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Ever since the first scrolls were found in the Judaean desert in 1947, the Dead Sea Scrolls have been the subject of passionate speculation and controversy. The possibility that they might challenge assumptions about ancient Judaism and the origins of Christianity, coupled with the extremely limited access imposed for many years, only fueled debate on their meanings. With all the scrolls now available in translation, conclusions can be drawn as to the authorship and origins, their implications for Christianity and Judaism, and their link with the ancient site of Qumran. This book, written by three noted scholars in the field, draws together all the evidence to present a fully illustrated survey of every major manuscript. With numerous factfiles, reconstructions, scroll photographs, and a wealth of other illustrations, it is the most comprehensive and accessible account available on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Jordan's Point, a nearly triangular promontory in the James River, is situated in Prince George County, just east of the confluence of the James and Appomattox Rivers. A broad terrace overlooking the James, Jordan's Point is bounded by small streams, tidal marshes, and protective uplands that rise to a height of 100 feet or more. In 1607, when the first European colonists saw Jordan's Point, it was graced by the homes and cleared fields of natives they would call the Weyanoke. Virginia colonist Samuel Jordan established a community called Jordan's Journey around 1621, giving his name to what became known as Jordan's Point.
In time, the settlement became a hub of social and political life. By 1660, Jordan's Point had come into the possession of the Blands, one of England's most important mercantile families. They leased their property to one or more of their agents, usually merchants and mariners involved in inter-colonial trade. Richard Bland I and his descendants developed Jordan's Point into a family seat and working plantation they retained until after the Civil War. At Jordan's Point enslaved men, women, and children toiled in the fields, enabling the Blands to prosper. Richard Bland IV went on to become a distinguished American patriot, and one of his sons became a physician.
Featuring more than one hundred photos and illustrations, most in color, and intended for a general reader, "Jordan's Point, Virginia: Archaeology in Perspective, Prehistoric to Modern Times" tells the story of Jordan's Point, which spans thousands of years, through the cultural features that archaeologists have unearthed there. This is a book that will attract readers interested in Native American studies, Virginia and colonial history, and archaeology.
Distributed for the Virginia Department of Historic Resources
Professor O'Kelly, the most distinguished authority on Newgrange, demonstrates that this remarkable megalithic tomb, 'the great national monument of Ireland, was built about 3200 BC by Neolithic farmers, who possessed considerable expertise in engineering, architecture, art and astronomy.' Not only did they erect a monument which has stood virtually intact for thousands of years, but they deliberately orientated it so that each year, on midwinter's day, the rays of the rising sun would shine through a special aperture to illuminate the inner passage and chamber. Every stage in the excavation, interpretation and restoration of the site is described and fully illustrated, with additional major contributions from Claire O'Kelly, who collaborated in her husband's work at Newgrange from its beginning.
This timely volume offers a compilation of twenty-four articles covering a wide spectrum of topics in Iroquoian archaeology. Culled from leading publications, these essays collectively represent the current state of knowledge and research in the field. A comprehensive research bibliography with more than 500 entries will be a key resource for specialists and nonspecialists alike. Both text and bibliography are structured in five sections: Origins; Precolumbian Dynamics; Postcolumbian Dynamics; Material Culture Studies; and Contemporary Iroquois Perspectives, Repatriation, and Collaborative Archaeology. Along with seminal essays by major figures in regional archaeology, the book includes responses by Haudenosaunee writers to the political context of contemporary archaeological work.
Powerful, semi-divine and splendidly adorned, more than a hundred pharaohs ruled over Egypt during the 3000 years of ancient Egyptian civilisation. This book explores the notion of the pharaoh as protector of the land and divinely-descended warrior priest to reveal the myths and realities of kingship in ancient Egypt.
This newly revised and enlarged fourth edition of Christopher Chippindale's prize-winning classic account brings the story of Stonehenge right up to date. It describes in two new chapters the startling ideas and insights of the latest field research. In a radical reinterpretation, Stonehenge with its cold rocks is seen as the place of the dead, and another site - over the horizon - as the place of the living, built in wood, and complete with houses and paved ways. In another theory, Stonehenge is a place of healing. Alongside the quest to understand Stonehenge are the taxing practicalities of caring for a 4,000 years old site that was never designed to cope with a million visitors a year, and how to preserve the monument for millennia to come. `It would not be easy to name a better guide' - The Guardian `Splendidly illustrated ... Will for years to come be a standard reference work' - The Times Literary Supplement `All you ever wanted to know about Stonehenge...is catalogued in this humorously written, beautifully illustrated book' - The Economist
When people think of archaeology, they commonly think of unearthing the remains of ancient civilizations in Egypt, Greece, Rome, Central or South America. But some fascinating history can be found in your own New Jersey backyard -- if you know where to look.
Richard Veit takes readers on a well-organized guided tour through four hundred years of Garden State development as seen through archaeology in Digging New Jersey's Past. This illustrated guidebook takes readers to some of the state's most interesting buried treasures and tells us what has been learned or is being learned from them. The diverse array of archaeological digs, drawn from all parts of the state, includes a seventeenth-century Dutch trading post, the site of the Battle of Monmouth, the gravemarkers of freed slaves, and a 1920s railroad roundhouse, among others.
Veit begins with an explanation of the basic techniques used by historical archaeologists. He explains how they know where to dig and what sites are likely to yield important information. He then describes excavation techniques: How do archaeologists go about excavating a site? What happens to artifacts after they have been removed? How are they cataloged, stored, and interpreted?
The book then moves through the state's history, from the contact of first peoples and explorers, to colonial homesteads, the Revolutionary War battlefields, cemeteries, canals and railroads, factories and laboratories of early inventors. Such excavations help us to better understand poorly documented historical episodes, the lives of disenfranchised people, and the realities of day-to-day life in the past. Veit concludes with some thoughts about the future of archaeologicalresearch in New Jersey and with suggestions on ways that interested individuals can become involved in the field.
If all the portable artifacts of Ancient Rome were in a single location, the lives of students, historians, and connoisseurs would be immeasurably simpler. But the masterpieces are in museums all over the world. This book identifies 200 of the most important of these works, and describes them vividly and informatively in ways that reveal how each is a key object in its own right - a creation that commemorates a great event or heralds the start of a new era in creativity or politics. From coins of the fifth century bce to pottery made at the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 ce, each object reveals an important insight into this highly influential ancient civilization.
Who were the ancient Phoenicians, and did they actually exist? The Phoenicians traveled the Mediterranean long before the Greeks and Romans, trading, establishing settlements, and refining the art of navigation. But who these legendary sailors really were has long remained a mystery. In Search of the Phoenicians makes the startling claim that the "Phoenicians" never actually existed. Taking readers from the ancient world to today, this monumental book argues that the notion of these sailors as a coherent people with a shared identity, history, and culture is a product of modern nationalist ideologies--and a notion very much at odds with the ancient sources. Josephine Quinn shows how the belief in this historical mirage has blinded us to the compelling identities and communities these people really constructed for themselves in the ancient Mediterranean, based not on ethnicity or nationhood but on cities, family, colonial ties, and religious practices. She traces how the idea of "being Phoenician" first emerged in support of the imperial ambitions of Carthage and then Rome, and only crystallized as a component of modern national identities in contexts as far-flung as Ireland and Lebanon. In Search of the Phoenicians delves into the ancient literary, epigraphic, numismatic, and artistic evidence for the construction of identities by and for the Phoenicians, ranging from the Levant to the Atlantic, and from the Bronze Age to late antiquity and beyond. A momentous scholarly achievement, this book also explores the prose, poetry, plays, painting, and polemic that have enshrined these fabled seafarers in nationalist histories from sixteenth-century England to twenty-first century Tunisia.
This book examines the development of ancient Greek civilization through a path-breaking application of social scientific theories. David B. Small charts the rise of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations and the unique characteristics of the later classical Greeks through the lens of ancient social structure and complexity theory, opening up new ideas and perspectives on these societies. He argues that Minoan and Mycenaean institutions evolved from elaborate feasting, and that the genesis of Greek colonization was born from structural chaos in the eighth century. Small isolates distinctions between Iron Age Crete and the rest of the Greek world, focusing on important differences in social structure. His book differs from others on Ancient Greece, highlighting the perpetuation of classical Greek social structure into the middle years of the Roman Empire, and concluding with a comparison of the social structure of classical Greece to that of the classical Maya civilization.
Recently broadcast on a television documentary, Wayne Herschel's new findings completely challenge the theories on human origins and the pyramids. He provides new evidence identifying a global pyramid/star map pattern and a recurring hidden message encrypted as a rendition of Da Vinci's 'Vitruvian' human blueprint code. Astronomers have tested Herschel's 50 pyramids of Lower Egypt replicating the known constellations as a grand pyramid/star map. Egypt's ultimate monument is positioned as the proverbial "x" that marks the spot. It venerates a star that has been catalogued astronomically as being identical to our Sun. The matching cosmic pattern is found at Stonehenge, Tikal and at Angkor. For the first time ever, a specific star is proposed as a star system of origin of our ancient 'astronaut' ancestors who were later revered as 'gods' when they revisited. The highlight of the book is undoubtedly the rumoured pyramid ruins on Mars providing the most detailed star correlation of all, with a perfect interpretation of the human code. But for whom was the cosmic message intended, as it certainly was not for us? All the pyramid star maps are too massive, face skyward, and the only way to decipher them is to view them from space. This title takes the reader on a riveting journey from one clue to the next, presenting the strongest evidence to date that we have never ever been alone in the universe.
A vivid portrait of the early years of biblical archaeology from the acclaimed author of 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed In 1925, James Henry Breasted, famed Egyptologist and director of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, sent a team of archaeologists to the Holy Land to excavate the ancient site of Megiddo-Armageddon in the New Testament-which the Bible says was fortified by King Solomon. Their excavations made headlines around the world and shed light on one of the most legendary cities of biblical times, yet little has been written about what happened behind the scenes. Digging Up Armageddon brings to life one of the most important archaeological expeditions ever undertaken, describing the site and what was found there, including discoveries of gold and ivory, and providing an up-close look at the internal workings of a dig in the early years of biblical archaeology. The Chicago team left behind a trove of writings and correspondence spanning more than three decades, from letters and cablegrams to cards, notes, and diaries. Eric Cline draws on these materials to paint a compelling portrait of a bygone age of archaeology. He masterfully sets the expedition against the backdrop of the Great Depression in America and the growing troubles and tensions in British Mandate Palestine. He gives readers an insider's perspective on the debates over what was uncovered at Megiddo, the infighting that roiled the expedition, and the stunning discoveries that transformed our understanding of the ancient world. Digging Up Armageddon is the enthralling story of an archaeological site in the interwar years and its remarkable place at the crossroads of history.
Global in perspective and covering over four million years of history, this accessible volume provides a chronological account of both the development of the human race and the order in which modern societies have made discoveries about their ancient past. Beginning deep in prehistory, it takes in all the great archaeological sites of the world as it advances to the present day. A masterful combination of succinct analysis and driving narrative, Archaeology: The Whole Story also addresses the questions that inevitably arise as we gradually learn more about the history of our species: what are we? Where did we come from? What inspired us to start building, writing and all the other activities that we traditionally regard as exclusively human? A concluding section explains how we know what we know: for example, how seventeen prehistoric shrines were discovered around Stonehenge using magnetometers, ground-penetrating radars, and 3D laser scanners; and how DNA analysis enabled us to identify some bones discovered beneath a car park in Leicester as the remains of a fifteenth-century king of England. Written by an international team of archaeological experts and richly illustrated throughout, Archaeology: The Whole Story offers an unparalleled insight into the origins of humankind.
Scholars often assume that elite, or high-status tomb chapels of the Egyptian Old and Middle Kingdoms featured decorations in order to provide for the eternal needs of the deceased. However, this explanation often fails to account for the content of many such decorations.
The Cosmos of Khnumhotep II offers a detailed study of the tomb chapel of Khnumhotep II. Kamrin painstakingly charts the various levels of meaning buried in the scenes, ornaments, and texts that adorn Khnumhotep II's chapel, and provides a detailed analysis of the organizational structure of the tomb. She argues that the tomb chapel should be interpreted as a model of the cosmos, integrating the realms of the living and the dead. An abundance of new evidence suggests that various cult structures may be regarded as cosmograms, schematized representations of the Egyptian cosmos that reflect the powers and operations of the universe.
Anasazi, the Navajos' name for the "Ancient Ones" who preceded them into the Southwest, is the nickname of Richard Wetherill, who devoted his life to a search for remains of these vanished peoples. He discovered the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde and Kiet Siel and the Basket Maker sites at Grand Gulch, Utah, and at Chaco Canyon he initiated the excavation of Pueblo Bonito, the largest prehistoric ruin in the United States. His discoveries are among the most important ever made by an American archaeologist.
In The World of Dinosaurs, paleontologist Dr Mark Norell takes a detailed look at everything we know about these wondrous creatures, drawing on the very latest research in the field. Produced in association with the American Museum of Natural History and drawing on their archives, Norell examines every facet of the dinosaur mystery, from the scattering of dinosaur fossils after the breakup of Pangea to the different categorizations of these monstrous reptiles. Even subjects you may think you know about - such as the species' extinction - are looked at in a new light. Illustrated with exceptional scientific recreations of key species, as well as documentary photographs, sketches and notes from dino discoveries, this is the ultimate photographic reference book on dinosaurs.
Reviewing the data from other New Kingdom settlements on a micro-spatial level, this study reveals a highly diversified and unique pattern of habitation in the Nile Valley. The main focus of this work is the New Kingdom which offers the largest number of sites from any one period.
First published in 1996. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Acclaimed science writer Heather Pringle uncovers the true story of the scientists and archaeologists Heinrich Himmler deployed to find proof for his theories of a prehistoric Aryan master race. What happens when science falls prey to a political agenda? Pre-history, according to Heinrich Himmler, must be re-written. Himmler, the chief of the SS and architect of the Nazi network of death camps, was obsessed with re-writing history. He was convinced that archaeologists had long ignored the great accomplishments of ancient Germanic peoples. Himmler believed that Germany's ancestors - the tall, blue-eyed, blond-haired Aryans - had evolved not in the savannahs of Africa with the rest of humanity, but in the icy barrens of the Arctic. There, refined and distilled by natural selection in a bitter land, they had become an invincible master race. But some 12,000 years ago, theorized Himmler, a natural cataclysm shook the earth, decimating the scattered Aryan colonies and now, only in select parts of the world - most notably northern Europe - did some true Aryan blood remain. Himmler's history was pure fiction, but his conviction was unshakable. In 1935 he founded the 'Ahnenerbe' - a research institute to manufacture archaeological evidence for political purposes - appointed himself president, and set about recruiting a bizarre mix of adventurers, mystics, careerists and reputable archaeologists to help write a new chapter in the ancient history of the Aryan race. Expeditions went sent out to Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Greenland and beyond, each backed by the power of the Third Reich to realize this bizarre scientific dream. `The Master Plan' is also an expose of the German scientists and scholars who allowed their research to be used to justify extermination - many of whom resumed their academic positions at war's end. Intensely compelling and comprehensively researched, `The Master Plan' is a story of delusion and excess; of scientific and political abuse on a global scale. It has all the energy of an adventure, but also the chilling truth of a terrifying episode in twentieth century history.
A Companion to the Archaeology of Religion in the Ancient World presents a comprehensive overview of a wide range of topics relating to the practices, expressions, and interactions of religion in antiquity, primarily in the Greco-Roman world. - Features readings that focus on religious experience and expression in the ancient world rather than solely on religious belief - Places a strong emphasis on domestic and individual religious practice - Represents the first time that the concept of "lived religion" is applied to the ancient history of religion and archaeology of religion - Includes cutting-edge data taken from top contemporary researchers and theorists in the field - Examines a large variety of themes and religious traditions across a wide geographical area and chronological span - Written to appeal equally to archaeologists and historians of religion
Commissioned to mark the 75th anniversary of the start of work in the royal burial ground by the 5th Earl of Carnavon and Howard Carter, this book presents an up-to-date review of the developments in excavation, mapping and research in the Valley of the Kings.
First published in 1988. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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