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The Material World of Ancient Egypt examines the objects and artifacts, the representations in art, and the examples of documentation that together reveal the day-to-day physical substance of life in ancient Egypt. This book investigates how people dressed, what they ate, the houses they built, the games they played, and the tools they used, among many other aspects of daily life, paying great attention to the change and development of each area within the conservative Egyptian society. More than any other ancient civilization, the ancient Egyptians have left us with a wealth of evidence about their daily lives in the form of perishable objects, from leather sandals to feather fans, detailed depictions of trades and crafts on the walls of tombs, and a wide range of documentary evidence from temple inventories to personal laundry lists. Drawing on these diverse sources and richly illustrating his account with nearly one hundred images, William H. Peck illuminates the culture of the ancient Egyptians from the standpoint of the basic materials they employed to make life possible and perhaps even enjoyable.
Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
'Lost Worlds: Ruins of the Americas' is a unique visual exploration that vividly captures the haunting mystery and visual poetry of historic ruins throughout the Americas. This extraordinary collection perfectly portrays the architectural, geographic and historical significance of ruins that are considered world wonders and little known gems. Included are monumental temples of Mexico's Mayan civilization, a Colonial era palace on the island of Haiti, earthquake-ravaged cathedrals in Guatemala, and astonishing Incan citadels in Peru's Sacred Valley - culminating with the breathtaking beauty of Machu Picchu. . This unprecedented publication transports the reader on a journey to ancient temples, abandoned palaces and lofty citadels. Evocative and enlightening, 'Lost Worlds' will stir the imagination of those with a passion for photography, travel, history, architecture, and archaeology. Shot in infrared format on a specially adapted digital camera, these images expose crumbling, overgrown walls, broken columns, and cracked arches in ways most readers have never seen. They will offer readers a new way of viewing the landscape as well as an enhanced vision of the collective identity of the Americas. Includes a foreword by noted travel writer Pico Iyer and text by Arthur Drooker explaining each site's rise, fall and lasting significance.
Rome is 'the eternal city' and was a stopping-off place on the Grand Tour long before the days of photography. Despite the preservation of so many classic ruins across the city, there has been significant change. Over hundreds of years of flooding, the river Tiber deposited silt across the Forum and low-lying sites. Many archive images show a completely different ground level to the 21st century view, after excavation revealed their true height. When Mussoilini came to the power in 1922 he set about creating wider avenues and removing some of the older buildings, as can been from the changes to via della Conciliazione. Rome Then and Now visits all the major tourist locations in the city and shows pictures of how they once were, sometimes unfenced with goats grazing amongst the ruins! Sites include: St Peter's Square, Colosseum, Pantheon, Spanish Steps, Piazza del Popolo, the Forum, Trajan's Column, Trevi Fountain, Arch of Titus, Arch of Conatantine, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Navona, Quirinal Palace, Vittoriano, Tarpeian Hill, Palatine Hill, Circus Maximus.
Ever since the Custer massacres on June 25, 1876, the question has been asked: What happened - what REALLY happened - at the Battle of the Little Bighorn? We know some of the answers, because half of George Armstrong Custer's Seventh Cavalry - the men with Major Marcus Reno and Captain Frederick Benteen - survived the fight, but what of the half that did not, the troopers, civilians, scouts, and journalist who were with Custer?
Now, because a grass fire in August 1983 cleared the terrain of brush and grass and made possible thorough archaeological examinations of the battlefield in 1984 and 1985, we have many answers to important questions.
On the basis of the archaeological evidence presented in this book, we know more about what kinds of weapons were used against the cavalry. We know exactly where many of the men fought, how they died, and what happened to their bodies at the time of or after death. We know how the troopers were deployed, what kind of clothing they wore, what kind of equipment they had, how they fought. Through the techniques of historical archaeology and forensic anthropology, the remains and grave of one of Custer's scouts, Mitch Boyer, have been identified. And through geomorphology and the process of elimination, we know with almost 100 percent certainty where the twenty-eight missing men who supposedly were buried en masse in Deep Ravine will be found.
Britain has been inhabited by humans for over half a million years, during which time there were a great many changes in lifestyles and in the surrounding landscape. This book, now in its second edition, examines the development of human societies in Britain from earliest times to the Roman conquest of AD 43, as revealed by archaeological evidence. Special attention is given to six themes which are traced through prehistory: subsistence, technology, ritual, trade, society, and population.
Prehistoric Britain begins by introducing the background to prehistoric studies in Britain, presenting it in terms of the development of interest in the subject and the changes wrought by new techniques such as radiocarbon dating, and new theories, such as the emphasis on social archaeology. The central sections trace the development of society from the hunter-gatherer groups of the last Ice Age, through the adoption of farming, the introduction of metalworking, and on to the rise of highly organized societies living on the fringes of the mighty Roman Empire in the 1st century AD. Throughout, emphasis is given to documenting and explaining changes within these prehistoric communities, and to exploring the regional variations found in Britain. In this way the wealth of evidence that can be seen in the countryside and in our museums is placed firmly in its proper context. It concludes with a review of the effects of prehistoric communities on life today.
With over 120 illustrations, this is a unique review of Britain's ancient past as revealed by modern archaeology. The revisions and updates to Prehistoric Britain ensure that this will continue to be the most comprehensive and authoritative account of British prehistory for those students and interested readers studying the subject.
The world reacted with horror to the images of the looting of the National Museum in Iraq in 2003 - closely followed by other museums and then, largely unchecked, or archaeological sites across the country. This outcome had been predicted by many archaeologists, with some offering to work directly with the military to identify museums and sites to be avoided and protected. However, this work has since been heavily criticised by others working in the field, who claim that such collaboration lended a legitimacy to the invasion. It has therefore served to focus on the broader issue of whether archaeologists and other cultural heritage experts should ever work with the military, and, if so, under what guidelines and strictures. The essays in this book, drawn from a series of international conferences and seminars on the debate, provide an historical background to the ethical issues facing cultural heritage experts, and place them in a wider context. How do medical and religious experts justify their close working relationships with the military? Is all contact with those engaged in conflict wrong? Does working with the military really constitute tacit agreement with military and political goals, or can it be seen as contributing to the winning of a peace rather than success in war? Are guidelines required to help define roles and responsibilities? And can conflict situations be seen as simply an extension of protecting cultural property on military training bases? The book opens and addresses these and other questions as matters of crucial debate. Contributors: Peter Stone, Margaret M. Miles, Fritz Allhoff, Andrew Chandler, Oliver Urquhart Irvine, Barney White-Spunner, Rene Teijgeler, Katharyn Hanson, Martin Brown, Laurie Rush, Francis Scardera, Caleb Adebayo Folorunso, Derek Suchard, Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly, John Curtis, Jon Price, Mike Rowlands, Iain Shearer
CONTENTS: THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY OF OMAN AND THE GULF: Peter Magee, New chronometric data defining the Iron Age II period in south-eastern Arabia; Vincent Charpentier, Philippe Marquis & Eric Pelle, La necropole et les derniers horizons Ve millenaire du site de Gorbat al-Mahar (Suwayh, SWY-1, Sultanat d'Oman) : premiers resultats; Jutta Haser, Archaeological results of the 1999 and 2000 survey campaigns in Wadi Bani Awf and the region of al-Hamra (Central Oman); Cecile Monchablon, Remy Crassard, Olivia Munoz, Herve Guy, Gaelle Bruley-Chabot & Serge Cleuziou, Excavations at Ra's al-Jinz RJ-1: stratigraphy without tells; Tom Vosmer, The Magan Boat Project: a process of discovery, a discovery of process; Anne Benoist, Michel Mouton & Jeremie Schiettecatte, The artefacts from the fort at Mleiha: distribution, origins, trade and dating; Ali Tigani ElMahi & Moawiyah Ibrahim, Two seasons of investigations at Manal site in the Wadi Samayil area, Sultanate of Oman; Soumyen Bandyopadhyay & Magda Sibley, The distinctive typology of central Omani mosques: its nature and antecedents; Caesar E. Farah, Anglo-Ottoman confrontation in the Persian Gulf in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; COMPARATIVE WATER SYSTEMS: Miquel Barcelo, Julian Ortega, Arcadi Piera & Josep Torro, The Search for the Hararah asdad in the area of Zafar, Governorate of Ibb, Yemen; Helena Kirchner, Ma'jil: a type of hydraulic system in Yemen and in al-Andalus?; THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY OF PRE-ISLAMIC YEMEN: T.J. Wilkinson, The organization of settlement in highland Yemen during the Bronze and Iron Ages; Frank Braemer, Serge Cleuziou & Tara Steimer, Dolmen-like structures: some unusual funerary monuments in Yemen; William D. Glanzman, An examination of the building campaign of Yada il Dharih bin Sumhu'alay, mukarrib of Saba', in light of recent archaeology; Jean-Francois Breton, Preliminary notes on the development of Shabwa; Christian Darles, Les fortifications de Shabwa, capitale du royaume de Hadramawt; Jan Retsoe, When did Yemen become Arabia felix?; The epigraphy of pre-Islamic Yemen; Joseph L. Daniels, Landscape graffiti in the Dhamar Plains and its relation to mountain-top religious practice; Serguei A. Frantsouzof, The Hadramitic funerary inscription from the cave-tomb at al-Rukbah (Wadi Ghabr, Inland Hadramawt) and burial ceremonies in ancient Hadramawt; Peter Stein, The inscribed wooden sticks of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich; Mohammed Maraqten, Some notes on Sabaic epistolography; YEMEN IN THE ISLAMIC PERIOD: A. Rougeulle, Excavations at Sharmah, Hadramawt the 2001 and 2002 seasons; Noha Sadek, a'izz, capital of the Rasulid dynasty in Yemen; ETHNOGRAPHY IN YEMEN: Vitaly Naumkin & Victor Porkhomovsky, Oral poetry in the Soqotran socio-cultural context. The case of the ritual song The girl and the jinn; Miranda Morris, The Soqotra Archipelago: concepts of good health and everyday remedies for illness; Ester Muchawsky-Schnapper, Children's attire in early 20th-century San'a' as a socio-cultural paradigm. Orders from Archaeopress.
This revolutionary archeological synthesis argues an alternative model of the earliest human population of North America. E. James Dixon dispels the stereotype of big-game hunters following mammoths across the Bering Land Bridge and paints a vivid picture of marine mammal hunters, fishers, and general foragers colonising the New World. Applying contemporary scientific methods and drawing on new archaeological discoveries, he advances evidence indicating that humans first reached the Americas using water craft along the deglaciated Northwest Coast about 13,500 years ago, some 2,000 years before the first Clovis hunters. Dixons rigorous evaluation of the oldest North American archaeological sites and human remains offers well-reasoned hypotheses about the physical characteristics, lives, and relationships of the First Americans. His crisply written analysis of scientific exploration is essential reading for scholars, students, and general readers.
The lives of kings, poets, authors, criminals and celebrities are a perpetual fascination in the media and popular culture, and for decades anthropologists and other scientists have participated in 'post-mortem dissections' of the lives of historical figures. In this field of biohistory, researchers have identified and analyzed these figures' bodies using technologies such as DNA fingerprinting, biochemical assays, and skeletal biology. This book brings together biohistorical case studies for the first time, and considers the role of the anthropologist in the writing of historical narratives surrounding the deceased. Contributors theorize biohistory with respect to the sociology of the body, examining the ethical implications of biohistorical work and the diversity of social theoretical perspectives that researchers' work may relate to. The volume defines scales of biohistorical engagement, providing readers with a critical sense of scale and the different paths to 'historical notoriety' that can emerge with respect to human remains.
In recent years the Cochuah region, the ancient breadbasket of the north-central Yucatecan lowlands, has been documented and analyzed by a number of archaeologists and cultural anthropologists. This book, the first major collection of data from those investigations, presents and analyzes findings on more than eighty sites and puts them in the context of the findings of other investigations from outside the area. It begins with archaeological investigations and continues with research on living peoples. Within the archaeological sections, historic and colonial chapters build upon those concerned with the Classic Maya, revealing the ebb and flow of settlement through time in the region as peoples entered, left, and modified their ways of life based upon external and internal events and forces. In addition to discussing the history of anthropological research in the area, the contributors address such issues as modern women's reproductive choices, site boundary definition, caves as holy places, settlement shifts, and the reuse of spaces through time.
Adrian Boas's combined use of historical and archaeological evidence together with first-hand accounts written by visiting pilgrims results in a multi-faceted perspective on Crusader Jerusalem. Generously illustrated, this book will serve both as a scholarly account of this city's archaeology and history, and a useful guide for the interested reader to a city at the centre of international and religious interest and conflict today.
This volume surveys the archaeology of Native North Americans from their arrival on the continent 15,000 years ago up to contact with European colonizers. Offering rich descriptions of monumental structures, domestic architecture, vibrant objects, and spiritual forces, Timothy R. Pauketat and Kenneth E. Sassaman show how indigenous people shaped both their history and North America's many varied environments. They place the student in the past as they trace how Native Americans dealt with challenges such as climate change, the rise of social hierarchies and political power, and ethnic conflict. Written in a clear and engaging style with a compelling narrative, The Archaeology of Ancient North America presents the grand historical themes and intimate stories of ancient Americans in full, living color.
This is an archaeological and historical study of Mexico City and Xaltocan, focusing on the early years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1521. The study of households excavated in Mexico City and the probate inventories of 39 colonizers provide a vivid view of the material and social lives of the Spanish in what was once the capital of the Aztec empire. Decades of archaeological and ethnohistorical research in Xaltocan, a town north of Mexico City, offers a long-term perspective of daily life, technology, the economy, and the adoption of Spanish material culture among indigenous people. Through these case studies, this book examines interpretive strategies used when working with historical documents and archaeological data. Focusing on the use of metaphors to guide interpretation, this volume explores the possibilities for interdisciplinary collaboration between historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists working on this pivotal period in Latin American history.
In a pre-industrial world, storage could make or break farmers and empires alike. How did it shape the Roman empire? The Socio-Economics of Roman Storage cuts across the scales of farmer and state to trace the practical and moral reverberations of storage from villas in Italy to silos in Gaul, and from houses in Pompeii to warehouses in Ostia. Following on from the material turn, an abstract notion of 'surplus' makes way for an emphasis on storage's material transformations (e.g. wine fermenting; grain degrading; assemblages forming), which actively shuffle social relations and economic possibilities, and are a sensitive indicator of changing mentalities. This archaeological study tackles key topics, including the moral resonance of agricultural storage; storage as both a shared and a contested concern during and after conquest; the geography of knowledge in domestic settings; the supply of the metropolis of Rome; and the question of how empires scale up. It will be of interest to scholars and students of Roman archaeology and history, as well as anthropologists who study the links between the scales of farmer and state.
In this revised and updated edition of Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction, Paul Bahn presents an engaging introduction and a superb overview of a field that embraces everything from the cave art of Lascaux to the great stone heads of Easter Island. This entertaining introduction reflects the enduring popularity of archaeology--a subject which appeals as a pastime, career, and academic discipline, encompasses the whole globe, and spans some 2.5 million years. From deserts to jungles, from deep caves to mountain tops, from pebble tools to satellite photographs, from excavation to abstract theory, archaeology interacts with nearly every other discipline in its attempts to reconstruct the past. In this new edition, Bahn brings his text completely up to date, including information about recent discoveries and interpretations in the field, and highlighting the impact of developments such as the potential use of DNA and stable isotopes in teeth, as well the effect technology and science are having on archaeological exploration, from nuclear imaging to GPS. Bahn also shows how archaeologists have contributed to some of the most prominent debates of our age, such as the role of climate change, the effects of rises in sea-level, and the possibility of global warming. This edition also includes updated suggestions for further reading.
In 1930 five young archaeologists embarked on an expedition to Egypt to investigate the site of Tell el Amarna, city of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. In this book Mary Chubb recalls her initiation into the world of Egyptology and the discoveries that she and her team made. It is an account of life on an excavation and includes a portrayal of the excavation's director, John Pendlebury.
In Germany, Nazi ideology casts a long shadow over the history of archaeological interpretation. Propaganda, school curricula, and academic publications under the regime drew spurious conclusions from archaeological evidence to glorify the Germanic past and proclaim chauvinistic notions of cultural and racial superiority. But was this powerful and violent version of the distant past a nationalist invention or a direct outcome of earlier archaeological practices? By exploring the myriad pathways along which people became familiar with archaeology and the ancient past--from exhibits at local and regional museums to the plotlines of popular historical novels--this broad cultural history shows that the use of archaeology for nationalistic pursuits was far from preordained. In Germany's Ancient Pasts, Brent Maner offers a vivid portrait of the development of antiquarianism and archaeology, the interaction between regional and national history, and scholarly debates about the use of ancient objects to answer questions of race, ethnicity, and national belonging. While excavations in central Europe throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries fed curiosity about the local landscape and inspired musings about the connection between contemporary Germans and their "ancestors," antiquarians and archaeologists were quite cautious about using archaeological evidence to make ethnic claims. Even during the period of German unification, many archaeologists emphasized the local and regional character of their finds and treated prehistory as a general science of humankind. As Maner shows, these alternative perspectives endured alongside nationalist and racist abuses of prehistory, surviving to offer positive traditions for the field in the aftermath of World War II. A fascinating investigation of the quest to turn pre- and early history into history, Germany's Ancient Pasts sheds new light on the joint sway of science and politics over archaeological interpretation.
Tutankhamun puts the boy king's short life into context by describing and explaining the complexities of life in Ancient Egypt. Covering the work of earlier Egyptologists, it details the actual discovery and original expedition, drawing on the personal archives of Howard Carter himself. On 26 November 1922, Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun. The world was entranced. Never before had a tomb been found in such a perfect condition, with all the richness of its contents still intact. The stories that have since grown up around the discovery of the tomb and of the boy king who lay undisturbed for over 3,000 years have become legendary and continue to fire imaginations around the world. This book tells those stories, and uncovers the reality behind them.
SEEING THE UNSEEN. GEOPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY is a collection of papers presented at the advanced XV International Summer School in Archaeology ?Geophysics for Landscape Archaeology? (Grosseto, Italy, 10-18 July 2006). Bringing together the experience of some of the world's greatest experts in the field of archaeological prospection, the focus of this book is not so much on the analysis of single buried structures, but more on researching the entire landscape in all its multi-period complexity.
The book is divided into two parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical basis of the various methods, illustrated for the most part through case-studies and practical examples drawn from a variety of geographical and cultural contexts. The second part focuses on the work carried out in the field during the Summer School. Tutors and students took part in the intensive application of the principal techniques of geophysical prospecting (magnetometry, EM, ERT and ground-penetrating radar) to locate, retrieve, process and interpret data for a large Roman villa-complex near Grosseto.
SEEING THE UNSEEN. GEOPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY provides a clear illustration of the remarkable potential of geophysical methods in the study of ancient landscapes, and will be usefull to Archaeologists, Geophysicists, Environmental scientists, and those involved in the management of cultural heritage.
Studying archaeological evidence from sites covering over 200 kilometres of the banks of the Euphrates River, Lisa Cooper's excellent monograph explores the growth and development of human settlement in the Euphrates River Valley of Northern Syria during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages from circa 2700 to 1550 BC. Cooper focuses on the nature and development of the urban politics that existed in the area during these periods and highlights two principal inter-related characteristics of the Euphrates Valley: the study of specific aspects of Euphrates culture, such as the nature of urban secular and religious architecture, mortuary remains, and subsistence pursuits, to underline the unique character of this region during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages the striking resilience of its cultural traditions over many centuries despite the political instability and environmental degradation. Including studies on the tribal background of the populations, the economy, the unique geography of the Euphrates, the ethnic and social structure of its inhabitants, and the influences of states surrounding it, this is a unique and invaluable resource for all students of archaeology and ancient history.
For over 25 years The Handbook of British Archaeology has been the foremost guide to archaeological methods, artefacts and monuments, providing clear explanations of all specialist terms used by archaeologists. This completely revised and updated edition is packed with the latest information and now includes the most recent developments in archaeological science. Meticulously researched, every section has been extensively updated by a team of experts. There are chapters devoted to each of the archaeological periods found in Britain, as well as two chapters on techniques and the nature of archaeological remains. All the common artefacts, types of sites and current theories and methods are covered. The growing interest in post-medieval and industrial archaeology is fully explored in a brand new section dealing with these crucial periods. Hundreds of new illustrations enable instant comparison and identification of objects and monuments - from Palaeolithic handaxes to post-medieval gravestones. Several maps pinpoint the key sites, and other features include an extensive bibliography and a detailed index. The Handbook of British Archaeology is the most comprehensive resource book available and is essential for anyone with an interest in the subject - from field archaeologists and academics to students, heritage professionals, Time Team followers and amateur enthusiasts.
The study of the prehistory of East Asia is developing very rapidly. In uncovering the story of the flows of human migration that constituted the peopling of East Asia there exists widespread debate about the nature of evidence and the tools for correlating results from different disciplines.
Drawing upon the latest evidence in genetics, linguistics and archaeology, this exciting new book examines the history of the peopling of East Asia, and investigates the ways in which we can detect migration, and its different markers in these fields of inquiry. Results from different academic disciplines are compared and reinterpreted in the light of evidence from others to attempt to try and generate consensus on methodology. Taking a broad geographical focus, the book also draws attention to the roles of minority peoples - hitherto underplayed in accounts of the region's prehistory - such as the Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Altaic speakers, whose contribution to the regional culture is now becoming accepted.
Past Human Migrations in East Asia presents a full picture of the latest research on the peopling of East Asia, and will be of interest to scholars of all disciplines working on the reconstruction of the peopling of East and North East Asia.
Clothing was crucial in human evolution, and having to cope with climate change was as true in prehistory as it is today. In Climate, Clothing, and Agriculture in Prehistory, Ian Gilligan offers the first complete account of the development of clothing as a response to cold exposure during the ice ages. He explores how and when clothes were invented, noting that the thermal motive alone is tenable in view of the naked condition of humans. His account shows that there is considerably more archaeological evidence for palaeolithic clothes than is generally appreciated. Moreover, Gilligan posits, clothing played a leading role in major technological innovations. He demonstrates that fibre production and the advent of woven fabrics, developed in response to global warming, were pivotal to the origins of agriculture. Drawing together evidence from many disciplines, Climate Clothing, and Agriculture in Prehistory is written in a clear and engaging style, and is illustrated with nearly 100 images.
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