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This book examines the theory of consciousness developed by the school of Recognition, an Indian philosophical tradition that thrived around the tenth c. CE in Kashmir, and argues that consciousness has a linguistic nature. It situates the doctrines of the tradition within the broader Indian philosophical context and establishes connections with the contemporary analytic debate. The book focuses on Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta (tenth c. CE), two Hindu intellectuals belonging to the school of Recognition, Pratyabhijna in Sanskrit. It argues that these authors promoted ideas that bear a strong resemblance with contemporary 'higher-order theories' of consciousness. In addition, the book explores the relationship between the thinkers of the school of Recognition and the thought of the grammarian/philosopher Bhartrhari (fifth c. CE). The book bridges a gap that still exists between scholars engaged with Western traditions and Sanskrit specialists focused on textual materials. In doing so, the author uses concepts from contemporary philosophy of mind to illustrate the Indian arguments and an interdisciplinary approach with abundant reference to the original sources. Offering fresh information to historians of Indian thought, the book will also be of interest to academics working on Non-Western Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy, Indian Philosophy, Religion, Hinduism, Tantric Studies and South Asian Studies.
This encyclopedia is a unique one-volume reference work which makes a broad range of richly varied philosophical, ethical and theological traditions accessible to a wide audience. TheCompanion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophyis a unique one-volume reference work which will make a broad range of richly varied philosophical, ethical and theological traditions accessible to a wide audience. TheEncyclopediais divided into 6 sections, each of which covers a specific tradition within Asian philosophy includingZoroastrianorPersian, Indian, Buddhist, Chinese, Japane seandIslamic. Within each section the chapters cover such important areas as origins of the tradition, approaches to logic and language, positions on morals and society as well as histories of the lives of influential thinkers. In addition, the final chapter of each section provides unique coverage of current trends in each. The individual essays as well as the structure of this volume allow the reader to compare and contrast the philosophies of these cultures as well as understand the ways in which the cultures have shapedand been shaped by philosophical understanding. It is possible, for example, to relate the ways in which Buddhist philosophy has developed in India, Tibet, China, South-East Asia and Japan. 'This massive reference work is perhaps the best one-volume companion to the study of Asian philosophies.' - Choice 'The best use of this work ... would be to read it from cover to cover, to provide a superb education in Asian philosophy.' - Times Higher Edication Supplement 'Fascinating and enlightening.' - Reference Reviews An unique one-volume reference work which makes a broad range of richly varied Asian philosophical, ethical and theological traditions accessible to a wide audience. The Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy is a unique one-volume reference work which makes a broad range of richly varied philosophical, ethical and theological traditions accessible to a
For the first time in one volume, The Analects illustrated by bestselling cartoonist C. C. Tsai C. C. Tsai is one of Asia's most popular cartoonists, and his editions of the Chinese classics have sold more than 40 million copies in over twenty languages. This volume presents Tsai's delightful graphic adaptation of The Analects, one of the most influential books of all time and a work that continues to inspire countless readers today. Tsai's expressive drawings bring Confucius and his students to life as no other edition of the Analects does. See Confucius engage his students over the question of how to become a leader worth following in a society of high culture, upward mobility, and vicious warfare. Which virtues should be cultivated, what makes for a harmonious society, and what are the important things in life? Unconcerned with religious belief but a staunch advocate of tradition, Confucius emphasizes the power of society to create sensitive, respectful, and moral individuals. In many ways, Confucius speaks directly to modern concerns--about how we can value those around us, educate the next generation, and create a world in which people are motivated to do the right thing. A marvelous introduction to a timeless classic, this book also features an illuminating foreword by Michael Puett, coauthor of The Path: What Chinese Philosophers Can Teach Us about the Good Life. In addition, Confucius's original Chinese text is artfully presented in narrow sidebars on each page, enriching the books for readers and students of Chinese without distracting from the self-contained English-language cartoons. The text is skillfully translated by Brian Bruya, who also provides an introduction.
This book interprets the Tao Te Ching from the perspective of personal cultivation. The Tao Te Ching of Lao Tzu is regarded as one of the greatest books of wisdom ever written in history, but few can grasp what it says in entirety. Embedded in each of its 5,000 Chinese characters are highly profound messages. Master Sim Pooh Ho is a Tai Chi Master and the leader of a Tai Chi lineage that traces back centuries. In his book Decoding the Tao Te Ching, he combines the ancestral teachings of Tai Chi with his practice and provides readers with unique insights into Lao Tzu's ancient book.The Tao Te Ching is difficult to comprehend because many of the concepts it introduces are elusive. What is Tao and Te, being and non-being or yin and yang? The concepts, however, are discernible in Tai Chi because they are what make the practice work. Decoding the Tao Te Ching is written in a simple manner by a Tai Chi master, and translated in an accessible way by his senior disciple Tekson TEO, thus making it an enlightening read to all English readers interested in this topic.
Many philosophers and scientists over the course of history have held that the world is alive. It has a soul, which governs it and binds it together. This suggestion, once so wide-spread, may strike many of us today as strange and antiquated-in fact, there are few other concepts that, on their face, so capture the sheer distance between us and our philosophical inheritance. But the idea of a world soul has held so strong a grip upon philosophers' imaginations for over 2,000 years, that it continues to underpin and even structure how we conceive of time and space. The concept of the world soul is difficult to understand in large part because over the course of history it has been invoked to very different ends and within the frameworks of very different ontologies and philosophical systems, with varying concepts of the world soul emerging as a result. This volume brings together eleven chapters by leading philosophers in their respective fields that collectively explore the various ways in which this concept has been understood and employed, covering the following philosophical areas: Platonism, Stoicism, Medieval, Indian or Vedantic, Kabbalah, Renaissance, Early Modern, German Romanticism, German Idealism, American Transcendentalism, and contemporary quantum mechanics and panpsychism theories. In addition, short reflections illuminate the impact the concept of the world soul has had on a small selection of areas outside of philosophy, such as harmony, the biological concept of spontaneous generation, Henry Purcell, psychoanalysis, and Gaia theories.
"Thirty-Five Oriental Philosophers" provides an introduction to the
philosophical traditions known as oriental. Despite the growing
interest in eastern thought in the West, this is the only volume to
provide a comprehensive overview of the entire spectrum of oriental
philosophy in an accessible format.
Originated by the great sage of modern India, Sri Aurobindo, integral yoga has been presented in this volume, first published in 1965, in the context of modern western thinking. It expounds the concept of harmonious and creative living on the basis of a fruitful reconciliation of the self-perfecting mysticism of the East and the rationalistic humanism of the West. It gives a dynamic form, an evolutionary perspective, and a creative impetus to the ancient mystic idea of union with the eternal.
For several years Mouni Sadhu steeped himself in the teachings of the foremost Hindu ascetic, Sri Ramana Maharshi. This book, first published in 1957, is the best attempt by a European to describe without technicalities what such teachings entail, what meditation is about, and why Indians worship their gurus. Mouni Sadhu's rare facility for describing his own mental and spiritual states enables him to pass on to the reader his knowledge and enthusiasm. It is an authentic account of life with an inspired Hindu yogi and spiritual teacher.
Shabad Yoga is the highest of the Indian yoga systems. Shabad means divine or inner sound, and refers to the power which in the Bible is called the Word or Logos. Shabad Yoga is similar to the basic spiritual teachings of the Bible. This book, first published in 1963, gives an explanation of many vital Bible truths as taught by the spiritual masters of the Orient.
This book, first published in 1922, examines the science of Ra ja Yoga. All the orthodox systems of Indian philosophy point to one goal, the liberation of the soul through perfection - and the method to attain this is through Yoga. This book presents lectures on Yoga, delivered to a western audience view to explaining Indian philosophy; the lectures are accompanied by the Sutras (aphorisms) of Patanjali, along with an explanatory commentary.
In this book, first published in 1956, the two authors, representatives of two different worlds and two entirely different attitudes, explore the wide domain of Eastern and Western philosophy. They put forward the theory that it is in Yoga that the two worlds meet.
The talks presented in this volume, first published in 1977, were originally delivered during a retreat in New York, in which speakers from a variety of spiritual traditions were represented. It aims to show the value of yoga in everyday life, and its relation to many other religions and philosophies.
This book offers a systematic and radical introduction to the Buddhist roots of Patanjala-yoga, or the Yoga system of Patanjali. By examining each of 195 aphorisms (sutras) of the Yogasutra and discussing the Yogabhasya, it shows that traditional and popular views on Patanjala-yoga obscure its true nature. The book argues that Patanjali's Yoga contains elements rooted in both orthodox and heterodox philosophical traditions, including Sankhya, Jaina and Buddhist thought. With a fresh translation and a detailed commentary on the Yogasutra, the author unearths how several of the terms, concepts and doctrines in Patanjali's Yoga can be traced to Buddhism, particularly the Abhidharma Buddhism of Vasubandhu and the early Yogacara of Asanga. The work presents the Yogasutra of Patanjali as a synthesis of two perspectives: the metaphysical perspective of Sankhya and the empirical-psychological perspective of Buddhism. Based on a holistic understanding of Yoga, the study explores key themes of the text, such as meditative absorption, means, supernormal powers, isolation, Buddhist conceptions of meditation and the interplay between Sankhya and Buddhist approaches to suffering and emancipation. It further highlights several new findings and clarifications on textual interpretation and discrepancies. An important intervention in Indian and Buddhist philosophy, this book opens up a new way of looking at the Yoga of Patanjali in the light of Buddhism beyond standard approaches and will greatly interest scholars and researchers of Buddhist studies, Yoga studies, Indian philosophy, philosophy in general, literature, religion and comparative studies, Indian and South Asian Studies and the history of ideas.
This book, first published in 1935, is an early western study of the practice of yoga. It examines the theories of yoga, and attempts to understand and explain its philosophy and beliefs.
How should we evaluate the success of each person's life? Countering the prevalent philosophical perspective on the subject, Steven M. Cahn and Christine Vitrano defend the view that our well-being is dependent not on particular activities, accomplishments, or awards but on finding personal satisfaction while treating others with due concern. The authors suggest that moral behavior is not necessary for happiness and does not ensure it. Yet they also argue that morality and happiness are needed for living well, and together suffice to achieve that goal. Cahn and Vitrano link their position to elements within both the Hellenistic and Hebraic traditions, in particular the views of Epicurus and lessons found in the Book of Ecclesiastes. Written in an accessible style and illustrated with incisive vignettes drawn from history, literature, films, and everyday life, Happiness and Goodness is a compelling work of philosophy for anyone who seeks to understand the nature of a good life.
This book is one of the first to present a definitive history of the Christian Ashram Movement. It offers insights into the development of the Movement, Europe's Orientalist view of Eastern mysticism and how the concept of the "ashram" spread beyond the borders of India. Drawing extensively from ashram literature and the author's field research, the book critically analyzes the notions of inculturation in the encounter between Christianity and Hindu spirituality and ritualism. It looks at how the Movement grew out of the colonial encounter and how it evolved through the years, which was contingent on developments within Christian churches outside India. The volume also discusses the reinterpretation of the idea of the "ashram" by Christian theologians, the introduction of elite Brahmanical concepts within the Movement and the unique theological perspectives which were nurtured in these ashrams. The book offers an alternative perspective to the generally perceived history of Christianity in India. It will be of interest to scholars and researchers of religious studies, Christianity, sociology, social anthropology and religious history.
The definitive guide to the philosophy and practice of Yoga--the ancient healing discipline for body and mind--by its greatest living teacher. Light on Yoga provides complete descriptions and illustrations of all the positions and breathing exercises. Features a foreword by Yehudi Menuhin. Illustrations throughout.
'The task of the benevolent person is surely to diligently seek to promote the benefit of the world and eliminate harm to the world' The Mozi is among the founding texts of the Chinese philosophical tradition, presenting China's earliest ethical, political, and logical theories. The collected works introduce concepts, assumptions, and issues that had a profound, lasting influence throughout the classical and early imperial eras. Mozi and his followers developed the world's first ethical theory, and presented China's first account of the origin of political authority from a state of nature. They were prominent social activists whose moral and political reform movement sought to improve the welfare of the common people and eliminate elite extravagance and misuse of power. In this new translation, Chris Fraser focuses on the philosophical aspects of the writing and allows readers to truly enter the Mohists' world of thought. This abridged edition includes the essential political and social topics of concern to this vital movement. Informed by traditional and recent scholarship, the translation presents the Mohists' ideas and arguments clearly, precisely, and coherently, while accurately reflecting the meaning, terminology, and style of the original.
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