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Many countries around the world are struggling with the challenges of water scarcity, including water for crops. Micro irrigation methods are an effective means to make the most efficient use of available water. This volume, Micro Irrigation Scheduling and Practices, continues the efforts of the book series Innovations and Challenges in Micro Irrigation to provide informative and comprehensive knowledge on micro irrigation methods and practices. This new book presents some of the latest information and research on micro irrigation and covers the area of performance, practices, and design, focusing particularly on the performance of vegetable, fruit and row crops in conjunction with different scheduling and practices. Irrigation scheduling is an important water management strategy, and this book addresses scheduling methods and issues. Design aspects of micro irrigation systems have also been discussed in the book. The authors present their research and studies on scheduling practices and design micro irrigation systems with a variety of fruits and vegetables, including peppers, chili, watermelon, oranges, banana, litchi, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, and marigolds. Micro Irrigation Scheduling and Practices will serve as a valuable reference for researchers, water resources professionals, agricultural extension agencies, farmers, and faculty and students.
This book deals with one of the major challenges facing human society and its governments, climate change and variability. The principal objective of the book is to explore how agricultural production through the actions primarily of farmers, including peasant farmers, adapt to these changing circumstances, what the limitations of adaptation are, how the process of adaptation varies between different territories (e.g. developed countries versus developing countries), and what are or can be the most effective roles for actors other than the farmers, including different levels of government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as professional associations of farmers and community organizations. The principal argument is threefold: 1) while there are significant differences between territories and countries in terms of the capacity of farmers (and the other actors) to engage in capacity building to be able to adapt effectively to climate change and variability, 2) the critical roles are those played out by the farmers themselves, but that 3) other actors can play an important role in accompanying farmers in their adaptation process, providing relevant and strategic information, counseling them and facilitating networking and meetings when appropriate. This effectively means that without engaging in the local adaptation processes governments can really only play effective roles by working with other actors at the local and regional levels. When it occurs, it can be very effective, but when it does not, farmers are left to their own devices (and even then, many are able to use their own creativity and local knowledge to survive and continue to develop). Essentially therefore, the secondary argument that is followed throughout the book is that adaptation is essentially a social process that requires an understanding of social processes and dynamics in each farming community and territory. It involves an understanding, for instance, of information diffusion processes in the different farming communities and territories, which provides a set of tools to promote and facilitate the adoption process in the context of adaptation to climate change and variability.
Jurassic, basalt, moraine, flint, alluvial, magma: what are these words and what do they have to do with wine? The answers are here in this book. They are geological terms that reflect a bond between wine and the land. Understanding geology, however, is tricky. Geological concepts are obscure; processes can be imperceptibly slow, invisible, and unimaginably ancient. The terminology is formidable, such that even the names of common rocks carry an air of mystery. Geology is introduced plainly, starting with basic principles, all in the context of wine. The emphasis is on the kinds of processes that shape vineyards, and on the minerals, rocks and soils that host the vines. Geological words now commonly seen in wine writings are systematically explained. You will learn the stories behind some of the names, the human face of geology. The book also explores how the geology-wine connection manifests in the finished product and evaluates its importance, particularly in the contexts of minerality, terroir, and wine taste. The fact is that geology is increasingly being promoted in the world of wine; the aim here is to help it be properly understood.
This Open Access book is for scientists and experts who work on urban food policies. It provides a conceptual framework for understanding the urban food system sustainability and how it can be tackled by local governments. Written by a collective of researchers, this book describes the existing conceptual frameworks for an analysis of urban food policies, at the crossroads of the concepts of food system and sustainable city. It provides a basis for identifying research questions related to urban local government initiatives in the North and South. It is the result of work carried out within Agropolis International within the framework of the Sustainable Urban Food Systems program and an action research carried out in support of Montpellier Mediterranee Metropole for the construction of its agroecological and food policy.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
Today's irrigation management faces challenges and competition with other sectors (ie: household, industry, and environmental), quality degradation, and uncertain climatic conditions. To cope with these situations, the irrigation managers need precise estimation/determination of irrigation needs for crops, advance/water-saving techniques for water application, water conservation approaches, economic considerations in irrigation, and potentials for using marginal quality water in irrigation (such as saline water, and waste-water). This book focuses on all of the above issues: starting with irrigation management strategies for field crops -- to suitability of saline and waste-water as irrigation water. The book is useful to identify the need and adopt emerging technologies for irrigation management, as well as to identify appropriate methodologies for social, economic, and environmental benefits of improved irrigation management.
Cereal processing can be said to incorporate three stages: harvesting, which includes threshing and winnowing, in preparation for storage of the cereal grain; primary processing, which involves further treatment of the grain such as hulling and milling; and secondary processing, which includes processes such as baking or fermenting which make the grain suitable for human consumption.;"Cereal Processing" focuses on the processing of four cereals - maize (or corn), rice (or paddy), sorghum, and wheat - which are important foodstuffs around the world, looking at traditional and improved methods and equipment, especially threshers, mills and hullers. There are also checklists and case studies to help those intending to set up a cereal processing enterprise to make informed decisions about processes and technology.;Food Cycle Technology Source Books are designed for people who have no technical background or previous knowledge of the technologies. The titles in this series offer information on ways of improving the technology of food processing and increasing the quality and range of foodstuffs produced. While not providing instructions for actual processing, these source books are inte
Becoming Salmon is the first ethnographic account of salmon aquaculture, the most recent turn in the human history of animal domestication. In this careful and nuanced study, Marianne Elisabeth Lien explores how the growth of marine domestication has blurred traditional distinctions between fish and animals, recasting farmed fish as sentient beings, capable of feeling pain and subject to animal-welfare legislation. Drawing on fieldwork on and off salmon farms, Lien follows farmed Atlantic salmon through contemporary industrial husbandry, exposing how salmon are bred to be hungry, globally mobile, and "alien" in their watersheds of origin. Attentive to both the economic context of industrial food production and the materiality of human-animal relations, this book highlights the fragile and contingent relational practices that constitute salmon aquaculture and the multiple ways of "becoming salmon" that emerge as a result.
The tale of Honeybee Hotel begins over one hundred years ago, with the Astor family and the birth of the iconic Manhattan landmark, the magnificent Waldorf Astoria. In those early days the posh art deco masterpiece had its own rooftop garden for guests to enjoy. Fast-forward to the turn of the twenty-first century, and we meet executive chef David Garcelon, the creative genius behind the idea of restoring the celebrated rooftop garden. His vision included six hives containing some 300,000 honeybees, which would provide a unique flavor for his restaurant's culinary masterpieces. Yet Garcelon's dream was much grander than simply creating a private chefs' garden: he wanted the honeybee garden to serve as a bond among people. Soon the staff of the hotel, the guests, local horticulturists, and beekeeping experts formed a community around the bees and the garden, which not only raised vegetables, herbs, and honey to be served in the hotel but also provided healthy food to the homeless shelter across the street at St. Bartholomew's Church. Through her meticulous research and interviews with culinary glitterati, entomologists, horticulturists, and urban beekeepers, Leslie Day leads us on a unique insider's tour of this little-known aspect of the natural world of New York City. She familiarizes us with the history of the architectural and cultural gem that is the Waldorf and introduces us to the lives of Chef Garcelon and New York City's master beekeeper, Andrew Cote. Day, an urban naturalist and incurable New Yorker, tells us of the garden's development, shares delectable honey-based recipes from the hotel's chefs and mixologist, and relates the fate of the hotel in the wake of the Waldorf's change of ownership. During our journey, we learn quite a bit about apiaries, as well as insect and flower biology, through the lives of the bees that travel freely around the city in search of nectar, pollen, and resin. This absorbing narrative unwraps the heart within the glamour of one of the world's most beloved cities, while assuring us that nature can thrive in the ultimate urban environment when its denizens care enough to foster that connection.
A Detailed Reference on How Modern Biotechnology is using the Biofortification of Crops to Improve the Vitamin and Mineral Content of Edible Plants In this reference, Vitamins and Minerals Bio-Fortification of Edible Plants, authors cover new territory on phytonutrients, focusing on the enhancement and modification of edible crops. This book presents techniques and research findings from modern biotechnology to educate readers on the newest tools and research in the field. Readers will learn how groundbreaking scientific advances have contributed to the nutritional content of edible plants and crops for animals and humans. Inside, readers will find comprehensive information on new concepts of biofortification, including but not limited to: Modern biotechnology and its uses for improving the vitamin and mineral content of edible plants Potential minerals and vitamins that can be targeted and implemented in agriculture Ways of enhancing the nutritional contents of edible plants to address nutritional deficiencies and improve livestock Methods of identifying plants that can be used to heal or prevent disease and illness While many books cover the phytonutrients of crops, this reference book reports on methodologies, techniques, and environmental changes used to enhance and improve agricultural products. It is one of the first to provide information on using modern biotechnologies to modify crops with the goal of creating health benefits.
Examines the management and use of common-property forests, groves and trees on southern Mount Kenya, demonstrating the long-standing relationships between Kenyans and their forest resources - and the connections between anthropology and forestry. This book is published in the IT Studies in Indigenous Knowledge and Development series.
Paddlefish have become of increasing interest to the aquaculture community in recent years, particularly as a potential new source of seafood and caviar. Native to North America, paddlefish show great promise both domestically and internationally as a commercially viable farmed species. Paddlefish Aquaculture examines all aspects of the biology and culture of these fish, exploring their physiology, production, end products and the economics underlying a successful paddlefish operation. Chapters specifically cover paddlefish biology, propagation and early culture techniques, production for meat and caviar, international culture and history, paddlefish food products, bioaccumulants of contaminants in paddlefish, parasites and diseases, and the economics of paddlefish aquaculture. Paddlefish Aquaculture is a timely practical reference for researchers and producers interested in paddlefish.
World's population is projected to reach 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100. To meet the food demands of the exponentially increasing population, a massive food production is necessary. Agricultural production on land and aquatic systems pose negative impacts on the earth's ecosystems. Combined effects of climate change, land degradation, cropland losses, water scarcity and species infestations are major causes for loss of agricultural yields up to 25%. Therefore, the world needs a paradigm shift in agriculture development for sustainable food production and security through green revolution and eco-friendly approaches. Hence, agriculture practices must be sustained by the ability of farm land to produce food to satisfy human needs indefinitely as well as having sustainable impacts on the broader environment. The real agricultural challenges of the future as well as for today differ according to their geopolitical and socioeconomic contexts. Therefore, sustainable agriculture must be inclusive and have adaptability and flexibility over time to respond to demands for food production. Considering all these points, this book has been prepared to address and insights to generate awareness of food security and focuses on perspectives of sustainable food production and security towards human society. The book facilitates to describes the classical and recent advancement of technologies and strategies by sustainable way through plant and animal origin including, breeding, pest management, tissue culture, transgenic techniques, bio and phytoremediation, environmental stress and resistance, plant growth enhancing microbes, bio-fertilizer and integrated approaches of food nutrition. Chapters provide a new dimension to discuss the issues, challenges and strategies of agricultural sustainability in a comprehensive manner. It aims at educating the students, advanced and budding researchers to develop novel approaches for sustainability with environmentally sound practices.
In 1998, Gary and Rosemary Barletta purchased seven acres of land on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake. Descending to the west from the state route that runs along on the ridge overlooking the lake, the land was fertile, rich with shalestone and limestone bedrock, and exposed to moderating air currents from the lake. It was the perfect place to establish a vineyard, and the Barlettas immediately began to plant their vines and build the winery about which they had dreamed for years.
The Barlettas' story, as John C. Hartsock tells it, is a window onto the world of contemporary craft winemaking, from the harsh realities of business plans, vineyard pests, and brutal weather to the excitement of producing the first vintage, greeting enthusiastic visitors on a vineyard tour, and winning a gold medal from the American Wine Society for a Cabernet Franc. Above all, Seasons of a Finger Lakes Winery describes the connection forged among the vintner, the vine, and terroir. This ancient bond, when tended across the cycle of seasons, results in excellent wines and the satisfaction, on the part of the winemaker and the wine enthusiast, of tasting a perfect harvest in a single glass.
Today, Long Point Winery sits on seventy-two acres (eight of which are under cultivation with vinifera grapes) and produces sixteen varieties of wine, a number of which are estate wines made from grapes grown on their property. With interest in winemaking continuing to grow, the Barlettas' experience of making award-winning wines offers both practical advice for anyone running (or thinking of running) their own winery, whether in the Finger Lakes or elsewhere, as well as insights into the challenges and joys of pursuing a dream.
This book introduces readers to nearly 600 common weeds. In addition to essential information, each chapter includes photos for a specific type of weed to show its morphology in different growth periods, such as seedling, root, flower, fruit, and mature plant. The book also discusses control measures, including agricultural, chemical, physical, biological, and comprehensive methods. The Volume 3 mainly focuses on 252 Species of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Weeds along with 2 Species of Liverworts and Mosses. With the development of society and economics, weeds have become a recurring problem. In particular, the exotic, invasive, and quarantine weeds have spread dramatically and rapidly. On the other hand, many people, even those who are engaged in weed control, do not (or cannot) distinguish between weeds. Thus there is significant demand for illustrations of weed morphologies, as well as information on their control measures. This book offers a valuable, practical guide for all those working in the fields of crop cultivation, plant protection and quarantine management.
This book explores the sustainability aspect of organic and conventional farming systems, which is commonly categorized into three sub-aspects: social, environmental and economic. The social structure of a given area, organic friendly technologies, soil properties, crop diversification and income are the elements chosen for comparison, and are analyzed using descriptive and statistical methods. In addition, the book assesses the current status of the local organic market in Nepal and field experiments involving the use of various organic means to achieve better production for selected vegetables. Determining the benefits and/or challenges of organic and conventional farming is important to determining the most viable type of farming in the long term, but can be greatly impacted by a given area's specific characteristics (social, environmental, political, etc.), which is why this study focuses on a specific location: the Chitwan district of Nepal, where group conversion to organic farming has existed alongside conventional farming for years. This book offers a useful guide for both practitioners and academic researchers who are interested in organic farming and food security, particularly in developing countries.
Grow your own cut flowers and you can fill your house with the gorgeous colours and heavenly scents of your favourite blooms, knowing that they haven't travelled thousands of miles - and you can make money while you do it! Combining boundless passion with down-to-earth guidance and practical advice, Georgie Newbery draws on her own experiences as an artisan flower farmer and florist as she takes you through: * how to start a cut-flower patch * what to grow * cutting, conditioning and presenting cut flowers * creating a hedgerow Christmas * starting a cut-flower business * where to sell * marketing and social media * a flower farmer's year planner. Whether you want to grow for your own pleasure or start your own business, The Flower Farmer's Year is the perfect guide.
"Storey's Guide to Raising Ducks" provides vital information for anyone wanting to keep ducks. It covers everything - choosing the right breed, including rare breeds and hybrid ducks; breeding and rearing practices; feeding; butchering; and, a comprehensive resource section for both the novice and the veteran farmer. New and Expanded features include: expanded breed section; more information on facilities for ducklings, health, and disease treatment; a compendium on marketing and record keeping; section on colour genetics; and, new information on rarer breed conservation.
Farmland wildlife has been decimated by intensive crop growing using pesticides, grubbing up hedges, ploughing heathland and draining marshes, etc. With too many sheep grazing our moors, hills and mountains, a range of upland plants, invertebrates and birds has been diminished and the land converted to closely-grazed turf, perfect for heavy rain to cause catastrophic downstream floods. Once common farmland birds have declined by 54% since 1970 with farmland invertebrates declining by 40% in a few decades. Since the 1930s a staggering 97% of our once flower-rich meadows has been lost. Ploughing a New Furrow examines these stark figures and in the context of Brexit considers the unprecedented opportunity for wildlife once again to be nurtured by Britain's farmers alongside food production, reversing the enormous plant and animal losses our farmland has suffered. With its financial largesse, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has encouraged farmers to destroy huge areas of wildlife habitat in Britain's lowlands and seriously damage large tracts of our uplands, depleting Britain's farmed land of much of its wildlife. With responsibility for farm policy to be transferred back to the UK, these enormous losses could be reversed and Britain's farms made wildlife-rich once more. This book is based to a significant extent on conversations with farmers and on the achievements and experiences of some farmers who have made good use of agri-environment payments to reinstate lost habitats and manage their remaining wildlife more sensitively. The author sets out the case for removing or capping subsidies, supporting organic and other more sustainable forms of agriculture and the conservation of soils and the rich life forms they hold. He proposes a set of policy changes and other measures that should be adopted by the Government post-Brexit to make the 70% of our land that farming occupies rich in wildlife again. Literally food for thought!
Dramatic progress in molecular biology and genetic engineering has recently produced an unparalleled wealth of information on the mechanisms of plant and pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular levels. Completely revised and expanded, Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition offers fresh insight into the interplay of signaling systems in plant and pathogen interactions. The book delineates the battle between plant and fungal pathogen and the complex signaling systems involved. See what's new in the Second Edition: -Chapter on the role of disease resistance genes in signal perception and emission -Chapter on cell death signaling in disease susceptibility and resistance -Revised material on phytoalexins, toxins, and signal perception and transduction in fungal pathogenesis -17 additional families of pathogenesis-related proteins and antifungal proteins The book describes the weapons used by fungal pathogens to evade or suppress the host defense mechanisms. It covers each fungal infection process from initial contact and penetration to the subsequent invasion and symptom development. The author explains complex signaling systems in the plant-pathogen interface with flow charts and provides drawings elucidating the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. He includes figures that highlight cutting-edge breakthroughs in molecular science and tables documenting important findings in the field of molecular plant pathology. These features and more make this book not only the most up to date resource in the field, but also the most important.
Carp are the backbone of a growing aquaculture industry. They facilitate scientific progress as a model species in laboratories, cause concern for ecosystem managers as an invasive species, and mesmerize anglers as big game. In addition, ornamental koi carp fascinate hobby breeders. Biology and Ecology of Carp covers all these facets of this freshwater fish. Informative and engaging contributions from renowned experts review the current state of research on carp and present their original findings. Thirteen cross-linked chapters provide an exhaustive yet easily accessible treatise explorinig: Carp aquaculture Natural and artificial reproduction Feeding and growth Ecosystem effects of carp Effects of disease agents and toxic substances on carp Color illustrations and infoboxes help readers navigate technical terms and complex concepts, explaining how carp interact with their natural and artificial environments. This book is suitable for everyone interested in carp-from scholars to anglers.
This book discusses theoretical approaches to the taxonomy of biological systems and theory and mathematical approaches to the problem of plant diversity, cultivation, and the environment. Particular attention is given to theoretical and practical problems of soil and the environmental sustainability of phytocoenosis, with the goal to enhance the productivity of agricultural crops: cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruit. Providing valuable information on the distribution of chemical elements in the soil-plant system and on the migration of chemical elements in the food chain, this book looks at the composition of the soil and the distribution of elements in the soil-plant system that are manifested as adaptations of plant organism to environmental conditions. With chapters written by acknowledged scientists in the field of genetics, plant selection, ecology, and agro-economy, the book attempts, in many cases, to find consensus between the need to address ways to decrease the excess load on the environment and the need to provide adequately for the human population in agro-developed countries. This book also presents precision farming techniques, including the introduction of differentiated agrochemicals and considering variability of soil fertility and crop conditions. An important element for the conservation and adaptation of plant organism to environmental conditions is the use of physiologically active compounds.
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