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This book examines the effects of the Peloponnesian War on the arts of Athens and the historical and artistic contexts in which this art was produced. During this period, battle scenes dominated much of the monumental art, while large numbers of memorials to the war dead were erected. The temple of Athena Nike, built to celebrate Athenian victories in the first part of the war, carries a rich sculptural program illustrating military victories. For the first time, the arts in Athens expressed an interest in the afterlife, with many sculptured dedications to Demeter and Kore, who promised initiates special privileges in the underworld. Not surprisingly, there were also dedications to healer gods. After the Sicilian disaster, a retrospective tendency can be noted in both art and politics, which provided reassurance in a time of crisis. Bringing together essays by an international team of art historians and historians, this is the first book to focus on the new themes and new kinds of art introduced in Athens as a result of the thirty-year war.
This volume holds a datelist of 882 radiocarbon determinations carried out between 1988 and 1993 on behalf of the Ancient Monuments Laboratory of English Heritage. It contains supporting information about the samples and the sites producing them, a comprehensive bibliography, and two indexes for reference and analysis. An introduction provides discussion of the character and taphonomy of the dated samples and information about the methods used for the analyses reported and their calibration. The datelist has been collated from information provided by the submitters of the samples and the dating laboratories. Many of the sites and projects from which dates have been obtained are published, although, when some of these measurements were produced, high-precision calibration was not possible for much of the radiocarbon timescale. At this time, there was also only a limited range of statistical techniques available for the analysis of radiocarbon dates. Methodological developments since these measurements were made may allow revised archaeological interpretations to be constructed on the basis of these dates, and so the purpose of this volume is to provide easy access to the raw scientific and contextual data which may be used in further research.
From Zeus and Europa, to Diana, Pan, and Prometheus, the myths of ancient Greece and Rome seem to exert a timeless power over us. But what do those myths represent, and why are they so enduringly fascinating? Why do they seem to be such a potent way of talking about our selves, our origins, and our desires? This imaginative and stimulating Very Short Introduction goes beyond a simple retelling of the stories to explore the rich history and diverse interpretations of classical myths. It is a wide-ranging account, examining how classical myths are used and understood in both high art and popular culture, taking the reader from the temples of Crete to skyscrapers in New York, and finding classical myths in a variety of unexpected places: from arabic poetry and Hollywood films, to psychoanalysis, the bible, and New Age spiritualism. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
All Saints' Church, Brixworth lies 7 miles north of Northampton. The core of the church is Anglo-Saxon and the research published here provides an unprecedented account of one of the most important buildings of its period surviving in England. The building of the main body of the church was towards the end of the 8th century, with a western tower, stair turret and polygonal apse added before the end of the 9th. Major modifications were made during the early and later medieval periods. From the early 19th century the church attracted much antiquarian interest, especially by topographical draughtsmen, whose drawings are crucial to its understanding before major restoration. Reverend Charles Frederick Watkins (Vicar, 1832-1871) made a particular study of the church fabric and identified both surviving and demolished Anglo-Saxon structures. Restoration under his direction reversed most of the medieval changes he recognised within the standing fabric, leaving the church with much the same appearance as it has today. The Brixworth Archaeological Research Committee, founded in 1972, embarked on an in-depth archaeological and historical study of All Saints'. Limited excavation revealed evidence for the former extent of the cemetery and examined remains of the early structures to the north of the church, including one whose foundations cut a ditch containing 8th-century material. The later 8th-century date for the foundation of the church was confirmed by radiocarbon dates from charcoal extracted from construction mortar in the church fabric. A complete stone-by-stone survey of the standing fabric, accompanied by petrological identifications, has led to a refined appraisal of the construction sequence and the identification of'exotic' stone types and Roman bricks reused from earlier buildings up to 40 km distant. The archaeological, geological and laboratory findings presented here have been amplified by contextual studies placing the church against its archaeological, architectural, liturgical and historical background, with detailed comparisons with standing and excavated buildings of similar age in north Europe and Italy.
Useful for academic and recreational archaeologists alike, this book identifies and describes over 200 projectile points and stone tools used by prehistoric Native American Indians in Texas. This third edition boasts twice as many illustrations all drawn from actual specimens and still includes charts, geographic distribution maps and reliable age-dating information. The authors also demonstrate how factors such as environment, locale and type of artifact combine to produce a portrait of these ancient cultures.
Wiltshire contains some of the most important archaeological sites in Britain.Its Prehistoric remains include the breath-taking Stonehenge, awesome stone circle at Avebury , the enigma of Silbury Hill and a large number of hillforts. Among these important sites are also found smaller, perhaps lesser-known monuments of the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages, including the King Barrow cemetery and Woodhenge. Bob Clarke, author of numerous books on military archaeology and history, takes us on a tour of the prehistoric sites in this archaeologically-rich county, using aerial photography and outstanding images, which accompany the informative text. All proceeds from this book go to the Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society's appeal to update the current Bronze Age Gallery at the museum in Devizes.
This book proposes a new model and scheme of analysis for complex burial material and applies it to the prehistoric archaeological record of the Liangshan region in Southwest China that other archaeologists have commonly given a wide berth, regarding it as too patchy, too inhomogeneous, and overall too unwieldy to work with. The model treats burials as composite objects, considering the various elements separately in their respective life histories. The application of this approach to the rich and diverse archaeological record of the Liangshan region serves as a test of this new form of analysis. This volume thus pursues two main aims: to advance the understanding of the archaeology of the immediate study area which has been little examined, and to present and test a new scheme of analysis that can be applied to other bodies of material.
The 19th century historic landscape of Devon developed from earlier patterns of landholdings and settlement that are, today, not always easily discernible on the ground. The study of Tithe Survey landholdings, field-names, and associated documentary evidence, together with the physical evidence of change and development through field and settlement pattern can be used to elucidate the relationship between field and settlement morphologies and patterns of 19th-century landholding. The combined evidence for three case-study areas the Blackdown Hills, Hartland Moors, and the South Hams is examined in detail though the creation, manipulation, and querying of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database. Key issues addressed include: how far back patterns of 19th century landholding can be traced, or projected, back into the medieval period; the occurrence and extent of open field farming in Devon; and the spread of nucleated and dispersed settlements. Looking beyond the physical aspects of landscapes, the idea of landscape pays and the identification of regional differences in the study of the historic landscape are investigating revealing how closely entwined are the physical and social landscapes of this historic county."
Heritage, memory, community archaeology and the politics of the past form the main strands running through the papers in this volume.The authors tackle these subjects from a range of different philosophical perspectives, with many drawing on the experience of recent community, commercial and other projects. Throughout, there is a strong emphasis on both the philosophy of engagement and with its enactment in specific contexts; the essays deal with an interest in the meaning, value and contested nature of the recent past and in the theory and practice of archaeological engagements with that past. Chris Dalglish is a lecturer in archaeology at the University of Glasgow. Contributors: Julia Beaumont, David Bowsher, Terry Brown, Jo Buckberry, Chris Dalglish, James Dixon, Audrey Horning, Robert Isherwood, Robert C Janaway, Melanie Johnson, Sian Jones, Catriona Mackie, Janet Montgomery, Harold Mytum, Michael Nevell, Natasha Powers, Biddy Simpson, Matt Town, Andrew Wilson
100 Great African Kings and Queens is a fascinating journey that tracks the sands of civilization. Through the eyes of the reign of these illustrious African monarchs, a fascinating portion of world history is uncovered. Volume one is the first 10 of 100 . They range from Khufu, the father of the pyramids to Makeda, the magnificent Queen of Sheba. Then there is Hannibal of Tunisia who taught the Roman Empire the meaning of fear. The pilgrimage to Mecca of Emperor Mansa Musa of Mali (who lays claim to the title of the richest man who ever lived - would be worth 400 billion dollars today ) is among the most spectacular events of all time. Not to be forgotten are Cleopatra of Egypt and freedom fighters like Nzinga of Matamba, as well as Yaa Asantewaa of Ghana. There are 9 more volumes to come. Volume one of this journey, will amaze, delight, and make the world stand up to celebrate a shared humanity without borders.
Salt has been mined in Hallstatt for more than 7000 years. The oldest company in the world dates back to that time and was based there: one site, one product. For 7000 years, people have lived and worked and made cultural history in Hallstatt - the place even lent its name to an entire Iron Age period, the Hallstatt culture. 150 years ago, mine manager Johann Georg Ramsauer was a key figure in establishing modern archaeology in Hallstatt. After 7000 years, the graves in the steep valley and the sites of the prehistoric adits began to release their secrets. Today the team of archaeologists led by Anton Kern keep discovering breathtaking finds. Text in English & German.
This volume describes the results of a series of archaeological excavations undertaken in advance of the construction of a new dual carriageway, some 32km long, across Anglesey, UK. Five main sites and a series of prehistoric burnt mounds are discussed. The route encountered remains of Neolithic pit groups and a possible Late Neolithic ring-ditch; Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement features and a Bronze Age cremation cemetery; Romano-British settlements and a farmstead; an early medieval inhumation cemetery; medieval agricultural features and a corn-drying kiln.
The aim of the book is to present original and though-provoking essays in human paleontology and prehistory, which are at the forefront of human evolutionary research, in honor of Professor Yoel Rak (a leading scholar in paleoanthropology). The volume presents a collection of original papers contributed by many of Yoel's friends and colleagues from all over the globe. Contributions from experts around the globe fall roughly into three broad categories: Reflections on some of the broad theoretical questions of evolution, and especially about human evolution; the early hominins, with special emphasis on Australopithecus afarensis and Paranthropus; and the Neanderthals, that contentious group of our closest extinct relatives. Within and across these categories, nearly every paper addresses combinations of methodological, analytical and theoretical questions that are pertinent to the whole human evolutionary time span. This book will appeal most to scholars and advanced students in paleoanthropology, human paleontology and prehistoric archaeology.
Explore significant archaeological discoveries pertaining to every book of the Bible. Laypersons, pastors, students, academics, and anyone looking for a current and comprehensive biblical archaeology resource need look no further. The Zondervan Handbook of Biblical Archaeology provides a wealth of information that supplements the historical context of the Bible, providing a window into the past that will enhance your understanding and enjoyment of biblical text. Immerse yourself in the world of the Bible with these special features: Introduction to the field of archaeology Archaeological discoveries in canonical order The latest photos and information from new discoveries Aerial photos of excavation sites Photos of artifacts and historic structures Sidebars and study helps Robust glossary Detailed maps Bibliography The Zondervan Handbook of Biblical Archaeology gives readers the opportunity to visit ancient sites and historical places while remaining in the comfort of their own home.
This volume celebrates the centenary of Classical Archaeology as a University discipline in Denmark by presenting nineteen articles on classical archaeological research within Greek, Etruscan and Roman archaeology, ranging from fieldwork and research projects to the publication of material in Danish collections.
This volume holds a datelist of 1285 radiocarbon determinations carried out between 1981 and 1988 on behalf of the Ancient Monuments Laboratory of English Heritage. It contains supporting information about the samples and the sites producing them, a comprehensive bibliography, and two indexes for reference and analysis. An introduction provides discussion of the character and taphonomy of the dated samples and information about the methods used for the analyses reported and their calibration. The datelist has been collated from information provided by the submitters of the samples and the dating laboratories. Many of the sites and projects from which dates have been obtained are published, although, when many of these measurements were produced, high-precision calibration was not possible. At this time, there was also only a limited range of statistical techniques available for the analysis of radiocarbon dates. Methodological developments since these measurements were made may allow revised archaeological interpretations to be constructed on the basis of these dates, and so the purpose of this volume is to provide easy access to the raw scientific and contextual data which may be used in further research.
Comprising 17 chapters and with a wide geographic reach stretching from the Florida Keys in the north to the Guianas in the south, this volume places a well-needed academic spotlight on what is generally considered an integral topic in Caribbean and circum-Caribbean archaeology. The book explores a variety of issues, including the introduction and dispersal of early cultivars, plant manipulation, animal domestication, dietary profiles, and landscape modifications. Tried-and-true and novel analytical techniques are used to tease out aspects of the Caribbean and circum-Caribbean database that inform the complex and often-subtle processes of domestication under varying socio-environmental conditions. Contributors discuss their findings within multiple constructs such as neolithisation, social interaction, trade, mobility, social complexity, migration, colonisation, and historical ecology. Multiple data sources are used which include but are not restricted to rock art, cooking pits and pots, stable isotopes, dental calculus and pathologies, starch grains, and proxies for past environmental conditions. Given its multi-disciplinary approaches, this volume should be of immense value to both researchers and students of Caribbean archaeology, biogeography, ethnobotany, zooarchaeology, historical ecology, agriculture, environmental studies, history, and other related fields.
A richly illustrated book featuring recent revelations about China's first emperor, Ying Zheng, and his famous burial site containing an army of life-size terracotta soldiers and other artifacts First discovered by a farmer in 1974, the burial site of China's first emperor, Ying Zheng, has yielded thousands of life-size terracotta figures and artifacts, and continues to be excavated today. This fascinating publication features more than 130 works including ten of these majestic terracotta figures, arms and armor, horse and chariot fittings, ritual bronze vessels, works in gold and silver, jade ornaments, precious jewelry, and ceramics. Dating from the Eastern Zhou dynasty (770-256 BC) through the Qin dynasty (221-206 BC), these objects represent the complex history, myths, and burial customs of ancient China. The texts introduce recent scholarship on this material culture to illuminate not only the first emperor's burial complex, but also his powerful influence in Chinese history and the myriad ways in which his political and economic reforms transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people.
Pocket Museum: Ancient Greece presents more than 200 objects currently housed in public collections around the world that offer both context and immediacy to the rich culture of Ancient Greece. From the bifacial hand tools of the Lower Palaeolithic to the Hellenistic Great Altar of Pergamon, the artifacts presented here reveal a complex sociocultural history of shifting priorities, spiritual beliefs, and cultural traditions; the influence on material culture of isolation and internationalism, of technological advance and decline, and of prosperity and adversity. They also reflect the transmission of shared social-cultural ideals across vast distances through relationships maintained for centuries at a time - objects from across the Greek world, valued in life and in death. Pocket Museum: Ancient Greece also offers an insight into the history of collecting and methods of interpretation, examining how the perception of objects has changed over time. Beautifully illustrated with photographs of each featured artifact, this is an absorbing introduction to a culture that has exerted an unparalleled influence on Western civilization.
This Project Planning Note is intended to cover the taking of oblique aerial photographs of the historic environment. It includes advice on planning and carrying out aerial reconnaissance projects and lists relevant sources of further information. This Project Planning Note is intended to be read in conjunction with the MoRPHE Project Managers Guide which gives generic guidance on project management.
Excavations by Cotswold Archaeology at Mildenhall produced evidence for human activity from the Late Bronze Age to the medieval period. A Late Bronze Age waterhole backfilled with domestic refuse was excavated on the higher ground above the floodplain of the River Lark. The Middle Iron Age was a period of intense activity on the site, when a pair of massive ditches defined the eastern part of an enclosure, possibly built to dominate the crossing point of the River Lark. A third ditch of comparable size may date to the Middle or Late Iron Age. Numerous pits were found inside the enclosure, and a pair of very large post-settings were located between the paired ditches. A possible focus for settlement beyond the excavated area was suggested by the greater density of pits towards the west. The ditches fell out of use before the Roman period when a farmstead occupied the higher ground. In this period the flood plain was utilised with a series of field ditches, although the area was prone to flooding in the later Roman period. Throughout the Saxon period, the higher ground was farmed and use of the flood plain was limited by the wet environment. The evidence suggests there was a process of deliberate land reclamation on the floodplain during the medieval period, after which the area was divided into fields. On the higher ground, a large ditch running north to south may have marked the medieval town boundary, but this association is uncertain. Excavated evidence from this period represented activities undertaken on the periphery of settlement, including crop-processing, animal husbandry, and iron-working. A well-preserved kiln base may have been used for the production of lime, using chalk quarried from the edge of the higher ground. There was a rapid decline in use of the area from the 14th century onwards, and it remained farmland until recent times. There was good preservation of environmental evidence from all periods, and the sizeable assemblages of animal bone and crop waste allowed comparisons to be made in farming practices over time. The assemblage of decorated Middle Iron Age pottery from the site is the largest found in the region to date.
Corrstown in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, is a highly important Bronze Age site. This came to light during excavations carried out by Archaeological Consultancy Services Ltd on behalf of the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in 2002-2003, the results of which are detailed here. A total of 74 Middle Bronze Age roundhouse platforms was identified and organised into pairs or short rows, the majority of which appeared to be contemporary. The Corrstown village represents a site type hitherto unknown in Britain and Ireland, where the standard settlement pattern consists of roundhouses occurring in relative isolation or in small conglomerations. A two-tier network of roads and pathways also serviced the village: one large cobbled roadway and a second probable roadway (perhaps left un-surfaced) were identified along with a multitude of smaller paths leading from the entrances of the houses onto the roadways. The large cobbled road extended beyond the village perimeter, indicating connectivity with the wider landscape. The artefact assemblage from the site was dominated by domestic pottery (over 9,000 sherds) and lithics (over 165,000 pieces). A small assemblage of stone axes and moulds was also retrieved. Radiocarbon analysis indicated that the village had three phases, an initial growth phase (commencing after c.1550 BC), followed by a considerable occupation phase (lasting up to 200 years) and a decline phase (commencing c.1150 BC). Early medieval occupation was also observed at Corrstown and the results are included as an appendix. Another Bronze Age settlement site, also excavated by Archaeological Consultancy Services, is also included as an appendix. It is hoped that this volume represents a beginning of the study of the Corrstown village, a site of national and international significance that urges archaeologists to reconfigure the settlement structure and associated social patterns of the Bronze Age.
The Kilmartin landscape in western Scotland is widely regarded as Scotland's richest prehistoric landscape. It contains a number of barrow cemeteries, stone alignments, stone circles and a henge. With over 250 individual rock art sites, it also has the greatest concentration of prehistoric rock art in the British Isles and some of the most impressive rock art sites. An Animate Landscape contains the results of a major research project that included excavations of two sites, Torbhlaren and Ormaig, and the analysis of radiocarbon dates to produce a more coherent chronological context, as well as taking a broader interpretative approach to the landscape. The book argues that the rock art is an active part of the process of socialising the landscape, in which the landscape became more organised from the Late Neolithic onwards, and that this organised landscape relates to broader cosmological concerns. The book is richly illustrated with colour drawings and photographs done by a series of artists to produce a unique visual record of the rock art and its place in the landscape, alongside more traditional archaeological enquiry.
We often assume that works of visual art are meant to be seen. Yet that assumption may be a modern prejudice. The ancient world - from China to Greece, Rome to Mexico - provides many examples of statues, paintings, and other images that were not intended to be visible. Instead of being displayed, they were hidden, buried, or otherwise obscured. In this third volume in the Visual Conversations in Art & Archaeology series, leading scholars working at the intersection of archaeology and the history of art address the fundamental question of art's visibility. What conditions must be met, what has to be in place, for a work of art to be seen at all? The answer is both historical and methodological; it concerns ancient societies and modern disciplines, and encompasses material circumstances, perceptual capacities, technologies of visualization, protocols of classification, and a great deal more. The emerging field of archaeological art history is uniquely suited to address such questions. Intrinsically comparative, this approach cuts across traditional ethnic, religious, and chronological categories to confront the academic present with the historical past. The goal is to produce a new art history that is at once cosmopolitan in method and global in scope, and in doing so establish new ways of seeing - new conditions of visibility - for shared objects of study.
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