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Plants form mutualistic association with various microorganisms, particularly in the rhizosphere region. The association benefits both the partners in a number of ways. A single plant can support the growth of diverse microbes and in reciprocation these microbes help the plant in several ways. A great deal of knowledge is now available on the mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting microbes in forming association with their partner plant and benefitting it. With ever increasing population and to achieve food security it has become utmost necessary to utilize these friendly microbes to enhance the crop yield and quality in an ecofriendly and sustainable manner. We already know about the huge negative impact of chemicals used in agriculture on the humans and the ecosystems as whole. 'Plant Microbes Symbiosis - Applied Facets' provides a comprehensive knowledge on practical, functional and purposeful utility of plant-microbe interactions. The book reviews the utilization of beneficial microbes for crop yield enhancement and protection against diseases caused by phytopathogens and nutrient deficiencies. The tome also reviews the utility of plant growth promoting microbes in helping the plants to deal with abiotic stresses imposed by climate change and anthropogenic activities. The book showcases how plant-microbe interactions are or can be utilized for reclamation of stressed soils and degradation of pollutants in a most effective and environment friendly manner. It also ascertains the reasons for the below par performance of the microbial based inoculants. The utilization of biotechnological tools for development of next generation bioformulations to combat the new challenges and overcome past hurdles has been discussed. This wonderful association between plants and microbes if used properly will not only enhance the crop yields and reclaim barren lands but also make our planet a better place to live on for all of its habitants.
The tightening of health and environmental regulations by banning chemical pesticides has generated the need for alternative technologies to solve grain storage problems. Aeration is such an option that can be applied to stored grain and a wide range of agricultural commodities to control insects and maintain quality. The Mechanics and Physics of Modern Grain Aeration Management demonstrates the most advanced theoretical solutions and practical approaches to aeration of stored grain. It will help those involved in the handling and processing of grain to maximize the end-use quality of food commodities and eliminate the occurrence of toxins, insects, pesticides, and chemical residues during storage.
This book describes the contributions of rhizotrophs - microbes associated with the parts of plants below ground - in sustainable agriculture. It covers a broad range of aspects, from plant growth promotion to bioremediation. It highlights the role of bacteria, actinomycetes, mycorrhizal fungi, and most interestingly protists, in the sustainability of agriculture. Further, it addresses in detail the involvement of quorum sensing signals, and the role of hydrolytic enzymes and bacteriocin in combating the phytopathogen. The book sheds light on the interaction of rhizotrophs in rhizosphere and how these microbes support plants growing under adverse stress conditions such as saline, drought or heavy-metals contamination. Challenges faced in the field application of these microbes, strategies for modifying the rhizosphere to improve crop yield, and the latest advances in rhizobial bioformulations are also discussed. Overall, the book provides comprehensive information on how various microbes can be used to improve the sustainability of agriculture without disturbing the environment.
John Muir was an early proponent of a view we still hold today - that much of California was pristine, untouched wilderness before the arrival of Europeans. But as this groundbreaking book demonstrates, what Muir was really seeing when he admired the grand vistas of Yosemite and the gold and purple flowers carpeting the Central Valley were the fertile gardens of the Sierra Miwok and Valley Yokuts Indians, modified and made productive by centuries of harvesting, tilling, sowing, pruning, and burning. Marvelously detailed and beautifully written, Tending the Wild is an unparalleled examination of Native American knowledge and uses of California's natural resources that reshapes our understanding of native cultures and shows how we might begin to use their knowledge in our own conservation efforts. M. Kat Anderson presents a wealth of information on native land management practices gleaned in part from interviews and correspondence with Native Americans who recall what their grandparents told them about how and when areas were burned, which plants were eaten and which were used for basketry, and how plants were tended. The complex picture that emerges from this and other historical source material dispels the hunter-gatherer stereotype long perpetuated in anthropological and historical literature. We come to see California's indigenous people as active agents of environmental change and stewardship. Tending the Wild persuasively argues that this traditional ecological knowledge is essential if we are to successfully meet the challenge of living sustainably.
Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
Sustainable horticulture is gaining increasing attention in the field of agriculture as demand for the food production rises to the world community. Sustainable horticultural systems are based on ecological principles to farm, optimizes pest and disease management approaches through environmentally friendly and renewable strategies in production agriculture. It is a discipline that addresses current issues such as food security, water pollution, soil health, pest control, and biodiversity depletion. Novel, environmentally-friendly solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from sciences as diverse as agronomy, soil science, entomology, ecology, chemistry and food sciences. Sustainable horticulture interprets methods and processes in the farming system to the global level. For that, horticulturists use the system approach that involves studying components and interactions of a whole system to address scientific, economic and social issues. In that respect, sustainable horticulture is not a classical, narrow science. Instead of solving problems using the classical painkiller approach that treats only negative impacts, sustainable horticulture treats problem sources.
We are just beginning to discover the importance of vitamin C in the health of natural and man-made ecosystems. Synthesis of ascorbic acid is well understood, but algae as the only source of ascorbate in the aquatic food pyramid has not been explored. There is an expanding field of the culture of aquatic organisms that demand formulated feeds to best meet their requirements for health, growth, and reproduction. With over 100 species now cultured for human consumption, the question arises as to whether we have reliable information for the dietary needs for vitamin C for even a small percentage of these organisms. A comprehensive approach to the role of vitamin C at the cellular level as well as in the aquatic food chains, this book discusses growth and reproduction, disease resistance, and toxicology of aquatic organisms. Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms was written as the offshoot of a special session on aquatic organisms and practical aquaculture at the 1998 World Aquaculture Society (WAS) meeting. This book reviews the research already available and identifies new directions for research. It is a unique combination of good nutrition research, ecology, and practical aquaculture (for instance brine shrimp enrichment). This interdisciplinary volume will appeal to marine fish culturists, aquatic biologists, comparative and evolutionary cellular physiologists, and environmental toxicologists.
Louis Bromfield was a World War I ambulance driver, a Paris expat, and a Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist as famous in the 1920s as Hemingway or Fitzgerald. But he cashed in his literary success to finance a wild agrarian dream in his native Ohio. The ideas he planted at his utopian experimental farm, Malabar, would inspire America's first generation of organic farmers and popularize the tenets of environmentalism years before Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. A lanky Midwestern farm boy dressed up like a Left Bank bohemian, Bromfield stood out in literary Paris for his lavish hospitality and his green thumb. He built a magnificent garden outside the city where he entertained aristocrats, movie stars, flower breeders, and writers of all stripes. Gertrude Stein enjoyed his food, Edith Wharton admired his roses, Ernest Hemingway boiled with jealousy over his critical acclaim. Millions savored his novels, which were turned into Broadway plays and Hollywood blockbusters, yet Bromfield's greatest passion was the soil. In 1938, Bromfield returned to Ohio to transform 600 badly eroded acres into a thriving cooperative farm, which became a mecca for agricultural pioneers and a country retreat for celebrities like Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall (who were married there in 1945). This sweeping biography unearths a lost icon of American culture, a fascinating, hilarious and unclassifiable character who-between writing and plowing-also dabbled in global politics and high society. Through it all, he fought for an agriculture that would enrich the soil and protect the planet. While Bromfield's name has faded into obscurity, his mission seems more critical today than ever before.
8 lectures, Koberwitz, June 7-20, 1924 (CW 327) The audio book, complete and unabridged (10 CD set), is read by respected actor and speech teacher Peter Bridgmont, author of Liberation of the Actor When Rudolf Steiner gave these lectures eighty years ago, industrial farming was on the rise and organic methods were being replaced in the name of science, efficiency, and technology. With the widespread alarm over food quality in recent years, and with the growth of the organic movement and its mainstream acceptance, perceptions are changing. The qualitative aspect of food is on the agenda again, and in this context Steiner's only course of lectures on agriculture is critical to the current debate. With these talks, Steiner created and launched "biodynamic" farming--a form of agriculture that has come to be regarded as the best organically produced food. However, the agriculture Steiner speaks of here is much more than organic--it involves working with the cosmos, with the earth, and with spiritual beings. To facilitate this, Steiner prescribes specific "preparations" for the soil, as well as other distinct methods born from his profound understanding of the material and spiritual worlds. He presents a comprehensive picture of the complex dynamic relationships at work in nature and gives basic indications of the practical measures needed to bring them into full play. These lectures are reprinted here in the "classic" translation made by Rudolf Steiner's English interpreter, George Adams. This edition also features a preface by Steiner's colleague the medical doctor Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, as well as eight color plates. This is the course that began the biodynamic movement. Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course is the essential work for anyone wanting to understand and use Steiner's methods of food production. This book is a translation from German of Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft. Landwirtschaftlicher Kursus (GA 327).
A complete overview of the technologies and products for microbial-based pest control. It documents the use of genetically altered Bt and transgenic crops, microbial formulations, and synergistic interactions of microbials with synthetic chemicals, as well as the management of Bt foliar applications and Bt genes in transgenic crops. The book includes case studies and pathogen, products and manufacturers indices.
This Technical Report presents the outcome of a Working Group that was established to determine broadly applicable sound exposure guidelines for fishes and sea turtles. After consideration of the diversity of fish and sea turtles, guidelines were developed for broad groups of animals, defined by the way they detect sound. Different sound sources were considered in terms of their acoustic characteristics and appropriate metrics defined for measurement of the received levels. The resultant sound exposure guidelines are presented in a set of tables. In some cases numerical guidelines are provided, expressed in appropriate metrics. When there were insufficient data to support numerical values, the "relative "likelihood of effects occurring was evaluated, although the "actual" likelihood of effects depends on the received level. These sound exposure guidelines, which are based on the best scientific information at the time of writing, should be treated as interim. The expectation is that with more research the guidelines can be refined and more cells in the tables completed. Recommendations are put forward defining the research requirements of highest priority for extending these interim exposure guidelines.
Food security has always been a major global concern and is getting more attention in recent years. In fact, the global economy and stability has been severely challenged by the precarious state of food security, which was exacerbated by a combination of sharp price volatility and disastrous weather conditions related to climate change. The book aims to improve the analysis and projection of agricultural production and marketing, facilitates information exchange to better food supply and demand and ultimately contributes to enhance world food security and sustainable global agricultural development.
Lameness is one of the major ailments of dairy cows. The distress it causes to the afflicted animals is reflected in decreased milk yields and an increase in infertility. Over the past twenty years, there has been a continuous programme of research in Britain and overseas into all aspects of the disease. In particular, our understanding of the changes in hoof growth around the time of calving has greatly increased. This enlarged and completely revised new edition takes into account all the recent research findings and presents the results in a readable manner. The highly illustrated text is fully referenced for students who wish to enquire further, but above all it is a straightforward manual for the practical use of those dealing with dairy cows.
With interest growing in areas of forestry, conservation and other natural sciences, the need to organize and tabulate large amounts of forestry and natural science information has become a necessary skill. Previous attempts of applying statistical methods to these areas tend to be over-specialized and of limited use; an elementary text using methods, examples and exercises that are relevant to forestry and the natural sciences is long overdue. This book utilizes basic descriptive statistics and probability, as well as commonly used statistical inferential tools to introduce topics that are commonplace in a forestry context such as hypothesis texting, design of experiments, sampling methods, nonparametric tests and statistical quality control. It also contains examples and exercises drawn from the fields of forestry, wood science, and conservation.
The book discusses invasive-species problems in agriculture, forests and aquatic ecosystems, highlighting the invasive mechanisms and management of the selected invasive species. Biological invasion has become a serious global ecological and economic problem that deserves particular attention from both government officials and scientists. This volume focuses on three key scientific areas: 1) population establishment and spreading mechanisms of the selected invasive species; 2) ecology adaptation, population growth, expansion and evolution of invasive species; and 3) impact of bio-invasion on the ecosystem structure and function at community and ecosystem levels. The presented research will result in techniques for better management of invasive species.
A book for everyone who loves trees and woodlands...This 2015 edition of the 2001 classic is written from the heart by an innovative woodsman who is deeply committed to sustainability, this radical book presents an immensely practical alternative to conventional woodland management. Through his personal experience, Ben Law clearly demonstrates how you can create biodiverse, healthy environments, yield a great variety of value added products, provide secure livelihoods for woodland workers and farmers, and benefit the local community. He argues the case for a new approach to planning, encouraging the creation of permaculture woodlands for the benefit of people, the local environment and the global climate.
White rust caused by the fungus Albugo is the most devastating disease known to occur in more than 50 countries and infects about 400 plant species belonging to 31 families worldwide including important vegetable crucifers, oil yielding Brassicas, ornamental plants and numerous weeds. This book on "White Rust" deals with the aspects on "the disease" and "the pathogen" is vividly illustrated for stimulating, effective and easy reading and understanding. We are sure that this comprehensive treatise on "white rust" will be of immense use to the researchers, teachers, students and all others who are interested in the diagnosis and management of white rust diseases of crops worldwide.
Plants whose DNA is modified using genetic engineering techniques are known as transgenic plants. In most cases the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in this species. Examples include resistance to certain pests, diseases or environmental conditions, or the production of a certain nutrient or pharmaceutical agent. This book gathers and presents current research on transgenic plants including an examination of the release, persistence and transport of transgenic plant DNA in saturated and unsaturated mediums, such as soils and sediments; high-efficient plant cultivation with artificial light sources; the impact of three antibiotics on seed germination, hydroponic growth and nutritional qualities of vegetables; growth responses of Bt and non-Bt cottons to soil phosphorous, copper and cadmium levels; site-specific recombination systems for genome manipulation in transgenic plants; and amplification of small interfering RNAs in transgenic plants.
Amidst Mad Cow scares and consumer concerns about how farm animals are bred, fed, and raised, many farmers and homesteaders are rediscovering the traditional practice of pastoral farming. Grasses, clovers, and forbs are the natural diet of cattle, horses, and sheep, and are vital supplements for hogs, chickens, and turkeys. Consumers increasingly seek the health benefits of meat from animals raised in green paddocks instead of in muddy feedlots. In All Flesh Is Grass: The Pleasures and Promises of Pasture Farming, Gene Logsdon explains that well-managed pastures are nutritious and palatable-virtual salads for livestock. Leafy pastures also hold the soil, foster biodiversity, and create lovely landscapes. Grass farming might be the solution for a stressed agricultural system based on an industrial model and propped up by federal subsidies. In his clear and conversational style, Logsdon explains historically effective practices and new techniques. His warm, informative profiles of successful grass farmers offer inspiration and ideas. His narrative is enriched by his own experience as a "contrary farmer" on his artisan-scale farm near Upper Sandusky, Ohio. All Flesh Is Grass will have broad appeal to the sustainable commercial farmer, the home-food producer, and all consumers who care about their food.
Across America, U.S. grain flows from farm to elevator to destinations around the world. The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Federal Grain Inspection Services (FGIS), an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), helps move that grain into the marketplace by providing farmers, grain handlers, processors, exporters, and international buyers with information that accurately and consistently describes the quality and quantity of grain being bought and sold. This book examines the nationally accepted grain standards and inspection procedures that provide producers, elevator operators, and others who trade grain with common terms for describing grain; a means for determining storability and end-product yield; and a framework for improving grain quality.
Food security is once again an urgent international priority. Agricultural extension methods that relied on imposing centrally-developed technological solutions have been ineffective, since small farmers in developing countries often cultivate marginal lands, working under constraints for which these solutions were not designed. Since 2006, a flexible agricultural extension approach has been implemented in Northern Tanzania, inspired by the Farmer Field School approach, and offering farmers a basket of technology options from which farmers can choose what serves their needs and resources best. The focus is on extending improved low-cost farming techniques adaptable to local conditions in a pragmatic and flexible process. The interventions are locally known as RIPAT, and they have received financial and technical support from the Rockwool Foundation."Farmers Choice" outlines the RIPAT intervention, and examines how effective it has been. This evaluation of RIPAT brings together the analyses of economists, agricultural scientists, and anthropologists who studied the impact, implementation, adoption, and spread of the program approaches. They asked: what has been the impact on poverty and food security among participating farmers? How effective has the implementation of the program been? Which elements of the program have been most enthusiastically and enduringly adopted? This book relates the sometimes unexpected outcomes and benefits of the program among the farmers and their children."Farmers Choice" should be read by all those interested in improving the food security and incomes of poor farmers in the Global South: agricultural scientists, anthropologists, staff of NGOs, researchers and students of development studies."
This book compiles information relevant to understanding soybean production processes and condenses it into a single volume. The authors identify production practices and bring together diverse information that suggests ways for producers to better utilize the soil and climatic resources of the midsouthern U.S. to enhance production of this valuable and versatile crop. This publication makes a special effort to focus on information that will enhance soybean production in the midsouth, where yields have been lower than those in the upper midwester n portion of the U.S., however, much of the information, such as statistics and crop models, will be applicable to other regions, from Texas to the Carolinas.
Tropical fruits such as banana, mango, papaya, and pineapple are familiar and treasured staples of our diets, and consequently of great commercial importance, but there are many other interesting species that are little known to inhabitants of temperate regions. What delicacies are best known only by locals? The tropical regions are home to a vast variety of edible fruits, tubers, and spices. Of the more than two thousand species that are commonly used as food in the tropics, only about forty to fifty species are well known internationally. Illustrated with high-quality photographs taken on location in the plants' natural environment, this field guide describes more than three hundred species of tropical and subtropical species of fruits, tubers, and spices.In Tropical Fruits and Other Edible Plants of the World, Rolf Blancke includes all the common species and features many lesser known species, including mangosteen and maca, as well as many rare species such as engkala, sundrop, and the mango plum. Some of these rare species will always remain of little importance because they need an acquired taste to enjoy them, they have too little pulp and too many seeds, or they are difficult to package and ship. Blancke highlights some fruits-the araza (Eugenia stipitata) and the nutritious peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) from the Amazon lowlands, the Brunei olive (Canarium odontophyllum) from Indonesia, and the remarkably tasty soursop (Annona muricata) from Central America-that deserve much more attention and have the potential to become commercially important in the near future.Tropical Fruits and Other Edible Plants of the World also features tropical plants used to produce spices, and many tropical tubers, including cassava, yam, and oca. These tubers play a vital role in human nutrition and are often foundational to the foodways of their local cultures, but they sometimes require complex preparation and are often overlooked or poorly understood distant from their home context.
Hemp, Cannabis sativa, has been called the world's most versatile plant. Materials made from hemp fiber have been discovered in tombs dating back to 7000 B.C. During the Middle Ages hemp was used to treat fevers, insomnia, and malaria. Columbus's ships had sails of hemp, and during colonial times it was universally grown because its strong fibers made superior ropes, sails, cloth, and paper. In fact, hemp was used for money in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800s, and the original drafts of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were written on hemp paper.As a food, the oil from hemp seeds has the highest percentage of essential fatty acids and the lowest percentage of saturated fats. Britain and Canada have recently lifted bans on growing industrial hemp and today it is reappearing in the marketplace in an amazing array of products: from lip-salve, jeans, salad oil, and cheese to paper products, composite fiberboard, and biomass fuel.This illustrated, easy-to-read guide covers all aspects of hemp: - The history of its cultivation worldwide - Its role as a source of renewable energy and as an alternative for paper manufacturing and fossil fuels- Its versatility as a fiber- Its many nutritional and medicinal uses- Examines the physiological and psychological effects of marijuana use in recreation and therapy- A comprehensive resource section includes information on organizations involved in legalizing hemp, product suppliers, and an annotated bibliography.
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