J. S. Mill, Herbert Spencer, Karl Popper, F. A Hayek, John Rawls and Robert Nozick, and explores their mutual connections and differences.
First published in 1973. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
When you believe something for a good reason, your belief is in a position to be justified, rational, responsible, or to count as knowledge. But what is the nature of this thing that can make such a difference? Traditionally, epistemologists thought of epistemic normative notions, such as reasons, in terms of the believer's psychological perspective. Recently, however, many have started thinking of them as factive: good reasons for belief are either facts, veridical experiences, or known propositions. This ground breaking volume reflects major recent developments in thinking about this 'factive turn', and advances the lively debate around it in relation to core epistemological themes including perception, evidence, justification, knowledge, scepticism, rationality, and action. With clear and comprehensive chapters written by leading figures in the field, this book will be essential for students and scholars looking to engage with the state of the art in epistemology.
The ?Nonconformist conscience? was a major force in late Victorian and Edwardian politics. The well-attended chapels of England and Wales bred a race of Christian politicians who tried to exert a moral influence on public affairs. This book analyses the political impact of the Nonconformists at the peak of their strength when they were near the centre of key debates of the time over such matters as the growth of the British Empire and state provision of social services. They had also launched campaigns of their own to disestablish the Church of England and to secure public control of the nation's schools. Based on extensive original research, this study is the first to examine these themes.
This edition originally published in 1962. The problems of life
and government which are still the central theme of the Republic
are still with us but the views presented in it were the outcome of
strenuous discussion and they come to the modern reader as a
challenge. To get to the heart of them he must continue the
discussion for himself and make his own applications. This book
will help him on his way.
Originally published in 1983. The nineteenth century was a time of great economic, social and political change. As Europe modernized, previously ignorant and apathetic elements in the population began to demand political freedoms. There was pressure also for a freer press, for the rights of assembly and association. The apprehension of the existing elites manifested itself in an intensification of often brutal form of political repression. The first part of this book summarizes on a pan-European basis, the major techniques of repression such as the denial of popular franchise and press censorship. This is followed by a chronological survey of these techniques from 1815 ? 1914 in each European country. The book analyzes the long and short-term importance of these events for European historical development in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Originally published in 1953. The return to the "ancestral constitution" was a major issue in Athenian politics in the period of the revolution of 411 and 404 B.C. This book examines the scope and import of the question of the "ancestral constitution." Chapter 1 is a study of Kleitophon 's Rider nd the tradition of Solon and Kleisthenes. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the concept of patrios politeia as employed by the Democrats. The use made of the "ancestral constitution" in 404-3 B.C is discussed in Chapter 3. The last chapter is a study of the mysterious "Constitution of Drakon."
Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France is one of the major texts in the western intellectual tradition. This book describes Burke's political and intellectual world, stressing the importance of the idea of 'property' in Burke's thought. It then focuses more closely on Burke's personal and political situation in the late 1780s to explain how the Reflections came to be written. The central part of the study discusses the meaning and interpretation of the work. In the last part of the book the author surveys the pamphlet controversy which the Reflections generated, paying particular attention to the most famous of the replies, Tom Paine's Rights of Man. It also examines the subsequent reputation of the Reflections from the 1790s to the modern day, noting how often Burke has fascinated even writers who have disliked his politics.
This volume consists of many of Lacordaire 's writings on social and political issues, many of which have been out of print for a long time and some of which appeared in this volume, when originally published, for the time in English. The central theme of the book is that the Christian solution of all the great social and political problems is liberal and democratic, Christian doctrine being based on the equality of souls. It argues that Christian fraternal charity is a stronger force than mere humanitarian brotherhood or political socialism.
Originally published in 1985, these essays relate philosophical questions about the meaning and justification of toleration to debates about such issues as religious freedom, racial discrimination, pornography and censorship. Many take their point of departure from classic works, especially J S Mill's On Liberty and many consider recent developments in moral and political philosophy.
British thinkers have considered Marxism primarily as a body of economic and social doctrine. They have concentrated attention on the class struggle and the alleged decline of capitalism but Marxism is also in a wide sense of the word, a system of thought and conduct comprising views about the principle purposes of human life. This book discusses this philosophy ? the metaphysics, ethics and intellectual tradition inaugurated by Marx and Engels and continued by Lenin and Stalin. It first discusses Dialectical materialism and secondly the social theories and ethics known as Scientific Socialism.
This book reveals Marx's moral philosophy and analyzes its nature. The author shows that there is an underlying system of ethics which runs the length and breadth of Marx's thought. The book begins by discussing the methodological side of Marx's ethics showing how Marx's criticism of conventional morality and his views on historical materialism, determinism and ideology are compatible with having an ideological system of his own. In the light of contemporary social, moral and political philosophy the insights and defects of Marx's major ethical themes are discussed.
This thought-provoking book, first published in 1991, examines sexual politics in a world which is being radically changed by the challenges of feminism. Seidler explores how men have responded to feminism, and the contradictory feelings men have towards dominant forms of masculinity.
Seidlera (TM)s stimulating and original analysis of social and political theory connects personally to everyday issues in peoplea (TM)s lives. It reflects the growing importance of sexual and personal politics within contemporary politics and culture, and demonstrates clearly the challenge that feminism brings to our inherited forms of morality, politics and sexuality.
This is an important work of scholarship with regard to Machiavelli and the development of political thought in England. It charts the reactions of successive English thinkers to Machiavelli's challenge, and the different aspects of Machiavelli's thought which were perceived in the changing context of English history. There is the Machiavelli of Catholic and Protestant reformers, the Machiavelli of Raleigh and Bacon, of the royalist Clarendon and the republican Harrington. Through their eyes the reader can see the gradual process whereby the atheistical monster repudiated by the subjects of Henry VIII was quietly absorbed by the politically sophisticated subjects of William III.
Mini-set B: Democracy reprints 11 volumes, by authors such as April Carter, Paul Q. Hirst, Gunnar Heckscher, Peter Pulzer and Douglas Wass. The volumes discuss the democratic process in politics, as well as direct action and social principles within the democratic state.
This presentation of the main phases and features of political thought in the sixteenth century is based on an exhaustive study of contemporary writings in Latin, English, French, German and Italian. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the new thought of Protestantism. The rest describes special ideas that emerged in England, France and Italy.
Much has been written about the interpretation of Plato in the last thirty years. Once interpreted as a revolutionary of the left, and a prophet of Socialism, he has lately been interpreted as a revolutionary of the Right and a forerunner of Fascism. In this book Plato appears as himself - a revolutionary indeed, and even an authoritarian, but a revolutionary of the pure idea of the Good, and an authoritarian of the pure reason, unattached either to the Right or the Left.
This 'philosophical biography' gives an account of Godwin's life and thought, and by setting his thoughts in the context of his life, brings the two into juxtaposition. It relates Godwin's views on politics and morality, education and religion, freedom and society, to the events of his life, notably the revolution in France and its impact on radicalism and reaction in Britain and the parliamentary reforms of 1832.
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