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Simultaneous Multi-Pollutants Removal in Flue Gas by Ozone mainly introduces the multi-pollution control technology in flue gas by ozone oxidation. Based on the authors' recent research works, the book will provide readers with the updated fundamental research findings, comprised of the detail kinetic mechanisms between ozone and gas components in flue gas integrated with experimental and kinetic modeling work. The demonstration case of the multi-pollutant removal technology by ozone is also presented. The book is suitable for the researchers working in the areas of energy and environmental protection, and pollutant control technology. Zhihua Wang is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Kefa Cen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the director of Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Zhejiang University; Junhu Zhou is a Qiushi Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Jianren Fan is the Cheung Kong Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University.
The expansion of unconventional petroleum resources in the recent decade and the rapid development of computational technology have provided the opportunity to develop and apply 3D numerical modeling technology to simulate the hydraulic fracturing of shale and tight sand formations. This book presents 3D numerical modeling technologies for hydraulic fracturing developed in recent years, and introduces solutions to various 3D geomechanical problems related to hydraulic fracturing. In the solution processes of the case studies included in the book, fully coupled multi-physics modeling has been adopted, along with innovative computational techniques, such as submodeling. In practice, hydraulic fracturing is an essential project component in shale gas/oil development and tight sand oil, and provides an essential measure in the process of drilling cuttings reinjection (CRI). It is also an essential measure for widened mud weight window (MWW) when drilling through naturally fractured formations; the process of hydraulic plugging is a typical application of hydraulic fracturing. 3D modeling and numerical analysis of hydraulic fracturing is essential for the successful development of tight oil/gas formations: it provides accurate solutions for optimized stage intervals in a multistage fracking job. It also provides optimized well-spacing for the design of zipper-frac wells. Numerical estimation of casing integrity under stimulation injection in the hydraulic fracturing process is one of major concerns in the successful development of unconventional resources. This topic is also investigated numerically in this book. Numerical solutions to several other typical geomechanics problems related to hydraulic fracturing, such as fluid migration caused by fault reactivation and seismic activities, are also presented. This book can be used as a reference textbook to petroleum, geotechnical and geothermal engineers, to senior undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, and to geologists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists and applied mathematicians working in this field. This book is also a synthetic compendium of both the fundamentals and some of the most advanced aspects of hydraulic fracturing technology.
Providing a comprehensive analysis of CO2 compression, transportation processes and safety issues for post combustion CO2 capture applications for a 900 MW pulverized hard coal-fired power plant, this book assesses techniques for boosting the pressure of CO2 to pipeline pressure values with a minimal amount of energy. Four different types of compressors are examined in detail: a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, integrally geared centrifugal compressor, supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines. The study demonstrates that the total compression power is closely related to the thermodynamic process and is not determined by compressor efficiency alone. Another problem addressed is that of CO2 pipeline transport from the compressor outlet site to a disposal site under heat transfer conditions. The book also features an analysis of simulations and models that are used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, ambient temperature, thickness of the thermal insulation and ground-level heat flux conditions. This book focuses on compression as well as transportation processes with particular emphasis on the safety risks related to the transport of CO2. The most important problem in terms of environmental protection is ensuring precise and reliable hazard identification. As hazards can only be managed effectively if they are properly identified, problems involving the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are also discussed.
In contrast to traditional combustion, gasification technologies offer the potential for converting coal and low or negative-value feedstocks, such as petroleum coke and various waste materials into usable energy sources or chemicals. With a growing number of companies operating and marketing systems based on gasification concepts worldwide, this book combines the latest information and real-world experience in developing gasification technologies.
Gasification Technologies: A Primer for Engineers and Scientists discusses gasification techniques and the benefits of each technology, including gas clean-up technologies and those used in hybrid systems and fuel cells. It also accounts for the primary products that are recovered and explains how these products are purified and can be used as fuel or for applications in petrochemical processes. The book describes the conditions in which optimal value intermediate products can be recovered, focusing on key factors such as oxygen or air blown reactor, operating temperature, internal and external heating, and reactor design. The authors also establish how gasification can help meet renewable energy targets, address concerns about global warming, and contribute to a better carbon management or achieving Kyoto Protocol commitments.
Gasification Technologies provide a multidimensional and well-rounded examination of current technology, research, applications, and development challenges for the commercialization of this increasingly popular technology.
Recent advances in combining two drilling techniques, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, have allowed access to large deposits of shale resources -- that is, crude oil and natural gas trapped in shale and certain other dense rock formations. As a result, the cost of that "tight oil" and "shale gas" has become competitive with the cost of oil and gas extracted from other sources. Virtually non-existent a decade ago, the development of shale resources has boomed in the United States, producing about 3.5 million barrels of tight oil per day and about 9.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of shale gas per year. This book discusses the economic and budgetary effects of producing oil and natural gas from shale. It also examines the production, infrastructure, and market issues in U.S. shale gas development; and potential budgetary effects of immediately opening most federal lands to oil and gas leasing.
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
Over the past decade, important advances have been made in the
development of nanostructured materials for solid state hydrogen
storage used to supply hydrogen to fuel cells in a clean,
inexpensive, safe and efficient manner. Nanomaterials for Solid
State Hydrogen Storage focuses on hydrogen storage materials having
high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen capacities, and thus
having the highest potential of being applied in the automotive
Written by leading experts in the field, Nanomaterials for Solid State Hydrogen Storage provides a thorough history of hydrides and nanomaterials, followed by a discussion of existing fabrication methods. The authors own research results in the behavior of various hydrogen storage materials are also presented. Covering fundamentals, extensive research results and recent advances in nanomaterials for solid state hydrogen storage, this book serves as a comprehensive reference."
A comprehensive review of the current status and challenges for natural gas and shale gas production, treatment and monetization technologies Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream presents an international perspective on the production and monetization of shale gas and natural gas. The authors review techno-economic assessments of the midstream and downstream natural gas processing technologies. Comprehensive in scope, the text offers insight into the current status and the challenges facing the advancement of the midstream natural gas treatments. Treatments covered include gas sweeting processes, sulfur recovery units, gas dehydration and natural gas pipeline transportation. The authors highlight the downstream processes including physical treatment and chemical conversion of both direct and indirect conversion. The book also contains an important overview of natural gas monetization processes and the potential for shale gas to play a role in the future of the energy market, specifically for the production of ultra-clean fuels and value-added chemicals. This vital resource: Provides fundamental chemical engineering aspects of natural gas technologies Covers topics related to upstream, midstream and downstream natural gas treatment and processing Contains well-integrated coverage of several technologies and processes for treatment and production of natural gas Highlights the economic factors and risks facing the monetization technologies Discusses supply chain, environmental and safety issues associated with the emerging shale gas industry Identifies future trends in educational and research opportunities, directions and emerging opportunities in natural gas monetization Includes contributions from leading researchers in academia and industry Written for Industrial scientists, academic researchers and government agencies working on developing and sustaining state-of-the-art technologies in gas and fuels production and processing, Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream provides a broad overview of the current status and challenges for natural gas production, treatment and monetization technologies.
According to Department of Energy (DOE) and industry expectations, in the next few years the United States is expected to change from a net importer of natural gas to a net exporter, with those exports destined for different regions of the world, especially Asia. More than 30 companies have received approval from DOE for large-scale exports of U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) -- natural gas cooled for transportation -- beginning in 2015 or 2016 via specialized LNG carriers. Congress is considering whether to propose legislative language that would require U.S. LNG be exported via U.S.-built-and-flagged carriers with the goal of supporting U.S. shipbuilders and mariners. This book discusses DOE and industry expectations for the market for U.S. LNG exports and how the proposed requirement could affect jobs in the U.S. maritime industry and the broader U.S. economy.
The book introduces gas explosion technology (GET) and its applications in biomass refineries. In this book an overview of GET is provided, the mechanisms are thoroughly discussed. The chapters also cover the latest processes and equipments of GET, including equipment selection, parameter determination and engineering scaling-up. Last but not least the applications of GET are introduced in details. It is an excellent reference and guidance for scientists engaging in the research of biomass and biotechnology. Professor Hongzhang Chen is the Vice Director and Supervisor of the State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering at the Institute of Process Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
This book is a practical guide to sound engineering practice for engineers from industry and commerce responsible for the selection, installation, designing and maintenance of efficient and safe gas fired heating equipment. Starting from the basic principles of combustion, gas and dual fuel burners, this book describes the whole range of non-domestic gas fired equipment encountered in industrial and commercial premises. Gas controls and air-gas ration equipment are considered which is particularly relevant to those responsible for designing, servicing, maintaining and updating gas fired plant for safety and efficience. Individual chapters focus on gas supply, electrical power generation including combined heat and power and all aspects of instrumentation and measurment. Safety is a theme running throughout the book and all relevant references are made to the British Gas Standards and Codes of Practice.
This report was commissioned to determine when gas streams containing hydrogen as a component should be treated as hydrogen for the purposes of specifying electrical equipment. It has long been recognised that the particular properties of hydrogen require very specialised electrical equipment to be used to prevent ignitions. Many industrial gas streams contain hydrogen mixed with hydrocarbon gases. Engineers have to decide whether equipment designed for hydrogen duty is needed (i.e. gas group IIC) or whether equipment designed to the less stringent standards for hydrocarbon gas groups IIA or IIB is suitable. This report provides the justification for the cut-off value of hydrogen concentration used when specifying hydrogen certified equipment (gas group IIC) for gas mixtures, referenced in the IP Model Code of Safe Practice Part 15: Area classification code for installations handling flammable fluids*.
An exploration of current and possible future hydrogen storage technologies, written from an industrial perspective. The book describes the fundamentals, taking into consideration environmental, economical and safety aspects, as well as presenting infrastructure requirements, with a special focus on hydrogen applications in production, transportation, military, stationary and mobile storage. A comparison of the different storage technologies is also included, ranging from storage of pure hydrogen in different states, via chemical storage right up to new materials already under development. Throughout, emphasis is placed on those technologies with the potential for commercialization.
The book provides the reader with a profound knowledge of basic principles, properties and preferred applications of diverse kinds of CO2 measurement. It shows the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of several methods and gives a comprehensive overview of both possible applications and corresponding boundary conditions. Applications reach from environmental monitoring to safety control to biotechnology and food control and finally to medicine.
This book addresses several aspects of the changing context of natural gas in the U.S. electric power sector. Increasingly plentiful and affordable natural gas has catalysed major changes in U.S. power generation and has helped to boost U.S. economic recovery. Increased substitution of natural gas for coal in power generation has also cut U.S. GHG emissions. However, processes to produce natural gas, shale gas in particular, have also elevated environmental and safety concerns in certain regions of the country. The rapid rise of natural gas is also beginning to drive more thought on longer-term energy policy issues such as the appropriate level of generation diversity (given the history of volatile prices for natural gas), and trajectories of natural gas use that will still allow GHG mitigation sufficient to address the climate challenge. This book is intended to help inform these energy policy and investment discussions, and outlines the current dynamics of natural gas in the power sector and the selected challenges and opportunities in the use of natural gas to generate electricity.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from existing power plants. EPA believes that its proposed Clean Power Plan (CPP) will "protect public health, move the United States towards a cleaner environment, and fight climate change while supplying Americans with reliable and affordable power." Burning fossil fuels to produce electricity results in the release of carbon dioxide, and represents the largest source of GHG emissions in the United States. This book discusses the implications for the electric power sector. It also examines the carbon dioxide emission rate goals in EPA's proposed rule for existing power plants; and discusses the Congressional responses and options to the EPA regulation of greenhouse gases.
In recent years carbon dioxide has played an increasingly important role in biomass processing. This book presents the state-of-the-art of a range of diverse approaches for the use of carbon dioxide in biomass valorisation. The book explores cutting-edge research and important advances in green high-pressure technologies. It gives an overview of the most relevant and promising applications of high-pressure CO2-based technologies in biomass processing from the perspective of the biorefinery concept. Demonstrating the interdisciplinary aspects of high-pressure technologies from biology, chemistry and biochemical engineering areas, this book brings researchers and industrialists up to date with the latest advances in this field, including novel technologies for energy; biochemicals and materials production; and green chemical engineering processes.
Microorganisms are ubiquitously present in petroleum reservoirs and the facilities that produce them. Pipelines, vessels, and other equipment used in upstream oil and gas operations provide a vast and predominantly anoxic environment for microorganisms to thrive. The biggest technical challenge resulting from microbial activity in these engineered environments is the impact on materials integrity. Oilfield microorganisms can affect materials integrity profoundly through a multitude of elusive (bio)chemical mechanisms, collectively referred to as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). MIC is estimated to account for 20 to 30% of all corrosion-related costs in the oil and gas industry. This book is intended as a comprehensive reference for integrity engineers, production chemists, oilfield microbiologists, and scientists working in the field of petroleum microbiology or corrosion. Exhaustively researched by leaders from both industry and academia, this book discusses the latest technological and scientific advances as well as relevant case studies to convey to readers an understanding of MIC and its effective management.
A Comprehensive Reference Manual for Emergency Response Personnel Who Respond to Gasoline Tank Truck Emergencies Gasoline Tank Truck Emergencies: Responding to MC/306/DOT 406 Cargo Tank Trucks Transporting Gasoline/Ethanol Blends and Fuel Oils, Fourth Edition is designed to provide public safety and industry emergency response personnel with the background information, general procedures, and response guidelines to be followed when operating at an incident involving MC/306/DOT 406 cargo tank trucks. This information will assist the user in meeting the knowledge requirements outlined in NFPA 472, Chapter 13 - Competencies for Hazardous Materials Technicians with a Cargo Tank Truck Specialty. The Fourth Edition contains comprehensive content covering: MC/306/DOT 406 design and construction features Initial notification and response information Emergency response procedures Information on reformulated gasoline and its hazards Product removal and transfer operations Grounding and bonding considerations Vehicle up righting operations The Fourth Edition features include: Knowledge objectives correlated to NFPA 472, Chapter 13, Competencies for Hazardous Materials Technicians with a Cargo Tank Truck Specialty. Heavily illustrated to show the inner workings of cargo tank truck's mechanically pneumatically operated valves, baffles, vapor recovery system, etc. Photos of commercial and military cargo tank trucks and their safety features.
This book discusses and explains the economics of each stage of the natural gas value chain, including the economic impact of restrictions, rules and decisions that are ostensibly technical in nature, as well as commercially relevant contractual stipulations. Each chapter features several real-world examples illustrating the essential points. Natural gas is broadly considered the (leading) conventional source of primary energy. Complementing renewable energies' utilization and offering a highly flexible yet relatively clean fuel, the worldwide natural gas markets are expected to grow. Despite the fact that Europe - where a degree of stagnation in natural gas consumption is being observed and is expected to continue - is not following this trend, international natural gas markets are becoming increasingly interdependent. Therefore, any analysis and discussion of natural gas markets at each level has to have an international rather than national focus.
With huge supplies, including from unconventional plays, and its low carbon properties as compared to oil and coal and decreasing transport hurdles, natural gas has what it takes to fulfil the escalating demand for energy. Yet, the promise that it held a few years ago as the fastest growing major source of energy appears to be fading, ironically due to abundant supplies. On the one hand, while the risk of recovering producers' costs for the high capital investments required for production and liquefaction is increasing, on the other, consumers are demanding lower prices in a market that has turned in favour of the buyer. As a result, geopolitics, which was always in play in the energy market, is growing, as gas producing and exporting countries compete for a larger share of the market, or at the very least, retain their existing ones. More importantly, the entry of new supply sources is also pushing the market from the traditional oil-indexed pricing mechanism that was prevalent in the European and Asian markets, towards a more flexible mechanism, including a hub-based one. As liquidity in the gas market is increasing, there are also signs that a global market, as against the current regional one, may be emerging. This volume looks at the evolving gas market and the various players who influence it - both as producers and consumers. However, some of the players, such as Australia and the new African producers, as well as Japan and South Korea, the two largest LNG consumers, have not been included as their approach tends to be more commercial than geopolitical in nature.
This essential handbook and ready reference offers a detailed
overview of the existing and currently researched technologies
available for the control of mercury in coal-derived gas streams
and that are viable for meeting the strict standards set by
environmental protection agencies.
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