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William Fergusons classic photographic portrayal of the major pre-Columbian ruins of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras is now available from UNM Press in a completely revised edition. Magnificent aerial and ground photographs give both armchair and actual visitors unparalleled views of fifty-one ancient cities. The restored areas of each site and their interesting and exotic features are shown within each group of ruins. The authors have thoroughly revised the text for this new edition, and they have added over 30 new photographs and illustrations as well as a completely new chapter by Richard E. W. Adams on regional states and empires in ancient Mesoamerica.
Over a span of three thousand years between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500 great civilizations, including the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Toltec, Zapotec, and Aztec, flourished, waned, and died in Mesoamerica. These indigenous cultures of Mexico and Central America are brought to life in "Mesoamericas Ancient Cities" through stunning color photographs. The authors include the most recent research and most widely accepted theoretical perspectives on Mesoamerican civilizations. Ideal for the general reader as well as scholars of Mesoamerica, this volume makes a significant contribution to our knowledge of the Americas.
Palenque, Teotihuacan, Yaxchilan--the names of these ancient Maya cities conjure images of mystery and grandeur. Joyce Kelly's new visitor's guide includes these fascinating places and many more. This guide provides travelers with captivating photographs, vivid descriptions, and complete, up-to-date tourist information on 70 archaeological sites and 60 museums. Sites range from the most remote to the largest and most well known.
Joyce Kelly explores the art, architecture, and history of each museum and site, from pyramids and temples to the hieroglyphs and images of ornately carved monuments and stelae.
An Archaeological Guide to Central and Southern Mexico provides:
- Driving times and distances in miles and kilometers;
- A rating of 0 to 4 stars for each site and museum;
- Sites arranged in geographical sections, which include easy-to-use maps, 10 site plans, and details on accommodations, restaurants and car rentals;
- "Getting There" sections with specific details on road conditions, driving and walking time, what to bring and how long to allow for a visit.
The languages of the ancient world and the mysterious scripts, long undeciphered, in which they were encoded have represented one of the most intriguing problems of classical archaeology in modern times. This celebrated account of the decipherment of Linear B in the 1950s by Michael Ventris was written by his close collaborator in the momentous discovery. In revealing the secrets of Linear B it offers a valuable survey of late Minoan and Mycenaean archaeology, uncovering fascinating details of the religion and economic history of an ancient civilisation.
Ever since the Custer massacres on June 25, 1876, the question has been asked: What happened - what REALLY happened - at the Battle of the Little Bighorn? We know some of the answers, because half of George Armstrong Custer's Seventh Cavalry - the men with Major Marcus Reno and Captain Frederick Benteen - survived the fight, but what of the half that did not, the troopers, civilians, scouts, and journalist who were with Custer?
Now, because a grass fire in August 1983 cleared the terrain of brush and grass and made possible thorough archaeological examinations of the battlefield in 1984 and 1985, we have many answers to important questions.
On the basis of the archaeological evidence presented in this book, we know more about what kinds of weapons were used against the cavalry. We know exactly where many of the men fought, how they died, and what happened to their bodies at the time of or after death. We know how the troopers were deployed, what kind of clothing they wore, what kind of equipment they had, how they fought. Through the techniques of historical archaeology and forensic anthropology, the remains and grave of one of Custer's scouts, Mitch Boyer, have been identified. And through geomorphology and the process of elimination, we know with almost 100 percent certainty where the twenty-eight missing men who supposedly were buried en masse in Deep Ravine will be found.
For most Oklahomans the story of the state begins with the removal of the Five Tribes to Indian Territory early in the nineteenth century. In fact, Oklahoma has a rich, diverse, and enduring native cultural heritage. Using recent discoveries and information unearthed since its original 1980 publication, From Mounds to Mammoths presents Oklahoma's prehistory from thirty thousand years ago to historic contact times.
Claudette Gilbert and Robert L. Brooks take the reader back thousands of years to experience life on the plains. They discuss the Cooper site, which has given us valuable insights into Folsom technology, hunting practices, and ritual. Here archaeologists discovered a thunderbolt painted on a bison skull-the earliest evident of artwork in North America. The story of Spiro Mounds, a more recent culture, reveals village life in the Arkansas River basin 800-1000 years ago.
Told chronologically with vivid chapter-opening vignettes, From Mounds to Mammoths provides a fascinating glimpse into the variety of Oklahoma native cultures.
All humans share certain components of tooth structure, but show variation in size and morphology around this shared pattern. This book presents a worldwide synthesis of the global variation in tooth morphology in recent populations. Research has advanced on many fronts since the publication of the first edition, which has become a seminal work on the subject. This revised and updated edition introduces new ideas in dental genetics and ontogeny and summarizes major historical problems addressed by dental morphology. The detailed descriptions of 29 dental variables are fully updated with current data and include details of a new web-based application for using crown and root morphology to evaluate ancestry in forensic cases. A new chapter describes what constitutes a modern human dentition in the context of the hominin fossil record.
Decades after Michael Ventris deciphered Linear B and showed that its language was Greek, nearly one-sixth of its syllabic signs' sound-values are still unknown. This book offers a new approach to establishing these undeciphered signs' possible values. Analysis of Linear B's structure and usage not only establishes these signs' most likely sound-values - providing the best possible basis for future decipherments - but also sheds light on the writing system as a whole. The undeciphered signs are also used to explore the evidence provided by palaeography for the chronology of the Linear B documents and the activities of the Mycenaean scribes. The conclusions presented in this book therefore deepen our understanding not only of the undeciphered signs but also of the Linear B writing system as a whole, the texts it was used to write, and the insight these documents bring us into the world of the Mycenaean palaces. A colour version of figures 5.1-5.4 of chapter 5 can be found under the 'Resources' tab.
This book is the first comprehensive study and reinterpretation of the unique arts of Teotihuacan, including architecture, sculpture, mural painting, and ceramics. Comparing the arts of Teotihuacan - not previously judged "artistic" - with those of other ancient civilizations, Ester Pasztory demonstrates how they created and reflected the community's ideals.
Most people associate the pyramids of central Mexico with the Aztecs, but these colossal constructions antedate the Aztecs by more than a thousand years. The people of Teotihuacan, who built the pyramids as part of a city of unprecedented size, remain a mystery.
The Mediterranean's Iron Age period was one of its most dynamic eras. Stimulated by the movement of individuals and groups on an unprecedented scale, the first half of the first millennium BCE witnesses the development of Mediterranean-wide practices, including related writing systems, common features of urbanism, and shared artistic styles and techniques, alongside the evolution of wide-scale trade. Together, these created an engaged, interlinked and interactive Mediterranean. We can recognise this as the Mediterranean's first truly globalising era. This volume introduces students and scholars to contemporary evidence and theories surrounding the Mediterranean from the eleventh century until the end of the seventh century BCE to enable an integrated understanding of the multicultural and socially complex nature of this incredibly vibrant period.
San Marcos, one of the largest late prehistoric Pueblo settlements along the Rio Grande, was a significant social, political, and economic hub both before Spanish colonization and through the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. This volume provides the definitive record of a decade of archaeological investigations at San Marcos, ancestral home to Kewa (formerly Santa Domingo) and Cochiti descendants. The contributors address archaeological and historical background, artifact analysis, and population history. They explore possible changes in Pueblo social organization, examine population changes during the occupation, and delineate aspects of Pueblo/Spanish interaction that occur with Spaniards' intrusion into the colony and especially the Galisteo Basin. Highlights include historical context, in-depth consideration of archaeological field and laboratory methods, compositional and stylistic analyses of the famed glaze-paint ceramics, analysis of flaked stone that includes obsidian hydration dating, and discussion of the beginnings of colonial metallurgy and protohistoric Pueblo population change.
The invention of metal detecting technology during the Second World War allowed the development of a hobby that has traditionally been vilified by archaeologists as an uncontrollable threat to the proper study of the past. This book charts the relationship between archaeologists and metal detectors over the past fifty odd years within an international context. It questions whether the great majority of metal detectors need be seen as a threat or, as some argue, enthusiastic members of the public with a valid and legitimate interest in our shared heritage, charting the expansion of metal detecting as a phenomenon and examining its role within traditional archaeology. A particular strength of the book is its detailed case studies, from South Africa, the USA, Poland and Germany, where metal detectors have worked with, and contributed significantly towards, archaeological understanding and research. With contributions from key individuals in both the metal detecting and archaeological communities, this publication highlights the need for increased understanding and cooperation and asks a number of questions crucial to the development of a long term relationship between archaeologists and metal detectors. PETER G. STONE is Head of the School of Arts and Cultures and formerly Director of the International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies at the University of Newcastle. He has been interested in the public's role and interest in archaeology for over twenty-five years and has published widely on this topic, especially with respect to formal and informal education. SUZIE THOMAS is lecturer in museum studies at the University of Helsinki.
The Middle Ages are all around us in Britain. The Tower of London and the castles of Scotland and Wales are mainstays of cultural tourism and an inspiring cross-section of later medieval finds can now be seen on display in museums across England, Scotland, and Wales. Medieval institutions from Parliament and monarchy to universities are familiar to us and we come into contact with the later Middle Ages every day when we drive through a village or town, look up at the castle on the hill, visit a local church or wonder about the earthworks in the fields we see from the window of a train. The Oxford Handbook of Later Medieval Archaeology in Britain provides an overview of the archaeology of the later Middle Ages in Britain between AD 1066 and 1550. 61 entries, divided into 10 thematic sections, cover topics ranging from later medieval objects, human remains, archaeological science, standing buildings, and sites such as castles and monasteries, to the well-preserved relict landscapes which still survive. This is a rich and exciting period of the past and most of what we have learnt about the material culture of our medieval past has been discovered in the past two generations. This volume provides comprehensive coverage of the latest research and describes the major projects and concepts that are changing our understanding of our medieval heritage.
Historical ecology is a research framework which draws upon diverse evidence to trace complex, long-term relationships between humanity and Earth. With roots in anthropology, archaeology, ecology and paleoecology, geography, and landscape and heritage management, historical ecology applies a practical and holistic perspective to the study of change. Furthermore, it plays an important role in both fundamental research and in developing future strategies for integrated, equitable landscape management. The framework presented in this volume covers critical issues, including: practicing transdisciplinarity, the need for understanding interactions between human societies and ecosystem processes, the future of regions and the role of history and memory in a changing world. Including many examples of co-developed research, Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology provides a platform for collaboration across disciplines and aims to equip researchers, policy-makers, funders, and communities to make decisions that can help to construct an inclusive and resilient future for humanity.
Standing stones come in a variety of guises. Some are erected in circles; some make up megalithic tombs; some have intriguing patterns on them, or are steeped in myth. Long-standing questions include why they were erected and how? What do they tell us about Britain's cultural history? As a standing stones enthusiast, Steve Marshall has travelled the British Isles to inspect these fascinating monoliths and this guide serves as a comprehensive introduction from the Mesolithic to the Iron Ages. Stonehenge and Avebury are possibly the most famous sites in Britain, but the Standing Stones of Callanish on the Isle of Lewis also have a magical quality; and at the Ness of Brodgar, a Neolithic complex has recently been uncovered by archaeologists. With accompanying photographs taken by the author, this accessible guide to standing stones in Britain will tell you all you need to know.
Resistivity and induced polarization methods are used for a wide range of near-surface applications, including hydrogeology, civil engineering and archaeology, as well as emerging applications in the agricultural and plant sciences. This comprehensive reference text covers both theory and practice of resistivity and induced polarization methods, demonstrating how to measure, model and interpret data in both the laboratory and the field. Marking the 100 year anniversary of the seminal work of Conrad Schlumberger (1920), the book covers historical development of electrical geophysics, electrical properties of geological materials, instrumentation, acquisition and modelling, and includes case studies that capture applications to societally relevant problems. The book is also supported by a full suite of forward and inverse modelling tools, allowing the reader to apply the techniques to a wide range of applications using digital datasets provided online. This is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers and practitioners interested in near-surface geophysics.
The concept of civilization has long been the basis for theories about how societies evolve. This provocative book challenges that concept. The author argues that a "civilization bias" shapes academic explanations of urbanization, colonization, state formation, and cultural horizons. Earlier theorists have criticized the concept, but according to Jennings the critics remain beholden to it as a way of making sense of a dizzying landscape of cultural variation. Relying on the idea of civilization, he suggests, holds back understanding of the development of complex societies. Killing Civilization uses case studies from across the modern and ancient world to develop a new model of incipient urbanism and its consequences, using excavation and survey data from Catalhoeyuk, Cahokia, Harappa, Jenne-jeno, Tiahuanaco, and Monte Alban to create a more accurate picture of the turbulent social, political, and economic conditions in and around the earliest cities. The book will influence not just anthropology but all of the social sciences.
In this book, an international team of experts draws upon a rich range of Latin and Greek texts to explore the roles played by individuals at ports in activities and institutions that were central to the maritime commerce of the Roman Mediterranean. In particular, they focus upon some of the interpretative issues that arise in dealing with this kind of epigraphic evidence, the archaeological contexts of the texts, social institutions and social groups in ports, legal issues relating to harbours, case studies relating to specific ports, and mercantile connections and shippers. While much attention is inevitably focused upon the richer epigraphic collections of Ostia and Ephesos, the papers draw upon inscriptions from a very wide range of ports across the Mediterranean. The volume will be invaluable for all scholars and students of Roman history.
How do you predict eclipses at Stonehenge? Why do the Carnac alignments follow geological fault lines? Was Avebury intentionally sited precisely one seventh of a circle down from the north pole? Why are so many stone circles egg-shaped or flattened? What is the meaning of the designs in ancient rock art? Do you really have to wait nineteen years to visit the remote site of Callanish? What were the ancients up to? These are our oldest buildings, our first messages, our earliest visual art. With eight authors, and packed with detailed information and exquisite rare illustrations, Megalith is a timeless and valuable sourcebook for anyone interested in prehistory.
Walk into any European museum today and you will see the curated spoils of Empire. They sit behind plate glass: dignified, tastefully lit. Accompanying pieces of card offer a name, date and place of origin. They do not mention that the objects are all stolen. Few artefacts embody this history of rapacious and extractive colonialism better than the Benin Bronzes - a collection of thousands of metal plaques and sculptures depicting the history of the Royal Court of the Obas of Benin City, Nigeria. Pillaged during a British naval attack in 1897, the loot was passed on to Queen Victoria, the British Museum and countless private collections. The story of the Benin Bronzes sits at the heart of a heated debate about cultural restitution, repatriation and the decolonisation of museums. In The Brutish Museum, Dan Hicks makes a powerful case for the urgent return of such objects, as part of a wider project of addressing the outstanding debt of colonialism.
Rome is 'the eternal city' and was a stopping-off place on the Grand Tour long before the days of photography. Despite the preservation of so many classic ruins across the city, there has been significant change. Over hundreds of years of flooding, the river Tiber deposited silt across the Forum and low-lying sites. Many archive images show a completely different ground level to the 21st century view, after excavation revealed their true height. When Mussoilini came to the power in 1922 he set about creating wider avenues and removing some of the older buildings, as can been from the changes to via della Conciliazione. Rome Then and Now visits all the major tourist locations in the city and shows pictures of how they once were, sometimes unfenced with goats grazing amongst the ruins! Sites include: St Peter's Square, Colosseum, Pantheon, Spanish Steps, Piazza del Popolo, the Forum, Trajan's Column, Trevi Fountain, Arch of Titus, Arch of Conatantine, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Navona, Quirinal Palace, Vittoriano, Tarpeian Hill, Palatine Hill, Circus Maximus.
Who were the ancient Phoenicians, and did they actually exist? The Phoenicians traveled the Mediterranean long before the Greeks and Romans, trading, establishing settlements, and refining the art of navigation. But who these legendary sailors really were has long remained a mystery. In Search of the Phoenicians makes the startling claim that the "Phoenicians" never actually existed. Taking readers from the ancient world to today, this monumental book argues that the notion of these sailors as a coherent people with a shared identity, history, and culture is a product of modern nationalist ideologies--and a notion very much at odds with the ancient sources. Josephine Quinn shows how the belief in this historical mirage has blinded us to the compelling identities and communities these people really constructed for themselves in the ancient Mediterranean, based not on ethnicity or nationhood but on cities, family, colonial ties, and religious practices. She traces how the idea of "being Phoenician" first emerged in support of the imperial ambitions of Carthage and then Rome, and only crystallized as a component of modern national identities in contexts as far-flung as Ireland and Lebanon. In Search of the Phoenicians delves into the ancient literary, epigraphic, numismatic, and artistic evidence for the construction of identities by and for the Phoenicians, ranging from the Levant to the Atlantic, and from the Bronze Age to late antiquity and beyond. A momentous scholarly achievement, this book also explores the prose, poetry, plays, painting, and polemic that have enshrined these fabled seafarers in nationalist histories from sixteenth-century England to twenty-first century Tunisia.
Symposia presented at the Denver Art Museum in 2002 and 2007 focused, respectively, on pre-Columbian art in the museum collection and the art and archaeology of ancient Costa Rica. Edited by Denver Art Museum curator Margaret Young-Sanchez, this lavishly illustrated volume brings together newly revised and expanded symposium papers from pre-Columbian scholars, while paying tribute to the legacy of Denver philanthropist Frederick R. Mayer--a generous supporter of archaeological and art historical research, scientific analysis, and scholarly publication.
Archaeology's elder statesman Michael Coe (Yale University) provides a lively description of twentieth-century pre-Columbian archaeology and the personalities who shaped its intellectual history. Using traditional and scientific analyses of archaeological ceramics, Frederick W. Lange (LSA Associates, Inc.) and Ronald L. Bishop (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History) consider the transmission of technical and cultural knowledge in ancient Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The late Michael J. Snarskis of the Tayutic Foundation reports on his final archaeological excavation, at Loma Corral in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, where an undisturbed two-thousand-year-old cemetery contained high-status burials, local and imported ceramics, and jade ornaments. Warwick Bray (University College, London), examines pre-Columbian gold items from Panama, including their uses and meaning, as part of the "Parita Treasure" excavated in the early 1960s. Margaret Young-Sanchez (Denver Art Museum), presents the construction and iconography of early (ad 200-400) Tiwanaku-style folding pouches from the south-central Andes. And Carol Mackey (California State University, Northridge) and Joanne Pillsbury (Getty Research Institute) describe and analyze an important silver beaker decorated with detailed ritual and mythological scenes from the Lambayeque (Sican) civilization of northern Peru (ad 800-1350).
The study of human evolution is advancing rapidly. Newly discovered fossil evidence is adding ever more pieces to the puzzle of our past, whilst revolutionary technological advances in the study of ancient DNA are completely reshaping theories of early human populations and migrations. In this Very Short Introduction Bernard Wood traces the history of paleoanthropology from its beginnings in the eighteenth century to the very latest fossil finds. In this new edition he discusses how Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized how we view the recent (post-550 ka) human evolution, and the process of speciation. The combination of ancient and modern human DNA has contributed to discoveries of new taxa, as well as the suggestion of 'ghost' taxa whose fossil records still remain to be discovered. Considering the contributions of related sciences such as paleoclimatology, geochronology, systematics, genetics, and developmental biology, Wood explores our latest understandings of our own evolution. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
A vivid portrait of the early years of biblical archaeology from the acclaimed author of 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed In 1925, James Henry Breasted, famed Egyptologist and director of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, sent a team of archaeologists to the Holy Land to excavate the ancient site of Megiddo-Armageddon in the New Testament-which the Bible says was fortified by King Solomon. Their excavations made headlines around the world and shed light on one of the most legendary cities of biblical times, yet little has been written about what happened behind the scenes. Digging Up Armageddon brings to life one of the most important archaeological expeditions ever undertaken, describing the site and what was found there, including discoveries of gold and ivory, and providing an up-close look at the internal workings of a dig in the early years of biblical archaeology. The Chicago team left behind a trove of writings and correspondence spanning more than three decades, from letters and cablegrams to cards, notes, and diaries. Eric Cline draws on these materials to paint a compelling portrait of a bygone age of archaeology. He masterfully sets the expedition against the backdrop of the Great Depression in America and the growing troubles and tensions in British Mandate Palestine. He gives readers an insider's perspective on the debates over what was uncovered at Megiddo, the infighting that roiled the expedition, and the stunning discoveries that transformed our understanding of the ancient world. Digging Up Armageddon is the enthralling story of an archaeological site in the interwar years and its remarkable place at the crossroads of history.
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