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An integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the problem of excess nitrogen Human activities generate large amounts of excess nitrogen, which has dramatically altered the nitrogen cycle. Reactive forms of nitrogen, especially nitrate and ammonia, are particularly detrimental. Given the magnitude of the problem, there is an urgent need for information on reactive nitrogen and its effective management. Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Volume highlights include: Comprehensive background information on the nitrogen cycle Detailed description of anthropogenic nitrogen sources Review of the environmental, economic, and health impacts of nitrogen pollution Recommendations and strategies for reducing humanity's nitrogen footprint Discussion of national nitrogen footprints and worldwide examples of mitigation policies The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
This book presents a comprehensive review of the most recent studies on the impact of contaminants on the marine environment. Conventional and new information, as well as the latest techniques, are presented, which can be applied to several types of marine organisms from bacteria and fungi to animals and algae. Specific topics discussed include the impact of different contaminants on different organisms as well as different approaches and their outcomes in terms of impact assessment. The integration of these techniques is also discussed in order to attain sentinel species and biomarkers to be applied for assessing ecological quality and impact assessment programs and studies.
Monoculture farming is nowadays a widespread practice throughout the world. In order to meet the food demand of rapidly increasing populations, the diverse agroecosystems have been converted mostly into single cropping sectors. Even though food productivity with high input has been boosted to some extent, it is at the cost of local biodiversity loss. This book, drawing examples from several tropical and sub-tropical countries, documents some of the most prevailing monoculture practices and their socio-economic and environmental influences. It describes widespread commercial monoculture of rubber and oil palm, as well as the invasion of exotic mono-plantations in the forestry sector. Both rubber and oil palm are highly lucrative businesses, and these industries have brought positive impacts on rural development, regional economies, including lifting small farmers out of poverty. The rapid expansion of oil palm and rubber in the last few decades has resulted in widespread deforestation, biodiversity loss, and carbon emissions in the tropics, and has also negatively affected the livelihoods of many local communities. Similar effects have also been observed in the case of the conversion of heterogenous forests into monocuture plantations. An integrated land use planning approach is suggested in order to minimize the negative impacts and maximize the positive benefits of monoculture farming. Further, enhancing plant-soil microbial interactions through innoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi for soil fertility management is also suggested. With up-to-date information on this subject matter, this book will benefit researchers, academics, students, policymakers and practitioners.
Completely updated with new content and full-colour figures throughout, the second edition of this successful book continues to provide a comprehensive coverage of pineapple breeding, production and yield. Pineapple is an increasingly important crop and demand for fresh pineapple is steadily growing; stakeholders in the value chain are worldwide. The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses provides essential coverage from botany through to postharvest handling and provides the technical information required by all those working with the crop. The second edition: - Contains new chapters on organic production and production for other uses (fibre and ornamentals). - Includes major updates to content on taxonomy, biotechnology, cultural systems, nutrition, varieties and genetic improvement. - Explores physiological changes associated with the year-round growing of pineapple in addition to the associated cultural practices and mineral nutrition. - Considers the impacts of climate change and environmental issues on pineapple crops, and relevant mitigation strategies. - Looks at the effects of new cultivars and technologies on cultural practices and plant nutrition. Written by an international team of experts, this book is an essential resource for researchers, growers and all those involved in the pineapple industry.
This book paints a wide canvas of the immense global economic potential of ten most important cash generating crops spread over Asia, Africa and Latin America, namely, Arecanut, Cashew Nut, Coconut, Cinchona, Cocoa, Coffee, Tea, Oil Palm, Rubber and Wattle. It provides a cross-sectoral, multi-scale assessment of the status of these crops, from seed to dining table, an invaluable treatise on the subject. Structured to be an invaluable tool for the inquisitive researcher, an ardent student, and, an insightful policy maker.
John Muir was an early proponent of a view we still hold today - that much of California was pristine, untouched wilderness before the arrival of Europeans. But as this groundbreaking book demonstrates, what Muir was really seeing when he admired the grand vistas of Yosemite and the gold and purple flowers carpeting the Central Valley were the fertile gardens of the Sierra Miwok and Valley Yokuts Indians, modified and made productive by centuries of harvesting, tilling, sowing, pruning, and burning. Marvelously detailed and beautifully written, Tending the Wild is an unparalleled examination of Native American knowledge and uses of California's natural resources that reshapes our understanding of native cultures and shows how we might begin to use their knowledge in our own conservation efforts. M. Kat Anderson presents a wealth of information on native land management practices gleaned in part from interviews and correspondence with Native Americans who recall what their grandparents told them about how and when areas were burned, which plants were eaten and which were used for basketry, and how plants were tended. The complex picture that emerges from this and other historical source material dispels the hunter-gatherer stereotype long perpetuated in anthropological and historical literature. We come to see California's indigenous people as active agents of environmental change and stewardship. Tending the Wild persuasively argues that this traditional ecological knowledge is essential if we are to successfully meet the challenge of living sustainably.
The predicted depletion of fossil fuels has mobilised society and the scientific community towards the use of alternative and sustainable sources of energy. A promising alternative could be the valorisation of oil bearing crops via transesterification reactions towards the production of biodiesel. As such, the first chapter assesses the most significant contributions in the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysed transesterification under acidic or alkaline conditions considering the parameters affecting the processes as well as biodiesel yields. The following chapter highlights the synthesis of copper soaps derived from edible oils, the synthesis of complexes with 2-amino-6-methyl Benzothiazole derived from already synthesised copper soaps for comparative studies, spectral studies, thermogravimetric analysis of copper soaps derived from groundnut, sesame, neem and karanja, and more. The authors go on to highlight biocidal studies performed to assess the comparative toxicity on two easily available fungi, Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The synthesis of copper soaps with increasing carbon atom p-substituted benzothiazoles is also examined. In the concluding chapter, the authors summarise the results of the microencapsulation technology of butylated hydroxyanisole carried out in their laboratory in recent years. Both free and microencapsulated butylated hydroxyanisole were in situ evaluated for controlling the mycoflora present in peanut stored in different systems intended for confectionery, seed and industry.
For thousands of years, Ethiopia has depended on its smallholding farmers to provide the bulk of its food needs. But now, such farmers find themselves under threat from environmental degradation, climate change and declining productivity. As a result, smallholder agriculture has increasingly become subsistence-oriented, with many of these farmers trapped in a cycle of poverty. Smallholders have long been marginalised by mainstream development policies, and only more recently has their crucial importance been recognised for addressing rural poverty through agricultural reform. This collection, written by leading Ethiopian scholars, explores the scope and impact of Ethiopia's policy reforms over the past two decades on the smallholder sector. Focusing on the Lake Tana basin in northwestern Ethiopia, an area with untapped potential for growth, the contributors argue that any effective policy will need to go beyond agriculture to consider the role of health, nutrition and local food customs, as well as including increased safeguards for smallholder's land rights. They in turn show that smallholders represent a vitally overlooked component of development strategy, not only in Ethiopia but across the global South.
Italy's peculiar cultural variability is the result of population movements and invasions from the Mediterranean Sea, which took place in both historical and prehistoric times. Due to many interesting places such as the city of Rome, Central Italy was endured by migrants, who have contributed to Italy's culture, linguistics and also genetics. Chapter One reconstructs human demic movements in central Italy using both archeology and genetics. Chapter Two addresses issues in the conceptual context of land take, which is a change in agriculture, forestry, and other lands due to urbanisation and artificial land development, in Sardinian urban areas of Italy. Moreover, global warming has had a negative impact on water balance, natural systems, and agriculture activities. Chapter Three provides a seasonal analysis of crop evapotranspiration based on the Penman-Monteith equation in the Po River Delta in Italy.
Agriculture is one of the defining elements of a nation. This series consists of analyses on a variety of agricultural issues including (but not limited to) the developments, policies, programs, trade, trends and economics of agriculture. Topics will be seen from a U.S. perspective, but not to the exclusion of other countries particularly when the discussion has an international scope. Topics discussed in this issue include farm safety net programs; specialty crop provision in the 2014 Farm Bill; background and issues in agricultural research; the effects of recent energy price reductions on U.S. agriculture; and the effect of transportation costs on fresh fruit and vegetable prices.
This expanded and fully updated Second Edition of the most comprehensive and successful book on lobsters, comprises contributions from many of the world s experts, each providing core information for all those working in lobster biology, fisheries research and management and lobster aquaculture. Under the editorship of Bruce Phillips, the Second Edition of Lobsters: Biology, Management, Fisheries and Aquaculture delivers exhaustive coverage of these fascinating creatures, stretching from growth and development to management and conservation. A number of chapters from the First Edition covering Growth, Reproduction, Diseases, Behaviour, Nutrition, Larval and Post-Larval Ecology and Juvenile and Adult Ecology have been replaced by new chapters including Lobsters in Ecosystems, Genetics, Translocation, Climate Change, Ecolabelling of Lobsters, Casitas and Other Artificial Shelters, Systems to maximise Economic Benefits. These new chapters reflect changes that are occurring in lobster management and new research developments brought on by social, climatic and economic changes. As well as information from new research output, information in each chapter is also included on individual commercial Genera, including aspects of Species and distribution, Predators and diseases, Ecology and behaviour, Aquaculture and enhancement, Harvest of wild populations and their regulations, Management and conservation. The chapter on slipper lobsters has also been expanded to include Thenus and Ibacus species which are now subject to commercial fisheries. The changes that have occurred in some lobster fisheries, the new management arrangements in place, the status of stocks and the current economic and social situation of each fishery have also been covered and discussed in great detail. Fisheries scientists, fisheries managers aquaculture personnel, aquatic and invertebrate biologists, physiologists, ecologists, marine biologists and environmental biologists will all find Lobsters Second Edition to be a vital source of reference. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological and life sciences and fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught will find it an extremely valuable addition to their shelves.
Understanding abiotic stress responses in plants is critical for the development of new varieties of crops, which are better adapted to harsh climate conditions. The new book by the well-known editor team Narendra Tuteja and Sarvajeet Gill provides a comprehensive overview on the molecular basis of plant responses to external stress like drought or heavy metals, to aid in the engineering of stress resistant crops. After a general introduction into the topic, the following sections deal with specific signaling pathways mediating plant stress response. The last part covers translational plant physiology, describing several examples of the development of more stress-resistant crop varieties.
Oil palm is the world's most important oil crop and crossing is used extensively in the production of commercial seed, breeding and genetic studies. This book illustrates crossing techniques to maximise success and safeguard purity, enabling the production of high quality seeds to grow-on as planting material and in breeding superior cultivars. Presenting sound practices based on scientific innovation in plant breeding, this guide provides techniques integrated with expertise and application of sustainable aspects of agronomy and crop protection, alongside information and imaging technology. Promoting green, eco-friendly agriculture, this book covers: biology and genetics, germplasm, target traits and commercial crossing; health and safety considerations in the field and laboratory; pollen collection and storage, pollen viability testing, and pollination; isolation of the female inflorescence; and commercial tenera production. Based on experience and protocols, this is an invaluable manual for students and researchers in agriculture, plant breeders, growers and end users interested in the practicalities of oil palm crossing for breeding and commercial seed production
Having established the central concepts of farmers' research, this book examines farmers' innovation through 17 wide-ranging case studies from around the world. It concludes by revisiting the major themes in relation to the lessons learned, and sets out the future issues and challenges for governmental and non-governmental organizations involved in agricultural development. Published in the ILEIA Readings in Sustainable Agriculture series.
Large farms now dominate crop production in the United States. Although most cropland was operated by farms with less than 600 crop acres in the early 1980s, today most cropland is on farms with at least 1,100 acres, and many farms are 5 and 10 times that size. This ongoing shift in farm structure raises a host of questions. How extensive is this structural change? What forces have accompanied and contributed to the shift to larger farms? What implications do these structural shifts have for family farms? The shift of acreage to larger farms is part of a complex set of structural changes in crop agriculture. The number of mid-size crop farms has declined, while farm numbers at the extremes (large and small) are growing. Because of these changes, average farm size has changed little in the last three decades, even while cropland and crop production have shifted to much larger farms. This book documents the complex nature of modern farm structure and introduces statistics aimed at better tracking consolidation of land and production. Furthermore, this book looks at small acreage farms having gross sales of $10,000 or more in a given year to better understand the product choices and strategies used by small acreage farms that appear to be operating profitably.
This monograph aims at bringing out a comprehensive collection of information on bamboo varieties in South Asia. The main focus of this book is to address the ecological and economic significance of bamboos. Bamboo is a versatile group of plants, capable of providing ecological, economic and livelihood security to the people. In the tropics, especially the rural areas in different countries of South Asia, most of the houses are made of bamboos. In the hilly areas of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and India, the tribal people take bamboo shoots as one of their major food items since prehistoric days. With palatable shoots and grass like leaves bamboo plants have also been liked by many herbivore animals, such as, elephants, the wild cattle, Indian Bison, and some species of deer. The red-panda in the Himalayas, and primates, pigs, rats and mice, porcupines, and squirrels are also incidental feeders on southeast Asian bamboos. There has been a growing awareness in recent years about the values of bamboo being an important means of economic growth and for improving the socio-economic conditions of the rural poor. Bamboo as an industrial material can substitute wood and that to at low cost. Due to increasing demand and squeezing of bamboo area the plants have been overexploited and the quality and quantity of resource alarmingly getting depleted. Besides many new bamboo based industries have come up which also urgently require uninterrupted supply of species wise bamboo resource. The south Asia region has bestowed with more than 300 bamboo species with enormous diversities at species, ecological and genetical level. A number of bamboo species are found common among countries of the region selected for various utilization potentials having wide range of ability to adjust environmental conditions of these countries and thus prioritized for cultivation. Both government and private planters in the region have started allocating funds, land and other logistics to raise large scale plantation of desired bamboo species. This book has been drafted to find out answers of the most pertinent queries based on the field observations on each of the bamboo species and knowledge learnt from the indigenous people living with bamboos in different parts of south-east and south Asian countries. This monograph would be interesting and useful to bamboo professionals, foresters, horticulturists, field level extension workers, nurserymen, planters, industrial entrepreneurs, ecologists, and valuable source of reference to the relevant researchers and students in the region.
Praise for the First Edition: Association of American Publishers Professional and Scholarly Division Award Winner (Life Sciences)"One of the ten best horticultural books of the century." The Washington Post"Diseases of Trees and Shrubs is by far the best book currently available for the horticulturist, arborist, or forester who wishes to identify disorders of forest and shade trees and woody ornamentals." The Public Garden"It may be used by anyone with knowledge of general biology as well as by someone with specialized plant knowledge for diagnosing plant disease problems. Highly recommended." Library Journal"This book is a remarkable contribution to the literature on tree pathology, providing a valuable source of reference on tree disease for all with an interest in the subject. It must surely be almost obligatory reading for the specialist tree pathologist, and will prove of great value to all tree care professionals. . . . It will fascinate any tree lovers who wish to find out more about the diseases and disorders that may afflict trees." Arboricultural Journal"It is well written and it is illustrated with photographs of such high quality that in this respect it could be described as a 'coffee table' book of forest pathology." ForestryFirst published in 1987, Diseases of Trees and Shrubs has become a standard reference for plant health specialists, plant diagnosticians, horticulturists, arborists, foresters, and their students. Now thoroughly revised, fully updated, and illustrated with more than 2200 digitally optimized color images in 261 full-color plates and more than 350 black-and-white photographs and drawings, the second edition is an unrivalled survey of the diseases of forest and shade trees and woody ornamental plants in the United States and Canada. The book is both an authoritative reference book and a powerful diagnostic tool. Organized according to type of disease-inducing agent, the second edition is also designed to be helpful in classroom and field instruction. Symptoms, signs, and cycles of hundreds of diseases are described and microscopic features of many pathogens are depicted in photos and line drawings. A searchable CD-ROM included with the book contains bibliographic entries for more than 4500 works that readers can consult for additional information or images. This remarkable scholarly work praised as one of the best horticultural books of the twentieth century lays claim to the same accolade for the twenty-first century."
Despite food being safer, more affordable and more available than at any time in human history, consumers are increasingly skeptical and critical of today's food system. In Size Matters, Charlie Arnot provides thought provoking insight into how the food system lost consumer trust, what can be done to restore it, and the remarkable changes taking place on farms and in food companies, supermarkets and restaurants every day as technology and consumer demand drive radical change. The very systems and technologies that are mistrusted by consumers are driving a revolution that empowers individual consumers to find the perfect recipe of taste and nutrition to meet their specific needs and desires. Size Matters pulls back the curtain to examine the irony, competing priorities and new realities that shape today's food system.
The aim of this new book series (Diatoms: Biology and Applications) is to provide a comprehensive and reliable source of information on diatom biology and applications. The first book of the series, Diatoms Fundamentals & Applications, is wide ranging, starting with the contributions of amateurs and the beauty of diatoms, to details of how their shells are made, how they bend light to their advantage and ours, and major aspects of their biochemistry (photosynthesis and iron metabolism). The book then delves into the ecology of diatoms living in a wide range of habitats, and look at those few that can kill or harm us. The book concludes with a wide range of applications of diatoms, in forensics, manufacturing, medicine, biofuel and agriculture. The contributors are leading international experts on diatoms. This book is for a wide audience researchers, academics, students, and teachers of biology and related disciplines, written to both act as an introduction to diatoms and to present some of the most advanced research on them.
Agricultural trade and development is a backbone of international trade. It includes agricultural trade patterns, commercial policy, international institutions such as WTO, Tariff and non-tariff barriers in international trade, exchange rates, biotechnology and trade, agricultural labour mobility, land reform, environment and the areas and issues spanning these areas. This book brings together leading research and issues in this fundamental field.
The leading reference on this topic has just gotten better. Building on the success of the previous two editions, all the chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, and new chapters have been added on picolinic acids, oxathiapiprolin, flupyradifurone, and other topics. This third edition presents the most important active ingredients of modern agrochemicals, with one volume each for herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. The international team of first-class authors from such renowned crop science companies as Bayer, Syngenta, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont (now Corteva Agriscience), and BASF, address all crucial aspects from the general chemistry and the mode of action to industrial-scale synthesis, as well as from the development of products and formulations to their application in the field. A comprehensive and invaluable source of timely information for all of those working in modern biology, including genetics, biochemistry and chemistry, and for those in modern crop protection science, whether governmental authorities, researchers in agrochemical companies, scientists at universities, conservationists, or managers in organizations and companies involved in improvements to agricultural production.
The monograph entitled "Crop responses to Global warming" describes the normal historical shifts in the earth's atmospheric temperature and weighs the evidence concerning anthropogenic induced changes in the level of temperature. The unprecedented increase in the earth's temperature after pre industrial period has been possibly related to the anthropogenic activities. This monograph will give an overview of the global as well as Indian crops productivity in relation to the rise in the earth's surface temperature. A chapter in this monograph is on the technologies to study the response of crop plants to the elevated temperature. The impact assessment analysis of rising temperature on crops such as wheat, rice, maize, soybean, cotton and brassica are described, reviewed and discussed in separate chapters as case studies. The responses of physiological processes and biochemical reactions to the elevated temperature in crop plants are described crop wise. The monograph also includes the impact of elevating temperature on crop weed interaction, pest and diseases and soil dynamics for each crop species independently. The mitigation technologies to counter the adverse effect of high temperature stress are described for each crop according to their cultivation and climatic conditions. The future research strategies for each crop to meet the threat of elevating temperature on crop productivity and food security is described and discussed. The description of temperature enrichment technologies will help researchers and scientists to study the responses of biological materials to rising temperature. The monograph will be the main text for teaching climate change, global warming and environmental botany as no such book is currently available relating to the rising atmospheric temperature on crop plants. Therefore, the monograph will be highly useful for students of global climate change, environmental botany and agricultural sciences, scientists, researchers, farmers and policy makers
Beekeeping's popularity as a hobby continues to skyrocket. Beekeeper's Lab gives you 52 bee-inspired labs to do all year long, and are accessible enough to share with the family. Fill the year ahead with weekly activities from around and about the hive, including art projects, recipes, experiments, garden activities, and more! Bees are important to local ecosystems, now more than ever. Whether you're already a beekeeper, or are still considering getting your first hive, Beekeeper'sLab has projects perfect for you. This extensive guide book features 52 beekeeping and hive-inspired projects to keep you involved with your bees and hive all year long. The tutorials are brief, accomplishable, rewarding, and best of all, they are presented in a friendly lab-style format. Try a new technique each week with how-tos and sidebars with tips that are perfect for including the whole family. Beekeeping is a fun hobby for the whole family to enjoy, plus, who doesn't want their own supply of honey?
As featured on BBC Breakfast. A warm, engaging and witty memoir from the star of Channel 5's The Yorkshire Vet. This is the life story of vet Peter Wright, charting his working relationship with the famous 'James Herriot', from work experience with him as a lad, to taking over his practice in the beautiful Yorkshire Dales. Packed full of laugh-out loud moments, heartbreaking stories and transporting tales of his love for the animals and people of this breathtaking part of the country. Covering his bucolic childhood growing up on a farm right through to the heady days of his successful Channel 5 TV series, Peter's warm nature and professional attitude shine through every page. 'Honest and refreshing' On: Yorkshire Magazine Includes a Foreword by Jim Wight, author of The Real James Herriot. What readers are saying: 'Fascinating and absolutely engrossing' 'One of the best books I've read this year' 'Peter has been a noble successor to James Herriot' Real reader reviews from GoodReads.com
Genetic Improvement of Crops was first published in 1980. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.Recent years have seen the emergence of a number of in vitro techniques that hold promise for the genetic alteration of higher organisms by non-traditional means. These new techniques may eventually modify the genetic structure of cash crop plants and, in practical terms, may lead to substantial improvement of crop production and to disease resistance in plants.This volume brings together 10 research reports by scientists actively engaged in developing genetic techniques in plants and other organisms. The first section explores both the potential for application of these techniques and the genetic needs of plant breeders. Other sections deal with genome organization and function; recombinant DNA technology and application; gene transfer; organelle transfer; and plant tissue culture.
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