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The Great Pyramid Manual takes the technical description and historical interpretation of the last 'Great Wonder of the Ancient World' to the next level. Lavishly illustrated with the most accurate architectural diagrams and three-dimensional reconstructions currently available, the book pays tribute to the greatest iconic work of human culture. The Great Pyramid was the world's tallest monument for nearly 4,000 years. Until the 19th century, it was also the heaviest structure ever built. It was the central component of a huge funerary complex called Akhet Khufu, 'Khufu's Horizon', by the ancient Egyptians. Over time, the plateau around it developed into an enormous necropolis, a true city of the dead. While many great monuments were built alongside it, none have surpassed it.
"Excavations at Wigmore Castle were carried out in 1996 and 1998 as a precursor to repair and consolidation of the castle by English Heritage. The castle had remained the honorial caput of the Mortimer family from the late 11th century through to 1425, an unusually long tenure amongst Marcher lordships. The Mortimer family became increasingly important players in the history of England. Thereafter the Mortimer inheritance passed to the Dukes of York and from there to the Crown. Evidence of the earliest castle was found during the excavations, including part of a substantial 12th-century timber building, part of which had been used as a kitchen. Here remains of a sequence of hearths, cooking pots and food remains were found. The construction of defences in stone probably began in the 12th century. The effect of conflict on the castle was indicated by the presence of ballista balls, arrowheads, a possible crannequin and fragments of plate armour. A possible period of neglect occurred in the later 14th century but by the 15th century the castle was the scene of renewed activity including the rebuilding of the curtain wall. Dietary evidence and some of the artefacts indicate that there was high-status occupation, in which hunting played an important role that continued throughout the 15th century. By the 16th century the castle fabric was beginning to fall into disrepair and evidence of repairs and modifications were noted. Nevertheless, high-status occupation continued and the castle remained to play an important role as a secondary seat of the Council of the Marches. However, by the early 17th century decline at the castle appears to have been terminal. The castle was now owned by the Harley family and it is they who are credited with the pre-emptive slighting of the castle during the Civil War. The slighting is not evident in the excavated areas, and the area in and around the East Tower appears to have been derelict well before the mid-17th century. Pottery, clay pipe and other artefacts which can definitely be ascribed to the Civil War are few. An oxshoe found in the latest deposits may well be associated with the removal of fallen stone for building elsewhere. Thereafter the castle appears to have been little visited and almost total ruination had set in by the early 18th century. In 1995 the castle was taken into English Heritage Guardianship and has been consolidated and restored as a romantic ruin.
Focusing on Brazil, this book approaches the term "heritage" from not only a historical and architectural point of view, but also considers its artistic, archaeological, natural, ethnological and industrial aspects. The book is divided into four thematic sections - 1) traditions and intangible heritage, 2) archaeological heritage, 3) natural heritage and landscapes, and 4) heritage of industrial and built environments - and presents chapters on a diverse range of topics, from samba and cultural identities in Rio de Janeiro, to the history of Brazilian archaeology, the value of scenic landscapes in Brazil, and the cultural landscape of Brazil. As an outcome of the First Heritage International Symposium, this unique book explores a variety of heritage dialogues, pursuing global and specific approaches, and combining different views, perceptions and senses.
Pocket Museum: Ancient Greece presents more than 200 objects currently housed in public collections around the world that offer both context and immediacy to the rich culture of Ancient Greece. From the bifacial hand tools of the Lower Palaeolithic to the Hellenistic Great Altar of Pergamon, the artifacts presented here reveal a complex sociocultural history of shifting priorities, spiritual beliefs, and cultural traditions; the influence on material culture of isolation and internationalism, of technological advance and decline, and of prosperity and adversity. They also reflect the transmission of shared social-cultural ideals across vast distances through relationships maintained for centuries at a time - objects from across the Greek world, valued in life and in death. Pocket Museum: Ancient Greece also offers an insight into the history of collecting and methods of interpretation, examining how the perception of objects has changed over time. Beautifully illustrated with photographs of each featured artifact, this is an absorbing introduction to a culture that has exerted an unparalleled influence on Western civilization.
Excavations by Oxford Archaeology in advance of a programme of improvements to the railway between Bicester and Oxford investigated part of the south-eastern extramural settlement associated with the Roman fortress and subsequent town at Alchester, Oxfordshire, as well as rural settlements in its rural hinterland. The investigations at Alchester extended across two successive routes south to Dorchester-on-Thames, the earlier of which by-passed the eastern side of Otmoor and was superseded by a more direct route across the moor at the end of the 1st century AD. Settlement beside the earlier road may have been a successor to a pre-Roman settlement and appears from artefactual evidence to have been of quite high status during the initial, military phase, although no contemporary structural evidence was found. Stone-founded buildings were constructed during the late 1st-early 2nd century, including two single-celled structures of uncertain function that may represent a gatehouse or a pair of shrines. The buildings were demolished by c AD 200, when the area was abandoned. An insight into the diverse lives of the inhabitants is provided by finds that included part of a priestly headdress, two pairs of slave shackles and a group of roof tiles bearing the footprints of a young child. The extramural settlement may have been partly rural in character, involved in farming the landscape around the town, which was intensively managed for agricultural production, probably as meadow and pasture. Ditched enclosures beside the later road may have been part of a second extramural area or a discrete farming establishment. No buildings were identified but two large pits contained domestic refuse and building material. Excavations at six other locations investigated farmsteads that dated from the middle Iron Age to the 3rd century AD and included a rare deposit of debris from copper and iron working from a middle Iron Age enclosure ditch.
Roman empire, Rural and urban community, Cananefates
Clothing was crucial in human evolution, and having to cope with climate change was as true in prehistory as it is today. In Climate, Clothing, and Agriculture in Prehistory, Ian Gilligan offers the first complete account of the development of clothing as a response to cold exposure during the ice ages. He explores how and when clothes were invented, noting that the thermal motive alone is tenable in view of the naked condition of humans. His account shows that there is considerably more archaeological evidence for palaeolithic clothes than is generally appreciated. Moreover, Gilligan posits, clothing played a leading role in major technological innovations. He demonstrates that fibre production and the advent of woven fabrics, developed in response to global warming, were pivotal to the origins of agriculture. Drawing together evidence from many disciplines, Climate Clothing, and Agriculture in Prehistory is written in a clear and engaging style, and is illustrated with nearly 100 images.
The three centuries which followed the conquests of Alexander are perhaps the most thrilling of all periods of ancient history. This was an age of cultural globalization: in the third century BC, a single language carried you from the Rhone to the Indus. A Celt from the lower Danube could serve in the mercenary army of a Macedonian king ruling in Egypt, and a Greek philosopher from Cyprus could compare the religions of the Brahmins and the Jews on the basis of first-hand knowledge of both. Kings from Sicily to Tajikistan struggled to meet the challenges of ruling multi-ethnic states, and Greek city-states came together under the earliest federal governments known to history. The scientists of Ptolemaic Alexandria measured the circumference of the earth, while pioneering Greek argonauts explored the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic coast of Africa. Drawing on inscriptions, papyri, coinage, poetry, art, and archaeology Peter Thonemann opens up the history and culture of the vast Hellenistic world, from the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) to the Roman conquest of the Ptolemaic kingdom (30 BC).
The Cambridge World Prehistory provides a systematic and authoritative examination of the prehistory of every region around the world from the early days of human origins in Africa two million years ago to the beginnings of written history, which in some areas started only two centuries ago. Written by a team of leading international scholars, the volumes include both traditional topics and cutting-edge approaches, such as archaeolinguistics and molecular genetics, and examine the essential questions of human development around the world. The volumes are organized geographically, exploring the evolution of hominins and their expansion from Africa, as well as the formation of states and development in each region of different technologies such as seafaring, metallurgy, and food production. The Cambridge World Prehistory reveals a rich and complex history of the world. It will be an invaluable resource for any student or scholar of archaeology and related disciplines looking to research a particular topic, tradition, region, or period within prehistory.
This book examines the work of Tyneside trailblazers from medieval times to the 20th century describing the part they played in a huge range of industries from glassmaking to shipping. At the beginning of the 19th century, railways represented a cheap and efficient way of transporting coal to ports, one hundred years later they were taking British people, goods and ideas around the globe. Ever since mankind first used tools there have been far-sighted people who have been determined to find a better way of doing things. In the 18th and 19th centuries, this progression became so rapid that we call it the Industrial Revolution. What some people don't realise is that many of these pioneers worked on Tyneside, developing new equipment, experimenting with new materials and introducing new processes to make products faster, cheaper, stronger and more reliable.
This book is an impressive collection of some of the earliest literature still extant from the great Ancient Egyptian civilization. Much of the material contained in this work -- poems, narratives, songs and prayers -- was translated here and made accessible to lovers of antiquity for the first time. Covering a range of topics including schools, religion and love, the collected works here provide the reader with a deeper understanding of ancient life along the Nile.
Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Using R is the first hands-on guide to using the R statistical computing system written specifically for archaeologists. It shows how to use the system to analyze many types of archaeological data. Part I includes tutorials on R, with applications to real archaeological data showing how to compute descriptive statistics, create tables, and produce a wide variety of charts and graphs. Part II addresses the major multivariate approaches used by archaeologists, including multiple regression (and the generalized linear model); multiple analysis of variance and discriminant analysis; principal components analysis; correspondence analysis; distances and scaling; and cluster analysis. Part III covers specialized topics in archaeology, including intra-site spatial analysis, seriation, and assemblage diversity.
This is a comprehensive study of the early history, art and archaeology of Europe, ranging from the coming of Stone Age Man to the fall of the Roman Empire. Containing over 300 plates, maps and drawings, this book is unique in its approach to the history of civilization as a response to the changing European landscape and environment.
Very Short Introductions: Brilliant, Sharp, Inspiring The ancient Egyptians are an enduring source of fascination - mummies and pyramids, curses and rituals have captured the imagination of generations. We all have a mental picture of ancient Egypt, but is it the right one? How much do we really know about this great civilization? This second edition of Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction explores the history and culture of pharaonic Egypt, inlcuding ideas about Egyptian kingship, ancient Egyptian writing systems, and the history of Egyptology. Ian Shaw introduces the reader to issues relating to ethnicity, race, gender, and sexual relations; the latest ideas about death, funerary rites and mummification; and thoughts on religion and ethics in ancient Egypt. He also looks at the phenomenon of Egyptomania, whereby certain books and films have sensationalised aspects of Egyptian culture. Finally, Shaw takes the story to the present day by illustrating the impact of the Arab Spring on approaches to Egyptian museums and cultural heritage. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Motorways, airports, tower blocks, power stations, windfarms; TV and the internet, easy travel and shrinking distances; business parks, starter homes and vast shopping and leisure complexes. All of these helped define the later 20th-century world and their material remains remind us of the major changes brought about through innovation and rapidly developing technology. Illustrated with striking aerial and ground photographs of some stunning and sometimes surprising 20th-century landscapes, Images of Change highlights for perhaps the first time the impact the developments of the last century have had on the landscape and gives us a new angle on the industrial, military, domestic and agricultural influences at work around us. By turns dramatic, beautiful, perhaps even shocking, the images and accompanying text will convince that the later 20th century should not be seen as an age that has devalued or destroyed what went before. Understanding how the 20th-century landscape is perceived and how it connects to the past is part of what this book is about - helping us to understand that change and creation is as important in the landscape as preservation. We recognise and celebrate the process of landscape change for earlier periods - the 20th century should be no different.
This volume presents a collection of articles which offer different perspectives for archaeological pottery studies, regarding the understanding of pre-Hispanic social practices in Quebrada de Humahuaca, Argentina. The aim of this volume is to contribute to Quebrada de Humahuaca archaeological knowledge and its inclusion in current discussions about Andean and worldwide history of pottery production. In 2003, Quebrada de Humahuaca was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Numerous tracks, roads and settlements testify to its pre-Hispanic and post pre-Hispanic history from pre-ceramic to colonial times. Due to its strategic position Quebrada de Humahuaca has been colonized by both the Inca and the Spaniards. It also has been a stage for many battles of the Argentine War of Independence. The richness and abundance of ceramic material evidence in the landscape of the Quebrada de Humahuaca has provided archaeologists information about human behaviour and social practices both in every and ritual activities. Quebrada de Humahuaca, in the province of Jujuy (the northernmost sector of Argentina) is one of the most widely recognized archaeological zones and one of the most widely studied. Through extensive excavations of the most conspicuous settlements, archaeologists managed to characterize these pre-Hispanic agricultural societies and construct chronologies of northwestern Argentina, and to elaborate models of trans-Andean population dynamics.
This issue includes Apostolic Geography: The Origins and Continuity of a Hagiographic Habit (Scott Fitzgerald Johnson); John Lydus and His Contemporaries on Identities and Cultures of Sixth-Century Byzantium (Sviatoslav Dmitriev); Grotesque Bodies in Hagiographical Tales: The Monstrous and the Uncanny in Byzantine Collections of Miracle Stories (Stavroula Constantinou); Byzantine Political Culture and Compilation Literature in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries (Catherine Holmes); Byzantine Mirrors: Self-Reflection in Medieval Greek Writing (Stratis Papaioannou); Transformative Narratives and Shifting Identities in the Narthex of the Boiana Church (Rossitza B. Schroeder); Tracing Monastic Economic Interests and Their Impact on the Rural Landscape of Late Byzantine Lemnos (Fotini Kondyli); The Imperial Image at the End of Exile: The Byzantine Embroidered Silk in Genoa and the Treaty of Nymphaion (1261) (Cecily J. Hilsdale); A Byzantine Text on the Technique of Icon Painting (George R. Parpulov, Irina V. Dolgikh, and Peter Cowe); New Archaeology at Ancient Scetis: Surveys and Initial Excavations at the Monastery of St. John the Little in Wadi Al-Natun (Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom with Stephen J. Davis, Tomasz Herbich, Salima Ikram, Dawn McCormack, Marie-Dominique Nenna, and Gillian Pyke)."
This book draws on ancient Egyptian inscriptions in order to theorize the relationship between accounting and order. It focuses especially on the performative power of accounting in producing and sustaining order in society. It explores how accounting intervened in various domains of the ancient Egyptian world: the cosmos; life on earth (offerings to the gods; taxation; transportation; redistribution for palace dependants; mining activities; work organization; baking and brewing; private estates and the household; and private transactions in semi-barter exchange); and the cult of the dead. The book emphasizes several possibilities through which accounting can be theorized over and above strands of theorizing that have already been explored in detail previously. These additional possibilities theorize accounting as a performative ritual; myth; a sign system; a signifier; a time ordering device; a spatial ordering device; violence; and as an archive and a cultural memory. Each of these themes are summarized with further suggestions as to how theorizing might be pursued in future research in the final chapter of the book. This book is of particular relevance to all accounting students and researchers concerned with theorize accounting and also with the relevance of history to the project of contemporary theorizing of accounting.
Fossils and Strata is an international series of monographs and memoirs in palaeontology and biostratigraphy, owned by, and published on behalf of, The Lethaia Foundation in cooperation between the Scandinavian countries. Fossils and Strata forms part of the same structured publishing programme as the international journal Lethaia and provides a complementary outlet for more comprehensive systematic and regional monographs, including taxonomic descriptions. Fossils and Strata also offers the publication of thematic special issues comprising a series of shorter contributions.
Early humans did not simply drift northward from their African origins as their abilities to cope with cooler climates evolved. The initial settlement of places like Europe and northern Asia, as well as the later movement into the Arctic and the Americas, actually occurred in relatively rapid bursts of expansion. A Prehistory of the North is the first full-length study to tell the complex story, spanning almost two million years, of how humans inhabited some of the coldest places on earth. In an account rich with illustrations, John Hoffecker traces the history of anatomical adaptations, diet modifications, and technological developments, such as clothing and shelter, that allowed humans the continued ability to push the boundaries of their frontier. The book concludes by showing how in the last few thousand years, peoples living in the circumpolar zone--with the exception of western and central Siberia--developed a thriving maritime economy. Written in no technical language, A Prehistory of the North provides compelling new insights and valuable information for professionals and students.
Ancient Central China provides an up-to-date synthesis of archaeological discoveries in the upper and middle Yangzi River region of China, including the Three Gorges Dam reservoir zone. It focuses on the Late Neolithic (late third millennium BC) through the end of the Bronze Age (late first millennium BC) and considers regional and interregional cultural relationships in light of anthropological models of landscape. Rowan K. Flad and Pochan Chen show that centers and peripheries of political, economic and ritual activities were not coincident, and that politically peripheral regions such as the Three Gorges were crucial hubs in interregional economic networks, particularly related to prehistoric salt production. The book provides detailed discussions of recent archaeological discoveries and data from the Chengdu Plain, Three Gorges and Hubei to illustrate how these various components of regional landscape were configured across Central China.
Architecture and Politics in Republican Rome is the first book to explore the intersection between Roman Republican building practices and politics (c.509-44 BCE). At the start of the period, architectural commissions were carefully controlled by the political system; by the end, buildings were so widely exploited and so rhetorically powerful that Cassius Dio cited abuse of visual culture among the reasons that propelled Julius Caesar's colleagues to murder him in order to safeguard the Republic. In an engaging and wide-ranging text, Penelope J. E. Davies traces the journey between these two points, as politicians developed strategies to manoeuver within the system's constraints. She also explores the urban development and image of Rome, setting out formal aspects of different types of architecture and technological advances such as the mastery of concrete. Elucidating a rich corpus of buildings that have been poorly understand, Davies demonstrates that Republican architecture was much more than a formal precursor to that of imperial Rome.
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