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The island of Mingulay lies at near the southern tip of the Western Isles archipelago, its fertile valleys and rugged coastline of cliffs and sea stacks a spectacular setting for a wealth of important archaeology. Up to the fifteenth century Mingulay was part of the estate of the Bishop of the Isles, and then passed into the hands of the MacNeils of Barra. Deserted in the early 1900s, since the 1920s archaeologists have been recording the island's buildings and prehistoric remains. Combining previous surveys with the results of a new project undertaken by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland and the National Trust for Scotland, this fold-out information guide is the indispensable record of the archaeological landscapes and architectural relics of the island. A highly detailed map identifies the locations of everything from burial cairns and roundhouses to chapels and schools, and explanatory text illustrated by survey drawings and contemporary and historic photography traces the lives of the people who made this remote island their home.
The oracle and sanctuary of the Greek god Apollo at Delphi were known as the "omphalos"--the "center" or "navel"--of the ancient world for more than 1000 years. Individuals, city leaders, and kings came from all over the Mediterranean and beyond to consult Delphi's oracular priestess; to set up monuments to the gods; and to take part in competitions. In this richly illustrated account, Michael Scott covers the history and nature of Delphi, from the literary and archaeological evidence surrounding the site, to its rise as a center of worship, to the constant appeal of the oracle despite her cryptic prophecies. He describes how Delphi became a contested sacred site for Greeks and Romans and a storehouse for the treasures of rival city-states and foreign kings. He also examines the eventual decline of the site and how its meaning and importance have continued to be reshaped. A unique window into the center of the ancient world, Delphi will appeal to general readers, tourists, students, and specialists.
Adrian Boas's combined use of historical and archaeological evidence together with first-hand accounts written by visiting pilgrims results in a multi-faceted perspective on Crusader Jerusalem. Generously illustrated, this book will serve both as a scholarly account of this city's archaeology and history, and a useful guide for the interested reader to a city at the centre of international and religious interest and conflict today.
Paleozoology and Paleoenvironments outlines the reconstruction of ancient climates, floras, and habitats on the basis of animal fossil remains recovered from archaeological and paleontological sites. In addition to outlining the ecological fundamentals and analytical assumptions attending such analyzes, J. Tyler Faith and R. Lee Lyman describe and critically evaluate many of the varied analytical techniques that have been applied to paleozoological remains for the purpose of paleoenvironmental reconstruction. These techniques range from analyses based on the presence or abundance of species in a fossil assemblage to those based on taxon-free ecological characterizations. All techniques are illustrated using faunal data from archaeological or paleontological contexts. Aimed at students and professionals, this volume will serve as fundamental resource for courses in zooarchaeology, paleontology, and paleoecology.
First published in 1988. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
SEEING THE UNSEEN. GEOPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY is a collection of papers presented at the advanced XV International Summer School in Archaeology ?Geophysics for Landscape Archaeology? (Grosseto, Italy, 10-18 July 2006). Bringing together the experience of some of the world's greatest experts in the field of archaeological prospection, the focus of this book is not so much on the analysis of single buried structures, but more on researching the entire landscape in all its multi-period complexity.
The book is divided into two parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical basis of the various methods, illustrated for the most part through case-studies and practical examples drawn from a variety of geographical and cultural contexts. The second part focuses on the work carried out in the field during the Summer School. Tutors and students took part in the intensive application of the principal techniques of geophysical prospecting (magnetometry, EM, ERT and ground-penetrating radar) to locate, retrieve, process and interpret data for a large Roman villa-complex near Grosseto.
SEEING THE UNSEEN. GEOPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY provides a clear illustration of the remarkable potential of geophysical methods in the study of ancient landscapes, and will be usefull to Archaeologists, Geophysicists, Environmental scientists, and those involved in the management of cultural heritage.
Graham Hancock's multi-million bestseller Fingerprints of the Gods remains an astonishing, deeply controversial, wide-ranging investigation of the mysteries of our past and the evidence for Earth's lost civilization. Twenty years on, Hancock returns with a book filled with completely new, scientific and archaeological evidence, which has only recently come to light... The evidence revealed in this book shows beyond reasonable doubt that an advanced civilization that flourished during the Ice Age was destroyed in the global cataclysms between 12,800 and 11,600 years ago. Near the end of the last Ice Age 12,800 years ago, a giant comet that had entered the solar system from deep space thousands of years earlier, broke into multiple fragments. Some of these struck the Earth causing a global cataclysm on a scale unseen since the extinction of the dinosaurs. At least eight of the fragments hit the North American ice cap, while further fragments hit the northern European ice cap. The impacts, from comet fragments a mile wide approaching at more than 60,000 miles an hour, generated huge amounts of heat which instantly liquidized millions of square kilometres of ice, destabilizing the Earth's crust and causing the global Deluge that is remembered in myths all around the world. A second series of impacts, equally devastating, causing further cataclysmic flooding, occurred 11,600 years ago, the exact date that Plato gives for the destruction and submergence of Atlantis. But there were survivors - known to later cultures by names such as 'the Sages', 'the Magicians', 'the Shining Ones', and 'the Mystery Teachers of Heaven'. They travelled the world in their great ships doing all in their power to keep the spark of civilization burning. They settled at key locations - Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, Baalbek in the Lebanon, Giza in Egypt, ancient Sumer, Mexico, Peru and across the Pacific where a huge pyramid has recently been discovered in Indonesia. Everywhere they went these 'Magicians of the Gods' brought with them the memory of a time when mankind had fallen out of harmony with the universe and paid a heavy price. A memory and a warning to the future... For the comet that wrought such destruction between 12,800 and 11,600 years may not be done with us yet. Astronomers believe that a 20-mile wide 'dark' fragment of the original giant comet remains hidden within its debris stream and threatens the Earth. An astronomical message encoded at Gobekli Tepe, and in the Sphinx and the pyramids of Egypt,warns that the 'Great Return' will occur in our time...
Studying archaeological evidence from sites covering over 200 kilometres of the banks of the Euphrates River, Lisa Cooper's excellent monograph explores the growth and development of human settlement in the Euphrates River Valley of Northern Syria during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages from circa 2700 to 1550 BC. Cooper focuses on the nature and development of the urban politics that existed in the area during these periods and highlights two principal inter-related characteristics of the Euphrates Valley: the study of specific aspects of Euphrates culture, such as the nature of urban secular and religious architecture, mortuary remains, and subsistence pursuits, to underline the unique character of this region during the Early and Middle Bronze Ages the striking resilience of its cultural traditions over many centuries despite the political instability and environmental degradation. Including studies on the tribal background of the populations, the economy, the unique geography of the Euphrates, the ethnic and social structure of its inhabitants, and the influences of states surrounding it, this is a unique and invaluable resource for all students of archaeology and ancient history.
The study of the prehistory of East Asia is developing very rapidly. In uncovering the story of the flows of human migration that constituted the peopling of East Asia there exists widespread debate about the nature of evidence and the tools for correlating results from different disciplines.
Drawing upon the latest evidence in genetics, linguistics and archaeology, this exciting new book examines the history of the peopling of East Asia, and investigates the ways in which we can detect migration, and its different markers in these fields of inquiry. Results from different academic disciplines are compared and reinterpreted in the light of evidence from others to attempt to try and generate consensus on methodology. Taking a broad geographical focus, the book also draws attention to the roles of minority peoples - hitherto underplayed in accounts of the region's prehistory - such as the Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Altaic speakers, whose contribution to the regional culture is now becoming accepted.
Past Human Migrations in East Asia presents a full picture of the latest research on the peopling of East Asia, and will be of interest to scholars of all disciplines working on the reconstruction of the peopling of East and North East Asia.
First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
A sensational, interdisciplinary work which entirely reorients our understanding of Europe from 10,000 BC to the time of the Vikings In this magnificent book, distinguished archaeologist Barry Cunliffe reframes our entire conception of early European history, from prehistory through the ancient world to the medieval Viking period. Cunliffe views Europe not in terms of states and shifting political land boundaries but as a geographical niche particularly favored in facing many seas. These seas, and Europe's great transpeninsular rivers, ensured a rich diversity of natural resources while also encouraging the dynamic interaction of peoples across networks of communication and exchange. The development of these early Europeans is rooted in complex interplays, shifting balances, and geographic and demographic fluidity. Drawing on archaeology, anthropology, and history, Cunliffe has produced an interdisciplinary tour de force. His is a bold book of exceptional scholarship, erudite and engaging, and it heralds an entirely new understanding of Old Europe.
Nearly 13,000 years ago millions of people and animals were wiped out, and the world plunged abruptly into a new ice-age. It was more than a thousand years before the climate, and mankind, recovered. The people of Gobekli Tepe in present-day southern Turkey, whose ancestors witnessed this catastrophe, built a megalithic monument formed of many hammer-shaped pillars decorated with symbols as a memorial to this terrible event. Before long, they also invented agriculture, and their new farming culture spread rapidly across the continent, signalling the arrival of civilisation. Before abandoning Gobekli Tepe thousands of years later, they covered it completely with rubble to preserve the greatest and most important story ever told for future generations. Archaeological excavations began at the site in 1994, and we are now able to read their story, more amazing than any Hollywood plot, again for the first time in over 10,000 years. It is a story of survival and resurgence that allows one of the world's greatest scientific puzzles - the meaning of ancient artworks, from the 40,000 year-old Lion-man figurine of Hohlenstein-Stadel cave in Germany to the Great Sphinx of Giza - to be solved. We now know what happened to these people. It probably had happened many times before and since, and it could happen again, to us. The conventional view of prehistory is a sham; we have been duped by centuries of misguided scholarship. The world is actually a much more dangerous place than we have been led to believe. The old myths and legends, of cataclysm and conflagration, are surprisingly accurate. We know this because, at last, we can read an extremely ancient code assumed by scholars to be nothing more than depictions of wild animals. A code hiding in plain sight that reveals we have hardly changed in 40,000 years. A code that changes everything.
As the population of older Americans grows, meaningful perspectives on aging are needed by both the young and the old. Biblical Perspectives on Aging: God and the Elderly takes a detailed look at the views of aging presented in the Old and New Testaments. This wide ranging and insightful survey encompasses not only the entire Bible but also interpretations of sacred Middle Eastern and Judaic documents. This new expanded edition of the original classic text adds thorough discussions of the wisdom of the Bible and Jewish literature with ways to interpret these readings and what they teach about spirituality and growing older. Approaches to aging issues have changed in recent years. With the average American lifespan increasing, the view of old age as a solitary time of waiting has been pushed aside. So too has the assumption that the elderly simply want to remember "the good old days." This updated edition of Biblical Perspectives on Aging: God and the Elderly has expanded its scope to incorporate and address the effects of these changing views. This sweeping study of the Bible's positive treatment of aging and elderly figures sheds new light on contemporary society's negative view of the elderly and what can be done about it. Clear examples from both Scripture and literature provide a wealth of understanding, comfort, and wisdom to everyone interested in aging and the Bible. In addition, this new edition explores the changing relationships that exist among aging, hermeneutics, mentoring, and spirituality. The new insights revealed here reinvigorate the challenge against ageism and traditional pictures of old age as a time of withdrawal and living in the past. Among the issues explored in Biblical Perspectives on Aging: God and the Elderly are aging experiences and the Bible, biblical theology and its role in social support for the elderly, hermeneutics and old age, spirituality and its relationship to aging, cross-generational relationships and mentoring, and a detailed index of Old and New Testament Scripture references. Accessible and concise, with compelling arguments and numerous examples, Biblical Perspectives on Aging: God and the Elderly is an ideal resource for pastors, seminary students, professionals, and leaders of programs for the elderly. It shows both young and old that while aging may not be easy, Biblical theology can ease some of its mystery.
This book contains a collection of 13 essays from leading scholars on the relationship between passionate emotions and moral advancement in Greek and Roman thought.
Recognising that emotions played a key role in whether individuals lived happily, ancient philosophers extensively discussed the nature of "the passions," showing how those who managed their emotions properly would lead better, more moral lives.
The contributions are preceded by an introdution to the subject by John Fitzgerald. Writers discussed include the Cynics, the Neopythagorians, Aristotle and Ovid; the discussion encompasses philosophy, literature and religion.
This second of two volumes on Galilee in the Late Second Temple and Mishnaic Periods focuses on the site excavations of towns and villages and what these excavations may tell us about the history of settlement in this important period. The important site at Sepphoris is treated with four short articles, while the rest of the articles focus on a single site and include site plans, diagrams, maps, photographs of artifacts and structures, and extensive bibliographic listings. The articles in the volume have been written by an international group of experts on Galilee in this period: Christians, Jews, and secular scholars, many of whom are also regular participants in the twenty site excavations featured in the volume. The volume also features detailed maps of Galilee, a gallery of color images, timelines related to the period, and helpful indices. Together with Volume 1: Life, Culture, and Society, this volume provides the latest word of these topics for the expert and nonexpert alike.
The County of Lancashire - and the City of Lancaster in particular - have a richer archaeological heritage than is often appreciated. This was most dramatically demonstrated in November 2005 with the discovery of a massive stone bearing the image of a triumphant horseman and his fallen foe. This was without doubt one of the most significant finds of recent years. But who was the horseman, could the many fragments ever be satisfactorily be reassembled, and what did this stunning object mean for our history? To hope to answer these questions, and to put this artefact where it might be enjoyed by Lancastrians and visitors alike, would take the co-operative efforts of numerous museums, four universities, and the enthusiastic support of local people. This richly illustrated volume represents a first attempt - by archaeologists, classical historians, conservators and curators - to tell the stone's story, and in doing so to unravel some of the mysteries surrounding Insus, son of Vodullus.
Multiple Hopewellian monumental earthwork sites displaying timber features, mortuary deposits, and unique artifacts are found widely distributed across the North American Eastern Woodlands, from the lower Mississippi Valley north to the Great Lakes. These sites, dating from 200 b.c. to a.d. 500, almost define the Middle Woodland period of the Eastern Woodlands. Joseph Caldwell treated these sites as defining what he termed the ""Hopewell Interaction Sphere,"" which he conceptualized as mediating a set of interacting mortuary-funerary cults linking many different local ethnic communities. In this new book, A. Martin Byers refines Caldwell's work, coining the term ""Hopewell Ceremonial Sphere"" to more precisely characterize this transregional sphere as manifesting multiple autonomous cult sodalities of local communities affiliated into escalating levels of autonomous cult sodality heterarchies. It is these cult sodality heterarchies, regionally and transregionally interacting - and not their autonomous communities to which the sodalities also belonged - that were responsible for the Hopewellian assemblage; and the heterarchies took themselves to be performing, not funerary, but world-renewal ritual ceremonialism mediated by the deceased of their many autonomous Middle Woodland communities. Paired with the cult sodality heterarchy model, Byers proposes and develops the complementary heterarchical community model. This model postulates a type of community that made the formation of the cult sodality heterarchy possible. But Byers insists it was the sodality heterarchies and not the complementary heterarchical communities that generated the Hopewellian ceremonial sphere. Detailed interpretations and explanations of Hopewellian sites and their contents in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Georgia empirically anchor his claims. A singular work of unprecedented scope, Reclaiming the Hopewellian Ceremonial Sphere will encourage archaeologists to re-examine their interpretations.
"The Southern Ocean is a wild and elusive place, an ocean like no other. With its waters lying between the Antarctic continent and the southern coastlines of Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa, it is the most remote and inaccessible part of the planetary ocean, the only part that flows around Earth unimpeded by any landmass. It is notorious amongst sailors for its tempestuous winds and hazardous fog and ice. Yet it is a difficult ocean to pin down. Its southern boundary, defined by the icy continent of Antarctica, is constantly moving in a seasonal dance of freeze and thaw. To the north, its waters meet and mingle with those of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans along a fluid boundary that defies the neat lines of a cartographer." So begins Joy McCann's Wild Sea, the remarkable story of the world's remote Southern, or Antarctic, Ocean. Unlike the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans with their long maritime histories, little is known about the Southern Ocean. This book takes readers beyond the familiar heroic narratives of polar exploration to explore the nature of this stormy circumpolar ocean and its place in Western and Indigenous histories. Drawing from a vast archive of charts and maps, sea captains' journals, whalers' log books, missionaries' correspondence, voyagers' letters, scientific reports, stories, myths, and her own experiences, McCann embarks on a voyage of discovery across its surfaces and into its depths, revealing its distinctive physical and biological processes as well as the people, species, events, and ideas that have shaped our perceptions of it. The result is both a global story of changing scientific knowledge about oceans and their vulnerability to human actions and a local one, showing how the Southern Ocean has defined and sustained southern environments and people over time. Beautifully and powerfully written, Wild Sea will raise a broader awareness and appreciation of the natural and cultural history of this little-known ocean and its emerging importance as a barometer of planetary climate change.
Use centering prayer to deal with the demands of hospital ministry The Christ Chaplain: The Way to a Deeper, More Effective Hospital Ministry is an instructive guidebook for health care chaplains who struggle with the high levels of stress that have become commonplace in modern medicine as they work longer hours for lower wages yet get to spend less time with patients. The final book from Father M. Basil (Robert) Pennington, who passed away in 2005, cuts to the real heart of the matter job burnout by emphasizing not what a chaplain does, but what a chaplain is. This unique book teaches chaplains how to achieve better spiritual health by practicing spiritual self-care through centering prayer. The Christ Chaplain was written for hospital chaplains who find themselves at the limits of what they can do and what they can endure in living out their calling. Father Pennington ministers to the ministers, helping them to deepen their spiritual lives so they can better provide comfort to the sick and the dying. The book guides hospital chaplains through the Christian mystical tradition via lectio and centering prayer, a method of contemplative prayer rooted in silence that encourages a person to pay attention to God dwelling in the center of his or her being. Topics discussed in The Christ Chaplain include: the sacred text lectio divina the third step life as a school of love the ministry of presence the power of sacrament sharing the word resting in the presence and much more The Christ Chaplain also includes appendixes that offer sacred reading, a prayer for the hospital, and suggested readings. This powerful book is an invaluable, how-to guide to better spiritual health for hospital chaplains and other religious personnel, including those working in pastoral care departments of seminaries.
'Lost Worlds: Ruins of the Americas' is a unique visual exploration that vividly captures the haunting mystery and visual poetry of historic ruins throughout the Americas. This extraordinary collection perfectly portrays the architectural, geographic and historical significance of ruins that are considered world wonders and little known gems. Included are monumental temples of Mexico's Mayan civilization, a Colonial era palace on the island of Haiti, earthquake-ravaged cathedrals in Guatemala, and astonishing Incan citadels in Peru's Sacred Valley - culminating with the breathtaking beauty of Machu Picchu. . This unprecedented publication transports the reader on a journey to ancient temples, abandoned palaces and lofty citadels. Evocative and enlightening, 'Lost Worlds' will stir the imagination of those with a passion for photography, travel, history, architecture, and archaeology. Shot in infrared format on a specially adapted digital camera, these images expose crumbling, overgrown walls, broken columns, and cracked arches in ways most readers have never seen. They will offer readers a new way of viewing the landscape as well as an enhanced vision of the collective identity of the Americas. Includes a foreword by noted travel writer Pico Iyer and text by Arthur Drooker explaining each site's rise, fall and lasting significance.
A unique study of the engineering and tools used to create Egyptian
From the bestselling author of 1177 B.C., a comprehensive history of archaeology-from its amateur beginnings to the cutting-edge science it is today In 1922, Howard Carter peered into Tutankhamun's tomb for the first time, the only light coming from the candle in his outstretched hand. Urged to tell what he was seeing through the small opening he had cut in the door to the tomb, the Egyptologist famously replied, "I see wonderful things." Carter's fabulous discovery is just one of the many spellbinding stories told in Three Stones Make a Wall. Written by Eric Cline, an archaeologist with more than thirty seasons of excavation experience, this book traces the history of archaeology from an amateur pursuit to the cutting-edge science it is today by taking the reader on a tour of major archaeological sites and discoveries. Along the way, it addresses the questions archaeologists are asked most often: How do you know where to dig? How are excavations actually done? How do you know how old something is? Who gets to keep what is found? Taking readers from the pioneering digs of the eighteenth century to today's exciting new discoveries, Three Stones Make a Wall is a lively and essential introduction to the story of archaeology.
Many consider Lewis Binford to be the single most influential figure in archaeology in the last half-century. His contributions to the "New Archaeology" changed the course of the field, as he argued for the development of a scientifically rigorous framework to guide the excavation and interpretation of the archaeological record. This book, the culmination of Binford's intellectual legacy thus far, presents a detailed description of his methodology and its significance for understanding hunter-gatherer cultures on a global basis. This landmark publication will be an important step in understanding the great process of cultural evolution and will change the way archaeology proceeds as a scientific enterprise. This work provides a major synthesis of an enormous body of cultural and environmental information and offers many original insights into the past. Binford helped pioneer what is now called "ethnoarchaeology"-the study of living societies to help explain cultural patterns in the archaeological record-and this book is grounded on a detailed analysis of ethnographic data from about 340 historically known hunter-gatherer populations. The methodological framework based on this data will reshape the paradigms through which we understand human culture for years to come.
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